1. Accident Detection
2. GSM Modem
3. GPS Modem
4. MEMS Sensor
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROJECT SUMMAR
The main intention of this project for detects the location of accident of vehicle with the help of vehicle tracking system and inform about this to the authorized mobile number and police control room or a rescue team with the help of GSM technology.
So the police can immediately trace the location through the GPS MODEM, after receiving the information. Then after conforming the location necessary action will be taken.
If the accident is small and no serious matter or risk to anyone’s life then the system will be reset with the help of switch provided in the system.
In our project we use GPS and GSM technology which is interfaced with microcontroller.
1.2 PROJECT DETAIL
This project is use in vehicle’s control, Automobiles and patient monitoring.
Our project is used in security and automatic vehicle accident spot detection purpose.
This project hardware circuit is install in the vehicle and its is interfaced with microcontroller
In vehicle accelerometer is used in alarm application to detect the dangerous driving this accelerometer is used in our project to detect the vibration due to the accident.
When accelerometer detect the vibration then it transmit a signal to the sensor which is attach called MEMS sensor.
MEMS sensor detect the signal transmit by accelerometer and send the signal to the microcontroller.
When microcontroller receives the signal from the MEMS sensor then microcontroller interface with GPS modem and the location of the accident is detected.
Microcontroller and GPS modem is interface through MAX232.
In our project we required MEMS sensor, GPS modem, GSM modem,MAX232, Power supply, LCD Display, Alarm.
Vehicle Tracking System (VTS) is the technology used to determine the location of a vehicle using methods such as GPS and other radio navigation systems operating on satellites and ground stations. According to the triangulation or trilation methods, the tracking system makes it possible to calculate the easy and precise position of the vehicle. Information about the vehicle such as location details, speed, and distance traveled, etc. can be viewed in a digital map with the help of software on the Internet. Even the data can be stored and downloaded to a computer from the GPS unit to a base station and can be used later for analysis. This system is an important tool for tracking each vehicle in a certain period of time and is now becoming more popular for people who have expensive cars and therefore as a preventative and flight recovery device.
i. The system consists of modern hardware and software components that allow you to track your vehicle online or offline. Any vehicle tracking system consists mainly of three parts of the mobile vehicle unit, fixed station and database and software system.
ii. Vehicle unit: the vehicle component connected to the vehicle with a GPS / GSM modem. The unit is configured around a main modem that works with the tracking software when receiving signals from GPS satellites or radio stations using an antenna. The controller modem converts the data and sends the vehicle location data to the server.
iii. Fixed Station: consists of a wireless network to receive and transfer data to the data center. The base stations are equipped with tracking software and geographical maps useful for determining the location of the vehicle. Maps of each city and landmarks are available on the base station that has a built-in web server.
Database and software: The position information or coordinates of each visit point are stored in a database, which can then be viewed on a screen using digital maps. However, users must connect to the web server with the respective vehicle ID stored in the database and only then can see the location of the vehicle being travelled.
1.3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Method and apparatus for automatic vehicle event detection, characterization and reporting:-
It is an object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for detecting, characterizing and reporting vehicle events such as failures. In one embodiment of the invention, an apparatus comprises a triaxial accelerometer, a signal processor and a data storage device. The triaxial accelerometer measures the acceleration data along three independent axes and sends the data to the processor. The processor stores the data in the data store and processes the data to detect and characterize the crash events. The processor calculates the resulting average acceleration values ??at different time intervals and compares these values ??with an initial acceleration threshold. If the resulting average acceleration value exceeds the start threshold, the processor calculates the delta speed values ??(.increment) for average acceleration values ??that exceed the start threshold and compares the values ??of .increment with a speed threshold. The processor detects the start of a blocking event when a V.Vcrement.V exceeds the speed threshold. The apparatus detects the end of the collision event when the magnitude of the resulting average acceleration remains below an acceleration threshold for a predetermined number of acceleration values. The device will resume processing the acceleration data using the initial threshold acceleration and delta thresholds to determine if additional collision events are occurring.
Another object of the present invention is to characterize vehicle events such as collisions and to automatically warn appropriate emergency personnel. This object is achieved by an automatic fault notification system, which may include a module in the vehicle and a dispatch center. The module in the vehicle will detect accidents, determine the location of the vehicle and will automatically communicate the occurrence of an accident and accident data related to a dispatch center. The dispatch center will receive communications from a module in the vehicle and will automatically inform the appropriate public safety access point. In addition, the dispatch center will display the data and location of the crash on a map on a screen for a distribution center operator
The present invention is suitable for use in an automatic collision notification system in which a module in the vehicle detects a vehicle accident and then automatically notifies an accident dispatch center and sends to the dispatch center data, data on vehicles. The dispatch center then notifies the public safety response points, ie fire, police, ambulance, etc., of the accident, the location of the accident and other relevant data.
