Essay: “BIM” (Building Information Modelling)

1 CHAPTER – Research Proposal
1.1 Problem Statement:
Project Management is the overall planning, coordination and control of a construction Project from inception to completion, involving multi-disciplinary stakeholders from architects to quantity surveyors to contractors. Now days in construction projects different consultants are working from different region or country so it is difficult for project manager to coordinate among all stakeholders. Every project faces many challenges during different phase, which affects the health of project in terms of cost, time and quality due to poor coordination system among different stakeholders. As such, three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided drafting (CAD) models that are not expressed as objects that exhibit form, function, and behavior (Tolman 1999) cannot be considered building information models. Due to some challenges like unawareness of BIM and its advantages, lack of IT skills and lack of IT infrastructure in India BIM is not being used in right manner. Construction experiences low productivity compared to other industries, largely attributed to poor planning and communication.
1.2 Need of Study:
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is perceived as the next-generation solution to enhance productivity of stakeholders in the construction industry holistically and streamline the delivery process of buildings and structures. Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a process that is used to resolve these problems by simulating physical space and expressing design intent graphically, providing a clearer image of design conflicts or constructability issues so that they are resolved before construction begins. Many construction firms now use building information Modelling (BIM), and champions at those firms know that BIM delivers significant benefits. Whether the benefits are significant enough to merit deeper BIM adoption is unclear at this point in the architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) industry. However, there is limited evidence showcasing the existence of frameworks or formulas for project managers to define the benefits and ROI of BIM.
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1.3 Building Information Modelling (BIM)
The glossary of the BIM handbook (Eastmanetal.2008) defines BIM as “averb or adjective phrase to describe tools, processes, and technologies that are facilitated by digital machine-readable documentation about a building, its performance, its planning, its construction, and later its operation. The result of BIM activity is a “building information model. BIM software tools are characterizing by the ability to compile virtual models of buildings using machine-readable parametric objects that exhibit behavior commensurate with the need to design, analyses, and test a building design (Sacksetal.2004). As such, three-dimensional (3D) computer-aided drafting (CAD) models that are not express as objects that exhibit form, function, and behavior (Tolman1999) cannot be consider building information models. As a result of a long-term attempt by construction professionals, they have come up with a revolutionary application, which is Building Information Modelling (BIM) that is design ed to address a lot of the challenges faced in construction activities. National Institute of Building Sciences define BIM as “a digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility, which serves as a shared knowledge resource for information about a facility that forms a reliable basis for decisions during its lifecycle from inception on ward”, while Stanford University’s Centre for Integrated Facility Engineering(CIFE) Tenenbaum (1990)referred to BIM as Virtual Design and Construction(VDC).Use of BIM to plan and schedule projects is typically referred to as 4D, where construction and designs come together. 4D scheduling can generate significant information for the project team such as the start and finish dates of elements as well as their criticality. It can also generate visualizations of the building design over time. Furthermore, it enables AEC specialists to evaluate options and select the best one at the design stage. The fifth dimension added to the 4D-BIMmodel is ‘cost’. A 3D-BIM model has all the geometrical information needed to perform a take-off of material quantities. By attaching a cost database to the 4D-BIM model and by assigning actual costs to materials, equipment and personnel, a 5D-BIM model can be created to provide the construction team with a useful tool. The implementation tools for implementing a 5D- BIM model have only been available for less than a decade.
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1.4 Objectives
Identification of factors (Challenges/problems in construction and project management and Benefits of BIM) affecting ROI for BIM.
1.5 Scope of the Study:
Scope of study will be restricted challenges and benefits of BIM in pre-construction and construction phase of Indian construction projects.
