Keywords: Social Studies, Teachers, Multicultural, Awareness
Diversity is what makes one another interrelated. On the other hand, it can also result to misunderstanding and miscommunication because of the standard built by the people. Due to the differences the world gets complicated time after time, it takes time to apprehend people from their beliefs and values that they adapt. But what makes wrong about people is the extrinsic view in the culture that instead to flourish their understanding they make judgments towards it. They always see their culture as the superior and see other as an inferior race.
One factor that affects the culture is globalization due to rapid urbanization in cities which makes desynthesize people where they come from in order to grab opportunities in the city. Globalization affects the culture and beliefs of the people in the society that can also a factor in classroom setting.
There is one instance that happened during the discussion in class based from National Council of Social Studies (ND) in United States of America, since the students are mostly black. The student-teacher introduce the lesson regarding the impact of African Geography to human history and introduced the issue of human evolution in East Africa. There is one student reacted and said “May be the Europeans come from Apes but I don’t!” The student teacher didn’t know how to react. The student teacher felt insulted at some point, at that juncture the students’ opinion play a vital role in shared ideas that might affect the environment in the participation of others students, this is linked to Constructivist Theory ( Bruner, as cited in (Manefield, 2007).
As a teacher, diversity should be considered in our profession because it can affect the learning of the students. A teacher will also consider differentiated activities to cater multicultural students and their needs.
Diversity is one of the factors to reckon in the classroom. There are different cultures that serve as the foundation in decision making of the students due to the environment that the students acquire (enculturation).
Multicultural awareness in education is one of the techniques, wherein the teacher considers the diverse background of the students. It is necessary in achieving the desire learning outcomes in contemplating the differentiated activities in the pedagogy, multicultural education is a kind of approach in pedagogy, based from the diverse culture; in a sense that understand; and engage in having the educational equality, creating curriculum that build to apprehend ethnic groups, and avoid superiority in culture (Gürol, 2015). Based from John Dewey (nd), “School is a mini society.” Similarly, society contains diverse culture that can affect the learning of one student base from the decision making that serve as a foundation (Gürol, 2015).
On the contrary, Banks (2015) believes that Multicultural education doesn’t only focus in catering and considering the ethnic and racial issue. He emphasized the use of developmental curriculum that can produce knowledgeable and productive citizen in the society through teaching and learning process. In addition Banks mentioned that multicultural education is not about opposing Western culture but instead “A reflective action of the citizen is a part of multicultural theory.”
Gay (2010) discussed in his research that multicultural education reco gnize and value the diversity in the classroom: in content, methods, perspectives, educators, students, and cultures that establish personal growth and students’ academic performance.
In special education, multicultural education is a production movement in embracing diverse classes and taking the idea of improving competence and the extension of independence (Aghajanian, 2010).
With different culture in the learning environment it can be resulted from poor or bad performance in the classroom. As elaborated by the study of Thomas (cited in Alsubaie, 2015) one student from different place with different culture can be felt societal anomy, If instance one Chinese student was not used to direct questions and to the frank inquiry of the teacher and refused to answer for he is afraid to get bad feedback and criticism from the other classmates, consequently the academic performance of the student would be low. This how would affect the performance of one student.
Similarly in the Philippines specifically in Angeles City, Pampanga, it became a foster home attending different cultures because of the other foreign people come and go. In terms of ethnicity, there are people approaching from different parts of the Philippines such as from: Kabisayaan, Katagalogan, Hiligaynon, Maranao etc. which may vary the cultural ideology of the students primarily the language, religion, even orientation that add on the philosophical beliefs of the students. The teachers play a vital role in this situation on what is the appropriate methods that can be used in order to address the needs of the students in spite of the differences and achieve the academic and social goals. This involves the medium of instruction, learning activities, instructional materials and classroom management.
Multicultural awareness in the pedagogy is important so that the students who have a different culture won’t be alienated and still feel a sense of belongingness. The study will focus on the Social Studies teachers of selected schools in Angeles city. Moreover, the study will pinpoint the strengths and possible effects of Multicultural Aware pedagogy when implemented in the classroom. Multicultural Awareness teaching is very significant in improving the state of diverse students who have different cultural background and the enhancement of its effects in the students and teachers.
Review of Related of Literature
The following researches will expand the further understanding on the view of multicultural education and how it affects the students learning base from the background that the students face.