1.4 PLAN OF WORK
1.5 SYSTEM REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
ARM MBED NXP LPC1768
online mbed compiler
EMBEDDED C PROGRAMMING
1. Power supply circuit:-
Step down Transformer:- The power transformer consists of two windings, namely primary and secondary windings, where the primary can be designed using a smaller gauge cable with more turns, as it is used to transport low voltage low current and secondary winding using a high-gauge cable with fewer turns because it is used to carry a low-voltage current with high current. Transformers works on the principle of Faraday’s laws on electromagnetic induction.
BRIDGE RECTIFIER: – The rectifier of the barilla consists of four diodes connected in the form of a bridge. We know that the diode is an uncontrollable rectifier that will only lead to direct bias and will not lead during the inverse bias. If the diode anode voltage is greater than the cathode voltage, the diode is said to be biased. During the positive half-cycle, the diodes D2 and D4 will conduct and during the negative half-cycles D1 and D3 will conduct. Therefore, AC is converted to DC; here, obtaining is not a pure DC because it consists of impulses. Therefore, it is called DC pulse energy. But the voltage drop across the diodes is (2 * 0.7V) 1.4V; therefore, the maximum voltage at the output of this rectifier circuit is about 15V (17-1.4).
FILTER CIRCUIT: -15V DC can be adjusted to 5V DC using a reduction converter, but prior to this it is necessary to obtain pure direct current. The output of the diode bridge is a DC consisting of corrugations also called pulsed DCs. This pulsating direct current can be filtered by means of an induction filter or a capacitor filter or a resistor filter coupled to eliminate corrugations. Consider a capacitor filter that is often used in most cases to soften
In the circuit, the capacitor stores energy when the input increases from zero to a peak value and, as the supply voltage decreases from the maximum value to zero, the capacitor begins to discharge. This charge and discharge of the capacitor will cause the pulsed DC in the pure DC
REGULATOR: The DC-15V voltage can be adapted to a voltage of 5V DC using a decreasing DC converter called IC7805 voltage regulator. The first and second filters of the voltage regulator IC7805 represent the voltage regulators of the series and the other voltage transmitters and represent the voltage of the voltage regulator.
2. MEMS -7361:-This sensor can measure static acceleration (terrestrial gravity) or dynamics on all three axes. The sensor application is in several domains and many applications can be developed by using it. The accelerometer measures the level of acceleration in which it is mounted, allowing us to measure the acceleration / deceleration of an object or the inclination of a platform with respect to the axis of the Earth.
The sensor provides an OG output that detects a linear free fall. Technically, the MMA7361 LC is a low-power, low-profile capacitive accelerometer with signal conditioning, 1-pole low-pass filter, temperature compensation, self-test, 0g detection which detects a linear free fall and a selection of g allowing the selection between 2 sensitivities. Zero-g compensation and sensitivity are set at the factory and do not require any external devices. The MMA7361 LC has a standby mode that makes it ideal for pocket electronics with batteries. The module can be powered directly with a 5 VDC source.
Simple to use
Analog output for each axis
+5V operation @1ma current
High Sensitivity (800mV/g @ 1.5g)
Selectable Sensitivity (+- 1.5g, +- 6g)
0g detect for free fall detection
Robust design, high shock survivability
3D Gaming: Tilt and Motion Sensing, Event Recorder
HDD MP3 Player: Freefall Detection
Laptop PC: Freefall Detection, Anti-Theft
Cell Phone: Image Stability, Text Scroll, Motion Dialling, E-Compass
Pedometer: Motion Sensing / PDA: Text Scroll
Navigation and Dead Reckoning: E-Compass Tilt Compensation
Robotics: Motion Sensing
3. ARM MBED NXP LPC 1768:- Rapid prototyping for general-purpose microcontroller, Ethernet, USB and ARM® Cortex ™ -M3 32-bit applications .Mbed microcontrollers are a series of ARM microcontroller development cards designed for rapid prototyping
The NPCP LPC1768 microcontroller in particular is designed to prototype all kinds of peripherals, especially those that include Ethernet, USB and the flexibility of many peripheral interfaces and FLASH memory. It is packaged as a small DIP form factor for prototyping with PCBs through the hole, tape panel and smart card, and includes a built-in FLASH USB programmer. It is based on the NXP LPC1768, with a 32-bit Cortex-M3 ARM core running at 96MHz. It includes 512 KB of FLASH, 32 KB of RAM and many interfaces, including Ethernet, USB Host and Device, CAN, SPI, I2C, ADC, DAC, PWM and other I / O interfaces. Shows the commonly used interfaces and their locations. Note that all numbered pins (p5-p30) can also be used as Digital In and Digital Out interfaces
4. 16×2 LCD DISPLAY: – The LCD (liquid crystal display) is an electronic display module and finds a wide range of applications. A 16×2 LCD is a very basic module and is widely used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred in seven segments and other multi-segment LEDs. The reasons are: LCD screens are inexpensive; easily programmable; have no limitations to display special characters and even customized characters (as opposed to seven segments), animations, etc.