2 CHAPTER – Literature Survey
2.1 Introduction to BIM
BIM is the use of ‘smart’ and ‘computable’ three-dimensional (3D) model of the project to enhance its design, construction, operation and maintenance. There are many definitions of BIM, but the latest and them most concise is by the UK Building Information Modelling Task Group that states, “BIM is essentially value creating collaboration through the entire lifecycle of an asset, underpinned by the creation, collation and exchange of shared 3D model sand intelligent, structured data attached to them. “When BIM used as a verb, Building Information Modelling refers to the act of simulating real activity relating to building go reconstruction project. Similarly, the BIM Smart Market Report by McGraw-Hill defines BIM as “the process of creating and using digital models for design, construction and/or operation so projects” Whichever the case or tense, BIM refers to a relatively new technology that supports visualization and communication of building design and construction processes. Rather than software, BIM is “systems approach to the design, construction, ownership, management, operation, maintenance, use, and demolition or reuse of buildings”. The most important part of BIM is not the software functionality, but collaboration in the design and planning process which speeds the process and clarifies design. Depending on context “BIM” may be used to represent either of these definitions in this work. (Douglas E. Chelson, 2010) (KPMG, 2014) As India strides to keep pace with significant gaps nit’s infrastructure, the construction sector—this Cond largest industry after agriculture accounting for 11% of India’s GDP—is crying
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out for efficiencies to speed productivity. BIM provides one opportunity to help address India’s growing needs. (McGraw Hill Construction, 2014)
2.2 Function of BIM
• 3D Modelling
• Clash Detection
• Construction Drawings
• Design of Complex Structures
• Estimation
• Facility Management
• Parametric Design
• Performance Optimization
• Site Analysis
• Restoration and Renovation
• Sustainable Design
• Value Engineering
• Visualization
2.3 Level of Details in BIM
• LOD100: Overall building massing indicative of area, height, volume, location, and orientation.
• LOD200: Generalized systems or assemblies with approximate quantities, sizes, shape, location, and orientation.
• LOD300: Specific assemblies those are accurate in terms of quantity, size, shape, location, and orientation
• LOD400: Same as LOD300 except that information is complete for fabrication, assembly and detailing information.
• LOD 500: Constructed assemblies actual and accurate in terms of size, shape, location, quantity, and orientation.
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2.4 Design and planning
BIM plays important role over entire life cycle of project from scratch of conceptual design to demolition of building. Use of BIM in the project programming allows project team to analyze space and understand the complexity of space standards and land regulation which saves time and provide them with opportunity of doing more value-added activities. 3-D representations can be generated from the building model at any stage in the design. These can range from simple wireframe models/ complex photorealistic renders. This gives consistency in data extracted from the model. This helps to designers to imagine and validate their design. The architects and engineers can take advantage of BIM application at different stages of project design namely schematic design (SD), detailed design (DD) and construction detailing (CD). BIM constructs the building virtually before actual construction. Hence, owner or user can suggest the modification early in the planning and design phase according to their requirement. In addition, contractors can participate early in the design phase to contribute his field experience. (DouglasE.Chelson,2010)
2.5 Quantity estimation
Provided with the capability for extracting counts of components, areas and volumes spaces and material quantities, BIM quantity take-off tools enable a quicker extraction of more detailed spatial and material quantities information. As quantities extracted from model are more accurate, owner is protecting from over budget project. (Douglas E. Chelson, 2010)
2.6 Clash detection
BIM based clash detection tools allow automatic geometry based clash detection to be combined with semantic and rule based clash analysis for identifying qualified and Structure clashes. BIM-based clash detection tools allow contractors to selectively check clashes between specified systems, such as checking for clashes between mechanical and structural system, because each component in the model is associated with specific type of system. Consequently, the clash detection process can be performed at any level of detail and across any number of building systems and trades. (Douglas E. Chelson, 2010).
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2.7 Productivity
With 50% of typical construction day being non-productive, BIM application can be used to gain 33% increase by addressing late or inaccurate information, waiting on resources, multiple material handling, waiting on instruction and rework. This will have a dramatic increase in the productivity for the construction industry, making it more compatible with productivity increases in other industries like agriculture, manufacturing, transportation etc. Study done by Porwal A and Hewage K. found that BIM is useful in minimizing waste rate of structural reinforcement and the result indicated a high potential for budgetary savings. (Douglas E. Chelson, 2010).