According to Perso (cited in Gurol, 2015), Culture contains everything that makes one group or community unique within a society in terms of: language, religion, ethnicity and gender that makes up the group distinctive In addition to that diverse students include distinctive culture, ethnic, and language and as well as exceptionalities.
In addition, Multicultural education is an approach to teaching and learning, based upon democratic values that foster cultural diversity; in its most comprehensive form, it is a commitment to achieving educational equality, developing curricula that build and apprehend about ethnic groups, and addressing oppressive practices (Ciftci, 2014).
On the other hand, Banks (2013) provided a critique of the Multicultural Pedagogy. He articulated that Culture; a combined system of beliefs and traditions of group members with the backup of social scientific notion justifies the stereotyping of certain groups.
He added that educating about the cultural practices of different groups minus the misrepresentation and stereotyping of individuals’ own cultural practices should be the primary objective of Multicultural Education. In instances where group conflict occurs, it is the most challenging objective to attain. However, a 21st century educator should be prepared in facing this type of situation in the real educational environment.
Giving emphasis on the difference of culture within social groups and the ever present of cultural change and cultural continuity across time is one way to teach about Culture without overgeneralizing or stereotyping thw way of life of other groups. (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003)
As emphasized by Gay (2010) in her research, local schools should establish school reforms regardless of the characteristics. Geneva (nd) also cited the some defining motivation factors in the multicultural education: (a) developing ethnic and cultural literacy; base from the historical background and different social science discipline the majority and minority group would be recognized and studied that was not even mentioned in the lesson or any textbooks, (b) personal development; in excluded group would be represented in the lesson or discussion students will be open into new learning “greater self-understanding, positive self-concepts, and pride in one’s ethnic identity.” (c) attitudes and values clarification; students will learn the diversity or the ethnic pluralism wherein they can apprehend the differences of one culture to another and learn to respect each other, and (d) multicultural social competence; “by teaching skills in cross cultural
communication, interpersonal relations, perspective taking, contextual analysis, understanding alternative points of view and frames of reference, and analyzing how cultural conditions affect values, attitudes, beliefs, preferences, expectations, and behaviors.” The students will learn to engage with people who are different from their own culture.
On the other hand, Nieto (as cited in Gay, 2010:158) skeptically asked in her essay, “If you are one who thinks you may tend toward an emphasis on multicultural education to the exclusion of basic academic skills, how will you check that tendency in order to assure that you are using multicultural education techniques to reach, not replace, your academic goals? If you are one who may naturally tend to focus on academic skills to the exclusion of diverse materials and perspectives, how will you ensure that you are reaping the education benefits of multicultural education for your students? How will you ensure the right integration of academic skills and valuing diversity so that your students can, in fact, “do math?”
In the deeper understanding of the study, the Cultural Competency which defines the teacher skills in a multicultural approach only at a personal and a lesser degree at a professional level which is far from achieving the change in society, which is the primary goal of the multicultural education. The teachers need to have 6 main traits in order to cater culture proper manner.
1) sociocultural conscience 2) The attitude to properly acknowledge students with different backgrounds 3) The responsibility and skill to act as an agent of change to make schools and society fairer 4) Identifying students closely and 5) Culture proper teaching style. The research defines three dimensions and gives a conceptual framework in this literature based on the study on identifying the multicultural teaching competencies of teachers specifically the researchers have chosen the first and second dimension as the basis of the study: First Dimension: Cultural competence components: This study distinguishes cultural capability as follows: awareness; one’s apprehension of how cultural conditions affect their beliefs and values. (b) Knowledge; comprehending the different factors that play roles in different culture of mankind (c) Attitude; mental, emotional, and behavioral stance based from the understanding of awareness and knowledge towards culture. (d) Skills; proper administering of involvement with the teaching and learning based from the culture. Second Dimension: Cultural competency contexts: In the form micro level was tackled based from the studies on cultural competency. Teacher education institutions was geared based from the fields and explore vividly and elevate the pre-service teachers’ awareness on culturally capability and adopted the awareness in the teaching and learning process. Personal competency; being capable in recognizing the cultural background specifically: race, ethnic origin, and culture. Cultural background serves as foundations in dealing with people’s perceptions, decision making, behaviors and event interpretation. Professional context of cultural competency refers to the skills in targeting the diverse culture of students with use of understanding the attitudes, knowledge, values and skills. Institutional cultural competency refers to the authority in changing the order to lesser educational discrimination. (a) It includes the involvement of the minorities in dealing with the power sharing and deliberating with them (b) growing larger and prioritizing the multicultural programs and exercise that are efficient and maintainable. Social context refers to the society, where in the social gap included. The school and society are interrelated to each other, it is a preparation for the students to enter in the real world but without the cultural awareness of the teacher students learned the monoculturalism where in the superior culture dictates the culture and inferior culture would be loss specifically the language, norms, values and traditions. Lastly the Third Dimension: Cultural competency foci: According to the theory, raising the cultural awareness of teachers in their perspective will give them insights about expectations and behaviours on culture. Enabling teachers to be more sensitive by being aware of the different backgrounds of the students will help them realize the effects of awareness in teacher-student relation, class management, education-teaching processes and evaluation. Teachers who acknowledge their students from different heritage are competent in culture. Teachers’ interaction with students affects their learning and expectations. Using positive affirmative attitude enhance learning, teachers must possess skills of awareness of one’s cultural points of view, interpersonal relation and correct interpretations of cultural relations (Gurol Et. Al, 2015).