A 16×2 LCD screen means that it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2 lines of this type. In this LCD screen, each character is displayed in a matrix of 5×7 pixels. This LCD has two registers, namely commands and data.
The control register records the control instructions supplied to the LCD screen. A command is an instruction on the LCD screen to perform a predefined task, such as initializing, deleting its screen, adjusting the cursor position, controlling the screen, and so on. The data log stores the data that will be displayed on the LCD screen. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed on the LCD screen. Click for more information about the internal structure of an LCD screen.
5. MAX232:- The IC Max-232 is launched by the maximum integrated products in 1987. This is an integrated circuit that converts signals from the RS232 serial port into an appropriate signal used in TTL-compliant digital logic circuits. The MAX232 can convert signals as RX, TX, CTS and RTS and is a dual controller / receiver. The pilot increases the output voltage levels of TIA232 from a 5 volt to 7.5 volt source using the external capacitor and chip charge pumps. The receiver reduces the input levels of the TIA232 by 25 volts to the standard voltage level, ie, TTL levels of 5 volts and there is a threshold of 1.3 volts and a hysteresis of 0.5 volt for the receiver. In addition, the DC2 maximum is extended by the four receivers and transmitters simultaneously with eight MAX238 and MAX248 receivers and transmitters and there are many combinations of receivers and transmitters.
The IC MAX-232 is a 16-pin integrated circuit and an ingenious IC used mainly in signal voltage level problems. Typically, the MAX-232 IC is used in the RS232 communication system to convert voltage levels into TTL devices that are interconnected with the PC’s serial port and microcontroller. This IC is used as a hardware layer converter to communicate two systems simultaneously. Below is the image of MAX232.
6. GSM MODULE COMMUNICATION: – There are different types of GSM modems available on the market and the common GSM mode that is common or most used in the market is TTL logic and sometimes some use RS232 standards using this, there is a problem in communication with the modem GSM used by Microcontroller, Aurdino and a TTL platform. By using the MAX 232, we can overcome the problems.
GSM / GPRS is used for communication between a computer and a GSM / GPRS system. The GSM system is architecture; it is used in most countries for the purpose of communicating. The next extension of GPRS is the GSM which displays the highest transmission rate. The GSM / GPRS consist of the power circuit and communication interface using the MAX232 and USB interface, etc.
The GSM / GPRS is a wireless modem device used for communication using the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), we can enable network communication and also use the International Equipment Identity (IMEI) serial number GSM / GPRS operations are listed below.
Receiver, sends messages to a SIM card
Read, find directory entries on the SIM card
Making or rejecting voice calls
Using the AT commands, the modem interfaces with the processor and microcontroller that communicate with serial communication. The commands are the microcontroller and the microprocessor. After receiving the commands to the modem, it gives the output. There are different types of AT commands used by the modem and are sent via the processor, controller, computer to interact with the GSM / GPRS network.
GSM MODULE: – The GSM / GPRS module is used to establish communication between a computer and a GSM-GPRS system. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) is an architecture used for mobile communication in most countries. Global Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an extension of GSM that allows a higher speed of data transmission. The GSM / GPRS module consists of a GSM / GPRS modem mounted with the power supply and communication interfaces (such as RS-232, USB, etc.) for the computer. GSM / GPRS MODEM is a class of wireless MODEM devices designed for the communication of a computer with a GSM and GPRS network. Requires a SIM (Subscriber Identity Module), just like mobile phones to activate communication with the network. They also have an IMEI number (International Mobile Equipment Identity) similar to that of mobile phones for identification. A GSM / GPRS MODEM can perform the following operations:
1. Receive, send or delete SMS messages in a SIM card.
2. Read, add, find entries in the SIM card directory.
3. Make, receive or reject a voice call.
The MODEM requires AT commands to interact with the processor or controller that communicate through serial communication. These commands are sent by the controller / processor. The MODEM returns a result after receiving a command. Different AT commands supported by the MODEM can be sent by the processor / controller / computer to interact with the cellular GSM and GPRS network.