2.8 Prefabrication
BIM offers manufacturers of building components detailed and information–rich models, which can be interrogated for manufacturing details, can reduce information request and improve output quality. A study of the application of BIM on a large healthcare project in the USA revealed that it is possible to achieve 100% prefabrication for mechanical system installations, and zero clashes in MEP installation activities. This, in turn yielded 20-30% labour savings for the MEP subcontractors and thus savings further up the value chain. (Douglas E. Chelson, 2010).
2.9 Quality management
BIM-based construction quality application is suitable and helpful in quality compliance management. First due to data consistency, it is possible and feasible to apply BIM for quality management and to fully utilize design information through virtualization of the construction process. Second BIM can be fit into the current industry standard practices in quality management. (N.S. Chougule,2015).
2.10 Facility Management
The information collected through a BIM process and stored in a BIM-compliant database could be beneficial for variety of FM (Facility Management) practices, such as commissioning and closeout, quality control and assurance, energy management, maintenance and repair, and space management. (Douglas E. Chelson, 2010).
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2.11 Drawings & Coordination
Constructability review is an important aspect of contractor responsibilities. It is an assessment of the capability of a design to be constructed (The Construction Management Committee,1991). Projects that specifically address constructability report 6-10% savings of construction costs (Constructability, 1986). Collaboration during the design phase between the consulting engineer (designer) and the specialist contractor could produce a cost savings of 20% (Latham, 1994, Koskela, 2000). Overcoming designs that cannot be built as drawn requires persons with knowledge of the building process being involved in the design process prior to bid and construction. This investment in time is made by contract in CM and by nature in DB and by process in IPD and has been shown to save costs during the construction phase. (Douglas E. Chelson,2010).
2.12 Drawings & Coordination
Many large construction companies in India do not use BIM, though some buy a standard package and adapt their requirements to it. For instance, Punjlloyd, a large engineering and construction group that provides integrated design, procurement and project management services for energy and infrastructure sector projects, confirmed to end it did not use BIM. Recently, Mike Barker, managing director, Mott MacDonald India, said the company was increasingly looking at BIM in its construction projects. BIM was used in the design of neighboring Male international airport expansion in the Maldives. “as with all island airport projects, challenging aspects of this expansion include limited space—reclamations restricted by the coral that surrounds the island, and problems of procurement, as most of the resources (are) imported to the site. “Shell’s R&D Centre in Bangalore is also being designed with the help of BIM, says Barker. (McGraw Hill Construction, 2014)
2.13 Drawings & Coordination
• Requires overcoming mind-set barrier
• Needs changes to work processes in an environment that resists change
• Initial effort and time needed for BIM is more not all stakeholders are using BIM
• Does not provide all inputs and outputs needed by the industry
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• Lack of government support
• Initial hardware and software cost is high
• Training and learning curve issues persist
• Management reluctant to use BIM
• Contracts, current practices and fee structures are not tuned to the use of BIM
• BIM requires more effort upfront and team discipline
• Policy changes at the business level are needed
• Takes too much time to incorporate changes much easier in 2D CAD
• Use of BIM makes some stakeholders feel threatened
• Low awareness levels and significant misconceptions on BIM in India
• Difficult and expensive to implement
2.14 Benefits of BIM
• Enhanced team collaboration
• Improved communications among various divisions of the same company (cross functional management)
• As-built model available after construction
• More accurate scheduling due to better visualization and accurate quantities
• Reduce Rework
• Enhanced energy efficiency and sustainability of the building
• Efficiencies from reuse of data (enter once use many)
• Reduced overall project duration
• Reduced paper work
• Reduced redesign issues & revision of submittals
• Improved design quality
• Allows accurate site logistics plans
• Fewer change orders at the construction stage
• more information for data analysis during construction to everyone
• Improved communications between project parties
• Improved accuracy of Estimation
• Earlier and more accurate design visualization
• Easier accurate quantity take-off automatically by software
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• Reduced waste (Material)
• Reduction in overall project cost
• Better visualizations of GFC in 3D for construction
3 CHAPTER – Methodology to Develop BIM
3.1 To Understand BIM Strategy & Services
I did my summer internship at Xtolec Offshore, Ahmedabad from June 2017 to October 2017. Xtolec Offshore is providing MEP & BIM consultancy for Architecture, Structure, Mechanical, Electrical, Low Current, Plumbing & Fire Protection Services for Residential, Commercial, Hotel & Hospital buildings. The office is located at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. I join their BIM department. It was 8 Weeks program. On very first day, Xtolec BIM team introduced me with company standard, workflow pattern & BIM strategy. Xtolec team guided me AS-MEPF services & how to develop Architecture, Structure, Mechanical, Electrical, Low Current, Plumbing, & Fire protection system BIM Model. I understand following about services.