As argued by Bowser (2008) in her research, teacher should be prepared in diverse settings as expected to every student in the classroom are not similar but it is in the part of the teacher to be flexible and ready in the pedagogy in dealing with students that shapes their mind in different culture, background and lifestyles.
“Multicultural education is vital especially for those marginalized people of in the peripheral.” In accordance with her statement, the findings of this study shows that even if only three schools in this study ran a multicultural curriculum, the teachers in the other two schools also gave recognition to the significance of a multicultural education curriculum for all students. Analyzing the participants’ perspectives on multicultural education, it was found that three categories related to multicultural education for all: increasing cultural awareness, developing positive racial and ethnic attitudes, and enhancing global citizenship education (Lee, 2008:177).
As concluded by Abdourahamane (2010), the teachers training play a vital role in shaping the future educator. It will help the pre-service teacher to engage in multicultural education and as a result the pre-service teacher will integrate the skills that they learned based from the training.
In other cases in United State of America; the “Professional Education Subjects” are created in order to emphasize the multicultural education. However, the programs do not observed correctly and add or change only little in curriculum (Kim, 2011).
The related researches would help the study to understand critically on how the pedagogy becomes sensitive and self-aware in dealing with students’ cultural background. The related studies would also help the process of teaching in meeting the special needs of the students for the learning process.
Table 1: Cummins’ Theoretical Framework
Apprehending the multicultural education concept will includes culturally relevant pedagogy. It enables to discuss research participants’ view in comprehending the multicultural education on the impact in school practice.
Aspects of Cummins Framework
Educator Role Definition
The aspects under the Cummins’ Theoretical Framework which are; Cultural/ Linguistic Incorporation, Community Participation, and Pedagogy. However, the researchers decided to focus only under two categories namely the Pedagogy and Cultural/Linguistic Incorporation because the Community Participation aspect is not feasible due to the limited time given and is not in line with the objectives of the research.
Under the pedagogical aspect based from the positive reciprocal interaction between teacher and students, wherein in getting academic achievement in culturally and linguistically diverse learners (CLD) the pedagogy should possess student-centered approach characterized reciprocal interaction oriented (Cummins, as cited by Tosic, 2012).
Cultural/linguistic incorporation category implies using that using the mother-tongue language and traditional cultures of CLD students enrich their achievement academically and social development. An educator’s role can be classifies as additive-subtractive dimension because educators who view that they add a second language and affiliate their culture to their students are likely to encourage the students rather than those who “replace” or “subtracting” the students original culture (Cummins, as cited by Tosic, 2012).
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to determine the multicultural awareness of in-service teachers in teaching Social Studies.
Specifically it seeks to know:
1. How do teachers identify the degree of multiculturalism in the class?
2. How does multiculturalism in a class affect the teaching-learning process?
2.1. Medium of Instruction
2.2. Learning Activities
2.3. Instructional Materials
2.4. Classroom management
3. What teaching strategy/s can be suggested by in-service teachers to make pre-service teachers multiculturally considerate?
4. How do students receive multicultural considerations from their teachers?
The study is based on determining the multicultural awareness of Grade 10 Social Studies teachers from the selected schools in Angeles City and if the Grade 10 students acquire the multicultural considerations that the teachers give.
A qualitative research design using Descriptive Research, wherein its purpose is to impart knowledge that will assist people to understand the problem in order to intercede, thus allowing humans to shape their environment
The researchers selected a total number of ten teachers and ten students from five varying schools. The informants were grade ten Social Studies teachers and students, particularly the students selected had varying backgrounds. The private school students were international students, while the public school students whereof different ethnicity, religion and understand different language. The researchers opted to keep the identities of the informants anonymous to observe confidentiality.