GSM MODEM SIM900:- The GSM/GPRS Modem-RS232, from rhydoLABZ, is built with Quad Band GSM/GPRS engine- SIM900, works on frequencies 850/ 900/ 1800/ 1900 MHz the Modem is coming with RS232 interface, which allows you connect PC as well as microcontroller with RS232 Chip (MAX232). The baud rate is configurable from 9600-115200 through AT command. The GSM/GPRS Modem is having internal TCP/IP stack to enable you to connect with internet via GPRS. It is suitable for SMS, Voice as well as DATA transfer application in M2M interface. The Modem is manufactured with Automatic Pick and place machine with high quality standard. The onboard Low dropout 3A Power supply allows you to connect wide range unregulated power supply. Using this modem, you can make audio calls, SMS, Read SMS; attend the incoming calls and internet etc through simple AT commands.
7. GPS MODEM: – A GPS module is a device that uses the global positioning system to determine the location of a vehicle or person. GPS receivers are used to provide reliable navigation, positioning and synchronization services to users anytime, anywhere in the world. This global positioning system uses 24 to 32 satellites to provide data to the receivers. GPS has become very important for navigation around the world and is useful for land survey, landmarks, mapping, monitoring and monitoring of trade and scientific uses.
CHAPTER 2: DESIGN
2.1 Interfacing GPS with 8051 Microcontroller:- The GPS module calculates the position by reading the signals transmitted by the satellites. Each satellite transmits continuously messages containing the time sent. The GPS receiver measures the distance of each satellite according to the time of arrival of each message. This information is used to calculate the position of the GPS receiver. The raw data received is converted to user such as LATITUDE, LENGTH, ALTITUDE, SPEED and TIME.
12V DC battery or adaptor
12 MHz crystal
Electrolytic capacitors – 1uF (4), 10u
Ceramic capacitors – 33pF (2)
Resistor – 10k
The LCD data pins are connected to PORT2 of the controller and the control pins RS, RW and EN are connected to P1.0, P1.1 and P1.2, respectively. The latitude and longitude values ??of the location are displayed on the LCD screen. The RV1 container is used here to adjust the contrast of the LCD screen. The receiver of the GPS module is connected to the 13th pin of the max232 IC and the GND pin is connected to ground. The RXD pin of the controller is connected to the 12th pin of max232. Here, max232 IC is used for level conversion.
The GPS receiver continuously transmits data according to NMEA standards using the RS232 protocol. In this NMEA format, the LATITUDE and LENGTH values ??are available in the GPRMC statement. In this project, the LATITUDE and LONGITUDE values ??are extracted from the NMEA format and displayed on LCD.
We must receive the data in the form of the controller of the GPS module in series using the UART protocol and now retrieve the latitude and longitude values ??of the received messages and display them on the LCD
2.2 Interfacing 16×2 LCD with 8051:-
LCD: 16 × 2 LCD screen that will display 32 characters at a time in two lines (16 characters in line). Each character in the screen size matrix 5 × 7 pixels, although this matrix differs for different 16 × 2 LCD modules if you take JHD162A this matrix changes to 5 × 8. This matrix will not be the same for all modules LCD 16 × 2. There are 16 pins on the LCD module.
Power supply pin of 5V
Used for adjusting the contrast commonly attached to the potentiometer.
RS is the register select pin used to write display data to the LCD (characters), this pin has to be high when writing the data to the LCD. During the initializing sequence and other commands this pin should low.
Reading and writing data to the LCD for reading the data R/W pin should be high (R/W=1) to write the data to LCD R/W pin should be low (R/W=0)
Enable pin is for starting or enabling the module. A high to low pulse of about 450ns pulse is given to this pin.