3.2 Architectural BIM Services
Architectural BIM model, which can help Architect to understand post construction building’s interior & exterior view & Building related information such as Quantities, Material Specifications, Time Schedules, and Costs. Model provide detail specification of all parts of building like door, window, staircase, lift, grilles, roofing, flooring, wall color, textures, etc. The virtual model helps Architect to clarify various aspect of building like overall building volumes, optimum utilization of building space with reduction of time and cost.
3.3 Structural Modelling
Structural model provides all the key components like foundation, floor slabs, Expansion Joints, column, beams, staircase, shafts, pits, and openings etc. With the help of our structural BIM model it has becomes easy to visualize the construction process before the beginning of the construction process. Structural BIM model is an
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interactive links between Architectural, Engineering and Construction document related information. It also improves productivity by providing easy use of information such as manufacturer’s details, specifications and quantities.
3.4 MEPF Services Modelling
HVAC BIM Model Comprise of all necessary information for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning equipment. It provides clear idea about Air distribution ducts for Supply, Return, Fresh air and exhaust with Grille, Diffusers & Registers. Mechanical Room with Chiller, Pumps, Chilled water Supply & Return piping with all required valves with their fittings & controls.
Electrical Model Covered Interior Electrical Power and Lighting components like lighting, receptacles, special and general-purpose power receptacles, lighting fixtures, panel boards, cable trays and control systems. It also provides Grounding Systems with all necessary components like lightning protection systems, static grounding systems, and communications grounding systems, bonding. Exterior Building Lighting with all necessary exterior lighting with necessary intelligence to produce accurate plans, elevations and schedules, proposed support utility lines and equipment.
Plumbing BIM Model – Covered details for Water Resource, Sanitary Drainage & Strom Water Harvesting System. Water Resource comprising of Water distribution networking system, UGT location, internal plumbing utilities details like pantry, toilet, kitchen, drinking fountains, Hot water generation system & Distribution system, drinking water system etc. Sanitary Drainage Comprising of Internal & external drainage piping system, sanitary soil/waste water piping network, Treated waste water distribution network detail. Strom Water Harvesting System Comprising of Roof rain water piping, Basement drainage with floor, channel network, External storm drainage network & rain water Harvesting detail.
Fire-Fighting BIM Model – Comprise of All Relevant Fire Protection Components like Dry riser, Down-comer, Wet riser based hydrant system network, Sprinkler system, External Yard hydrant system, fire extinguishers fittings, Water storage & fire pumps.
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3.5 Project Background
Xtolec was award a new project of Accelerator Building from Alpin Limited, Abu Dhabi, UAE. The main Client was Masdar City. Masdar is the world’s first planned sustainable city with Zero Carban. Accelerator Building is Masdar Head office. The area of this project was approximately 12439 Square Meters, in which 4965 Square Meter building area and other area for parking & landscape. Alpin & Xtolec has done various projects together in Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Accelerator Building – Masdar City – Abu Dhabi, UAE
Accelerator Building – Masdar City – Abu Dhabi, UAE
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3.6 Personal Work Place Activity
On very first day I introduced myself to the project team & reporting manager After understanding Building services, I started working with team; they allotted me work on new project. I understand project timeline & schedule of deliverables from the team. Before start to work on Revit Modelling, they provided me all details & Auto CAD drawings for understanding services. After going through the all details drawing I started to work on Revit Modelling.
3.7 BIM Project Work Flow Pattern
I understand the project workflow pattern as under.