The researchers produced an interview guide questions answered by the students and the teachers. The instrument were validated by four experts in the field of social sciences.
The researchers interviewed the informants through the use of interview questionnaire. The researcher first asked permission to the division office of Angeles City for the participating public schools, and the principals of contributing schools for the study by sending permission letters. Second, after being approved the researchers asked for the most convenient time of the teachers and students for the interview. Third after the scheduled interview, the researchers proceeded to transcribe the raw information given by the teachers and the students and analized the information.
In analysing the multicultural awareness of Grade 10 Social Studies teachers for producing an environment that is conducive for learning, the data gathered were assessed using the Cummin’s Theoretical Framework in identifying the multicultural awareness of the teachers. The data gathered from the direct interview of the selected teachers then, the gathered data were familiarized, coded, searched for themes and interpreted base from the common idea and analized (Braun and Clarke, 2013).
The letter was the primary contrivance in conducted study of the researchers. As ethical consideration the researchers gave enough time for the informants to accomplish the given questions, the informants were not forced to answer any questions that were not familiar about the certain queries, as a sign of respect with varying cultural background of the students, the researchers observed sensitivity to the answers of the students. Furthermore, the researchers kept the identities of the informants to the utmost confidentiality of the given answers by the informants.
As described by the informants, the main cause of a class being culturally diverse is the movement of migrants from one place to another whether internally or externally. It comprises of peoples of different ethnicity, nationality, religion, customs, tradition and even gender that makes up a multicultural classroom.
Identifying the Degree of Multiculturalism
Figure 1. Presentation of Categories on how a teacher determines the cultural differences in the class.
This theme exhibits the different ways how a teacher identify the degree of multiculturalism in the class.
In considering the varying culture of the students, the teachers gathered personal details of the learners with the use of information sheets that includes cultural background or ask personal questions during the first meeting. As stated by Teacher 7:
“Based on their language, place of birth, ethnicity, appearance like Muslim girls wearing alaeya and using their information sheet/ certificate.”
In line with this, the teachers then would adjust their pedagogical approach, in explicitly to the instructional materials, medium of instruction, learning activities that would be culturally sensitive in dealing with the everyday lesson.
The teachers identify the degree of multiculturalism in class by observing the students based from physical appearance, mannerism, the way the students talk. The teachers also gathered data by means of information sheets that are provided at the start of the academic year. The information sheets are querying about the basic information of the students specifically the nationality, religion, birthplace, and mother tongue affecting their beliefs or philosophy in life. The students were also asked to introduce themselves in front of the class wherein the teacher asked about related question with regards to the information sheets that the students accomplished.
Medium of Instruction to a Multicultural Class
In producing conducive form of learning, the teacher also consider the use of appropriate instructional materials wherein it does not just cater the individual needs of the students but also show cultural sensitivity in presenting the lesson.
Figure 2. Displays the categories of the theme appropriate medium of instruction for a multicultural class.
In this theme, it is described on how teachers used certain language that are applicable for diverse students.
Based from the data gathered by the researchers, the teachers opted to use the standard medium of instruction in secondary schools which is English or Filipino, the students encountered unfamiliar words wherein it hinders the learning process of the lesson. Based on the statement of Teacher 5:
Most of the time, I use a language that is familiar to my students. However, there are instances that they weren’t able to recognize or understand a certain word such as “conyo”. In that case, I explained and I gave an example regarding the word.
The teacher also added that the students cannot fully articulate in English in spite of this the teacher provide enough examples and explanation to further understanding by the students (see appendix Q5). Hence, the students apprehend the lesson easily because of appropriate medium of instruction used by the instructor based from their answer in the interview schedule of the researchers for the students (see appendix Q3).
Prospective Learning Activities for a Multicultural Class
Learning activities should provide a conducive environment where in the students are feeling welcome, caters the individual needs and can all adopt by the students. It should be suitable based from the differences of the learners.
Figure 3. Exhibits the categories of the theme Multicultural Learning Activities
This theme showcases the possible learning activities applicable for a multicultural class.
The activities being employed by the teachers are contextualization and localization of the lesson. In which the teachers connect the lesson of current events to the students’ day to day lives.