DB0-DB7 Data pins for giving data(normal data like numbers characters or command data) which is meant to be displayed
Back light of the LCD which should be connected to Vcc
Back light of LCD which should be connected to ground
The crystal oscillator is connected to XTAL1 and XTAL2 which will provide the system clock to the microcontroller, the remaining data pins and pins are connected to the microcontroller as shown in the circuit. The potentiometer is used to adjust the contrast of the LCD monitor. We can connect data pins to any port. If we are connecting to port0, we must use the extraction logs. The activation pins, R / W and RS must be connected to 10, 11 and 16 (P3.3, P3.4 and P3.5)
2.3 GSM MODEM INTERFACING WITH MICROCONTROLLER 8051
Capacitors C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6.
Liquid crystal display.
The GSM interface circuit to the AT89C51 microcontroller consists mainly of GSM modem and family of 8051 microcontrollers. The GSM has an RS232 interface for serial communication. The MAX232 IC is connected between the GSM module and the microcontroller.
MAX232 IC is used to convert logic levels. GSM RS232 logic levels are converted to the TTL logic levels of the microcontroller using this MAX232 IC. MAX232 IC has 16 pins. This is a dual controller IC because it has two transmitters and receivers. The GSM interface to the AT89C51 microcontroller uses only one transmitter and one receiver.
The transmitter pin T1IN of max232 is connected to the microcontroller’s transmitter pin. The receiving pin (R1out) of the max232 is connected to the microcontroller pin of the microcontroller. The T1out pin of the IC is connected to the transmitter pin of the GSM modem.
The R1IN pin of the IC is connected to the receiving pin of the GSM modem. Two 0.1 microfarad capacitors are connected to pins 1, 2 and 4, 5. A further capacitor is earthed from pin 6 and another capacitor is connected to the power supply 5v of the second pin of IC
The GSM modem used here has the sim900 module. These wireless modems communicate with microcontrollers and other peripherals. This includes 4 pins that are compatible with TTL logic. These can be connected directly to the microcontroller because it has max232 or use the DB9 connector to connect to the controller.
The MAX232 pins are connected to the GSM modem. This must be connected to the 5v power supply. It has a sim slot similar to a mobile to communicate with the network. The GSM modem requires AT commands for activation. The GSM modem responds to the AT command.
An LCD module is connected to port 2 of the microcontroller. This article also shows the interface of the 4-bit LCD module with the microcontroller. The data bits D4-D7 of the LCD module are connected to port 2 of the microcontroller. A jar connects to the LCD screen to adjust the intensity of the display. Here, the LCD screen displays the received message.
A button is connected to the PORTB microcontroller. Use this button to send a message.
CHAPTER 3: IMPLEMENTATIONS
CHAPTER 4: SUMMARY
Low cost and reliable circuit
Complete elimination of manpower
System can be switched into manual mode whenever required
Operation from Remote location.
Easy to install and Use.
4.2 SCOPE OF FUTURE WORK:-
We can use EEPROM to store previous navigation positions up to 256 locations and we can navigate to N number of locations by increasing their memory.
We can reduce the size of the kit using GPS + GSM in the same module.
We can increase the accuracy up to 3m by increasing the cost of GPS receivers.
We can use our pump detection kit by connecting to the pump sensor.
With the help of high-sensitivity vibration sensors, we can detect the accident.
Whenever the vehicle has had an accident on the road with the help of a vibration sensor, we can detect the accident and we can send the location to the owner, the hospital and the police.
We can use our kit to facilitate traffic. Keep kits in all vehicles and know the locations of all vehicles.
If someone steals our car, we can easily find our car around the world. Hold the vehicle by positioning the vehicle in the vehicle.
4.3 PROBLEM SOLVED:-
Detects the location of accident of vehicle.
Sends the alert message automatic to the police and rescue team.
CHAPTER 5: REFERENCES
Chen, H., Chiang, Y. Chang, F., H. Wang, H. (2010). Toward Real-Time Precise Point Positioning: Differential GPS Based on IGS Ultra Rapid Product,SICE Annual Conference, The Grand Hotel, Taipei, Taiwan August 18-21.
Asaad M. J. Al-Hindawi, Ibraheem Talib, “Experimentally Evaluation of GPS/GSM Based System Design”, Journal of Electronic Systems Volume 2 Number 2 June 2012
Chen Peijiang, Jiang Xuehua, “Design and Implementation of Remote monitoring system based on GSM,” vol.42, pp.167-175. 2008.
V.Ramya, B. Palaniappan, K. Karthick, “Embedded Controller for Vehicle In-Front Obstacle Detection and Cabin Safety Alert System”, International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 4, No 2, April 2012.
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