AutoCAD AutoCAD AutoCAD Drawings & Drawings & Drawings & Drawings & Drawings & Drawings & Other Data Other Data Other Data Other Data Received Received Received Received Received From Alpin From Alpin From Alpin LimitedLimited Limited LimitedLimited
Start Preparing Start Preparing Start Preparing Start Preparing Start Preparing Start Preparing Start Preparing Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Struture Struture Struture Model Model
Raised RFIRaised RFIRaised RFI Raised RFI
Received Received Received Received Received ReplyReplyReply
of RFI from of RFI from of RFI from of RFI from of RFI from Alpin
Complited Complited Complited Complited Complited Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Struture ModelStruture Model Struture Model Struture Model
Based On Final Based On Final Based On Final Based On Final Based On Final Based On Final Based On Final Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Architecture & Strcuture Strcuture Strcuture Strcuture Model Start Model Start Model Start Model Start Model Start MEPF Model MEPF ModelMEPF Model MEPF Model MEPF Model
RFI Send to RFI Send to RFI Send to RFI Send to RFI Send to RFI Send to RFI Send to Alpin For Alpin For MEPF MEPF MEPF Drawings DrawingsDrawings Drawings
Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Based On RFI Reply Start Reply Start Reply Start Reply Start Reply Start Reply Start Reply Start Preparing Preparing Preparing Preparing Preparing MEPF Model MEPF ModelMEPF Model MEPF Model
Start Start Start Coordination Coordination Coordination Coordination of MFPF of MFPF of MFPF of MFPF ServicesServicesServices ServicesServices
Concern Alpin Concern Alpin Concern Alpin Concern Alpin Concern Alpin For For For Modification In Modification In Modification In Modification In Modification In Modification In Designing Designing Designing Designing
Finalized Finalized Finalized Finalized MEPF Sevices MEPF Sevices MEPF Sevices MEPF Sevices MEPF Sevices Levles & Levles & Levles & Levles & Levles & LocationLocation LocationLocation Location
Prepared Shop Prepared Shop Prepared Shop Prepared Shop Prepared Shop Prepared Shop Prepared Shop Drawing DrawingDrawing
Submit to Submit to Submit to Submit to Submit to Alpin
Execute at Site Execute at SiteExecute at SiteExecute at Site Execute at Site Execute at Site Execute at Site
Received On Received On Received On Received On Received On Received On Site Changes Site Changes Site Changes Site Changes Site Changes Site Changes Site Changes Site Changes From From Contractor ContractorContractor
Modify Model Modify Model Modify Model Modify Model Modify Model According to According to According to According to According to LOD 500LOD 500 LOD 500LOD 500
Update the Update the Update the Model as per Model as per Model as per Facility Facility Facility Facility Facility Facility Facility Management Management Management Management Management RequirementRequirementRequirement Requirement
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3.8 Architecture Modelling
My first step was to take training to develop Architecture & Structure Modelling. For start basic architecture & structure modelling I understand that how to locate actual coordinate point in Revit & started preparing model. It was challenging task to developed architecture & structure model, because the shape of the building was in curve. It was not as per regular commercial building. It was renewable energy efficient building. The building architecture & structure were developed to get maximum benefit for renewable energy. Since the client’s wants this building to reach up to facility management they had prepared Tekla model for structure load analysis. Client provide us .IFC file and they wanted to insert that file into Revit model but .IFC file not matching with actual coordinate point. I had adjusted that .IFC file coordinates with actual coordinate point.
After get training to develop basic architecture & structure Revit model I found that some of the area where architecture & structure were not matching with each other. I discussed this issue with my team & they thought me that how to resolve this problem. We did the skype call to client & share the screen and show it to them the problems. By raising this query my team & client were impressed with my technical knowledge & detail observation. Client advised us to raised RFI. We received an updated drawing on reply of that RFI. According to that I had incorporated latest drawing in Revit model. After successfully completion of model my team thought me that how to run the clash dictation between architecture & structure model. With their guidance & observation, I resolved all the clashes & finalised the model. I submitted that model to my team for approval. After getting internal approval of architecture & structure model, we sent that model to the client for final approval. After getting final approval from client our reporting manager discussed with us to produced detail shop drawings. These drawings will help to contractor for fast & efficient construction activity at site. We had also developed landscape & one small service building of this project.