Another is collaborative learning, a process that promotes acceptance and cooperation for everyone. Classroom sharing where students are exchanging ideas, opinions, knowledge that enables them to merge with their peers which is supported by the statement of Teacher 5:
“I use cooperative learning in my class. Most of the time, the students are divided into groups especially if they are having performance tasks. This let them socialize to one another and have more opinions and ideas regarding their task.”
Based from Student 10 (see appendix Q1), the activities made the class to be open-minded to their classmates’ ideas. Debate wherein the students exchange opinion to certain events or issues. Thematic instruction and personal profiling, it made the environment of the discussion encouraging because the teacher asked for the students’ opinions and everyone listened to their classmates’ thoughts.
Considerations in making IMs for Diverse Learners
As a teacher, dealing with diverse learners starts also with the use appropriate instructional materials that provide the needs of the students in learning the lesson. Considering the materials provide an inclusive form of learning process.
Figure 4. Illustrates the various categories in the theme Elements of culture sensitive IMs.
This particular theme presents the factors that teacher considers in creating IMs that appropriate for a multicultural class.
In preparing for instructional materials, the teachers most of the time consider the cultural background of the learners by means of using the appropriate medium of instruction wherein every student is familiar; with respect to the varying language and religion. Culture sensitivity is one factor in which the example and the way the teacher conducts the lesson by use of Instructional materials, inclusive examples are also things to be considered. However, Teacher 5 also considered the interests of students as it is a factor in motivating the students to learn and to engage in the learning process.
“I consider the needs and interests of my students. Having an appropriate IM’s will make them motivated during discussion.”
Implementation of Classroom Management to Multicultural class
The differences that the classroom contains the classroom management is one of the consideration of the teacher should implement in order to build right atmosphere of learning process.
Figure 5. Displays the factors in the theme of Facilitating multicultural class.
In this theme, It is described the possible ways how the teacher maintain classroom management in a multicultural class.
In classroom management, as Teacher 3 gave emphasis on showing respect to culturally diverse students;
“Regardless of their orientation, they should follow agreed rules in the classroom, first day of class, rules are discussed with students; concerns are raised and considered. For example, when we pray, Muslims are asked to stand pray on their own but not forced to do sign of the cross or recite catholic prayers.”
Teacher 5 takes further steps by handing out copies of house rules for the class, and had a “quick recap” session in every meeting for this maximizes the number of students who are going to be attentive.
For the teachers that encountered students who made fun of their peers for having a different background, they reprimanded the class by reminding them the importance of respect and the possible consequences of their turbulent behavior. There is one student who was being bullied because of his religion. He was named derogatory words, Teacher 3 address the situation and help the students to realize what had been done.
All of the involved schools in the study had a very diverse set of students, with internal and external migrants being the primary reason of making them culturally diverse. Also, transferees from other schools added to the said diversity as some of them had difficulty adjusting to the culture of their new learning environment.
The teachers aforementioned that being culturally sensitive requires preparation in dealing with students. The strategies that usually promotes multicultural awareness which makes the discussion student-centered specifically the use of group sharing and collaborative learning that promotes acceptance, interdependence and an increase in self-esteem of students.
The degree of diversity became recognizable with the respective schools that the researchers gathered data. Yet there were no available seminars or training provided by the school to improve the skill of the teacher in handling the multicultural class.
Based from the given understanding of the teachers on the degree of multicultural aspect of the students, observing the learners, getting personal information and asking questions are the key in identifying the differences of every students. It is the personal competency of the teacher to identify the cultural background of the students specifically: race, religion, ethnicity and origin (Gurol et. Al.). Yet according to Banks (2015) Multicultural awareness does not only focus on the differences of the students in terms of the ethnic and the racial background but to use in the personal and academic growth of the learners. However in the selected schools of the study in Angeles City, only the academic growth is given emphasis and disregard the personal growth in terms of cultural identity of the students, one specific example is using English as the medium; in focusing the language it only resulted from delivering the lesson but not the personal growth. The pedagogy should contain developmental curriculum that makes students knowledgeable and a more productive citizen. In dealing with multicultural students one must find the balanced approach in preserving the culturally diverse materials and perspectives of learners while also not replacing their academic goals, but achieving it (Nieto, nd).
As the fundamental language spoken by the students, it is necessary to engage with the medium of instruction that the learners can easily cognize the lesson, as part of multicultural awareness. According Gurol et. Al.(2015) It is part of skill of the teacher in learning based from the students’ culture, because language is part of the learners’ cultural identity, that makes the pedagogical conducive for learning. In addition the language of the students does not suffer but it added additional information and vocabulary based from the discussion of the teacher which may also empower the students due to the medium of instruction used because the students can apprehend the lesson by the use of this the learners can share information as well (Cummin, nd).