3.9 MEPF Modelling
After successfully completion of architecture & structure model my team discussed with me the strategy to work on MEP modelling. In MEP modelling services routing
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is not tough job but co-ordination of each services with less clash dictation are very important. To achieve this strategy first they suggested me to route gravity line i.e. drainage & rain water line. I came to know that these both lines were run through gravity and it is not advisable to change the level & location of the drainage services in coordination. After finished model of drainage services I gave it to my team for checking and they show me that plumbing fixture location on the beam so drainage line clashing with the beam. We requested client to relocate the plumbing fixture. After that I routed AC condensate drain. I found that AC condensate drain pipe run too long & due to require 1:100 slope it was going down below the ceiling level. I changed the routing of the AC condensate drain pipe & took approval from my team as well as the client.
Image from Revit Drainage Model
After completion of the drainage service my team guide me to route wet & dry services in separate corridor. First, I routed cable tray & trunking near the slab level. The gap
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between two cable trays normally the keep half of the cable tray width. The space between trunking & slab we keep 150mm. I observed that in Revit one team was working on services routing and other team was working on ceiling level co-ordination. At ceiling level coordination, I learn how to coordinate diffuser, lighting, smoke detector, sprinkler, camera, speaker etc.
Image from Revit Electrical & LV Model
Next stage I get training that how to route the main fire pipe in corridor & connected it to fire drain. I got instruction from team to take all branch pipe connection from the top of the main fire header. These arrangement helps when it require to drain entire fire system. After routed firefighting service I started routing air conditioning system. Before started routing of air conditioning system I understand design concept. Client had selected VRF system. In most of the cabin area it was proposed cassette type ac units & in few areas high wall type ac units. In the corridor area they proposed ducted unit. The VRF outdoor unit placed on terrace at various locations. The indoor & outdoor unit connected through the refrigerant pipe. The pipe was horizontally spread throughout the building & vertically run through the shaft. The diameter of the refrigerant pipe was very small, so it was very easy to route & coordinate with other services. The fresh air unit placed on terrace to fulfil the fresh air requirement. The client has targeted to achieve 3 Pearl rating from the Abu Dhabi Planning Council’s green building standards. To achieve that rating in air conditioning system they had installed HRU on terrace. This unit helps to reduce the energy by dropping the outdoor temperature. Following that I routed the exhaust air
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duct through the shaft & connected to the HRU unit. Fresh air duct was passed through the HRU unit through the shaft than it run through the entire building and at last connected to indoor unit. Once finish AC service I started with electrical & low voltage system which contain cable tray, audio visual, communication, containment, emergency lighting, fire alarm, lighting, power, public address, security systems were covered. At last I routed the water supply line which goes to toilet blocks. It was pressurized line & small diameter, so it was not difficult to coordinate.
Image from Revit HVAC Model
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Image from Revit Water Supply Model
Following placing all the services I run the clash dictation. They gave me training to used Navis software for clash dictation. In software I found the multiple clashes in MEP model. I observed some clashes were easy to resolve & few clashes were bit difficult to short out. In some area the clashes were not resolved by us and which required modification in designing. For all those clashes we concern to client & with their approval/instruction we resolved the clashes. With the help of coordination process we finalized the location & level of each service. While finalized the location & level for each service we always take care of constructability & easily operate during maintenance. Now our model was ready with zero clashes. Our reporting manager informed us to produced detail shop drawings. Coordinated shop drawings helps contractor to install multiple services at the same time.
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Image from Revit Coordination Model
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4 CHAPTER – DESIGN ENGINEERING CANVAS
4.1 AEIOU CANVAS
▪ Environment
➢ Professional
➢ Co-operative
➢ Comfortable
➢ Calm & Cool
➢ Healthy
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▪ Interactions
➢ CEO to BIM Manager
➢ BIM Manager to BIM Project Manager
➢ BIM Project Manager to BIM Team Leader
➢ BIM Team Leader to BIM Modeller
▪ Objects
➢ Computer
➢ Mouse
➢ Keyboard
➢ A1 Size Printer
➢ Scanner
➢ Pages and Pens
▪ Activities
➢ Collect drawing from client and architect
➢ Architecture and structure modelling
➢ MEPF modelling
➢ MEPF services Co-ordination
➢ Quantity take off
➢ Draw soft drawing
➢ Send to client
▪ Users
➢ Architects
➢ Draftsmen
➢ Contractors
➢ Consultants
➢ Mechanical Engineers
➢ Civil Engineers
➢ Electrical Engineers
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4.2 EMPATHY MAPPING CANVAS
▪ Users
➢ Architects
➢ Draftsmen
➢ Contractors
➢ Consultants
➢ Mechanical Engineers
➢ Civil Engineers
➢ Electrical Engineers
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▪ Stakeholders
➢ Banks
➢ Offices
➢ Malls
➢ Hospitals
➢ Bus Stands
➢ Railway Stations
➢ Air Ports
▪ Activities
➢ Collect drawing from client and architect
➢ Architecture and structure modelling
➢ MEPF modelling
➢ MEPF services Co-ordination
➢ Quantity take off
➢ Draw soft drawing
➢ Send to client
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4.3 IDEATION CANVAS
▪ People
➢ Banks
➢ Offices
➢ Malls
➢ Hospitals
➢ Bus Stands
➢ Railway Stations
➢ Air Ports
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▪ Activities
➢ Collect drawing from client and architect
➢ Architecture and structure modelling
➢ MEPF modelling
➢ MEPF services Co-ordination
➢ Quantity take off
➢ Draw soft drawing
➢ Send to client
▪ Props/Possible Solution
➢ Visibility Graphics
➢ Property Tool
➢ Modified
➢ Manage
➢ Collaborate
➢ Quantity Analysis
➢ Quality Check
➢ Material Legend
➢ Multi Join
➢ Computer
➢ Mouse
➢ Keyboard
➢ A1 Size Printer
➢ Scanner
➢ Pages and Pens
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▪ Situation/Context/Location
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4.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPEMENT CANVAS
▪ Purpose
➢ Reduce Construction cost
➢ Reduce Construction Timing
➢ Introducing BIM
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▪ People
➢ Banks
➢ Offices
➢ Malls
➢ Hospitals
➢ Bus Stands
➢ Railway Stations
➢ Air Ports
▪ Product Experience
➢ Virtual Reality
➢ Positive Reviews by Clients
➢ Smooth Operations
▪ Product Functions
➢ Create 3D Buildings
➢ Clash Proof Models
➢ Detailed Information
▪ Product Features
➢ 3D Models
➢ Reduce Timing
➢ Reduce Cost
➢ Better Indications
➢ Improved Heat Load Calculations
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▪ Components
➢ Visibility Graphics
➢ Property Tool
➢ Modified
➢ Manage
➢ Collaborate
➢ Quantity Analysis
➢ Quality Check
➢ Material Legend
➢ Multi Join
▪ Customer Revalidation
➢ Fast Process
➢ Reduce Overall Project Cost
➢ Reduce Wastage
➢ Reduce Timing
▪ Reject, Redesign, Retain
➢ Produce Drawings in 2D
➢ Get Rejected from Consultant and Architecture
➢ Remodel in 3D
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5 CHAPTER – Summary
Based on the research content above, I can conclude that BIM gives various advantage to construction industry in different stages of construction project compared with traditional work form of construction industry. The project implemented in BIM have more visualization, coordination, simulation, optimization, parametric properties then traditionally implemented project. A BIM can have coordinated model to client which substituted for many human-work, avoided many mistakes and also saved time. In design stage, BIM broke traditional work form as independent 2D drawing and 3D model built to combine these two parts together to save time for design work. Based on visualization of BIM, people can get more detailed model consisted with each independent element and more clear view on the scheme. Application of BIM also provide the platform for people from different professions to work together on one same model which increase coordination and communication among different workers to find out and solve problems together and also reduce the conflict among different professions. Then based on optimization of BIM, people can find mistakes and problems in advance before the project going on construction which reduce the scheme change in later construction work and also save cost and time. In general, BIM in design stage can improve cooperation among workers and provide information technology support

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