In dealing with the localization and contextualization of the lesson given by the informants: contextual analysis, interpersonal relation, perspective taking and understanding alternative points of view enables the students to have an in depth understanding of local community and origin of the classmates that culturally different from one another. The learners will learn to engage with people who have varying culture (Gay, 2010). Helping to engage to the lesson enables the students to create reciprocal discussion wherein the teacher does not only the speaker and the students became a passive listeners but the students also share some thoughts (Cummin, nd).
Teachers who are aware and acknowledge students whom are culturally diverse are more effective since the teachers are knowledgeable in the possible expectations and behavior of the students. They emphasized in having a positive affirmative attitude like showing respect and discipline as these enhances the learning experience of students who are culturally diverse. (Gurol, et AL 2015)
Being a culturally sensitive teacher requires preparation, a teacher must expect that every learner in the class are not similar from one another and a teacher must be flexible in utilizing the pedagogy in dealing with students. The learning process must promote the multicultural awareness of the students with the use of group sharing and collaborative learning to accept and be interdependent to the different culture, background and lifestyles of the students they are interacting with (Bowser, 2008).Thus, the training of the preservice teachers plays a vital role in developing the skills in dealing with multicultural students, it would enable the preservice teachers and serve as the ground for the future students (Abdourahamane, 2010).
The students were given considerations based from the medium of instruction; the sensitivity in using certain language that the learners would understand the lesson further, specifically, in some private schools in Angeles City since there are international students the primary language will be use is English. In public schools there are students coming from different provinces in the Philippines, as a consideration the teacher would not speak in Kapampangan even if it is the language that is comfortable with, instead the teacher will use Filipino. The learning activities employed by the teachers are based from the student-centered activities which promotes the individual differences and social acceptance constructed from ideas, opinions and social origin of the students. The instructional materials were based from the interest and medium of instruction that students used to. As primary rule in allowing for the learners’ diversity “respect for all” often prompted. As preparations for the teachers before the battle field, in other cases in United State of America the Professional Education Subjects were emphasized specifically for multicultural education however same thing in the Philippines the strategies were stressed rather than multiculturalism (Kim, 2011).
After the rigorous gathering and meticulous analysis of the data gathered, supported by related literatures and studies, the researchers have concluded that the selected teachers in Angeles City are somehow aware in multicultural education because the teachers know the importance of the diversity of the students in the learning process. The teachers address the needs of the students to be academically involved and improve in curricular activities but with further trainings will equip the teacher in implementing in preserving the cultural identities of the students due to the trainings and seminars that can armed the educators for the future endeavors. Angeles City became the emerging area of different ethnical groups and races in terms of education however, as what aforementioned there is insufficient seminars to enhance the capabilities of teachers to engage with the students’ diversity.
Based from the analysis from the processed data, the researchers come up with recommendations from the following:
For the pre-service teachers, considering the different multicultural background of the future students requires in depth preparation in dealing with this situation. It involves diverse strategies and techniques to cater the needs of the learners varying from cultural background. Moreover, it requires a lot of reading materials in order to prepare for the real life situation.
For the school administrators, providing sufficient seminars in equipping the in service teachers will help the teacher to understand the diverse learners and able to provide appropriate learning activities, strategies and methods that would aid the teachers to use the cultural background of the students as the primary goal in improving the learning process.
For the in-service teachers, with the consideration to the diversity of the students and how does the cultural identity of the students affect the learners’ acquisition of knowledge to the certain lesson. The seminars will help to enrich the understanding of the different strategies that can be used to diverse learners with that, taking time to attend is one of the necessary thing to ensure. In addition, further studies are helpful in enhancing the skill in handling the students.
For the Department of Education, since the 21st century consists of diversity It is truly a must to consider the pedagogical aspects of multicultural education in the improvement of curriculum in the Philippines considering the ethnic tribes and other nationalities that settle particularly in Angeles City. Cultural responsive education is a better tool especially for certain minorities and ethnic groups in the Philippines.
For the future researchers, pursue the study and research different participants that would show the effects to the learners’ result in considering the multicultural diversity. Hence try different schools that would be helpful in the study. Since the participants of the researchers was Secondary Social Studies teacher, Primary School teachers are also applicable in this study. Also due to the lack of time, there are more public schools in Angeles City to study.
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