Essay: Designing a model village

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Literature Review

1.1 Introduction: Urban & Rural

Definition Urban

-An area with high population density and well developed  infrastructure can be called as Urban.

-An Urban area might be defined as an area with a large amount of people living in it, an area that has been significantly developed, or an area where the population density is high.

-Urban areas are densely-settled places, built-up settlements with bricks-and-mortar continuity.

-Basic definition of urban seems to be \”A settlement with more than 2500 people are living in less than 1 km”.

(Reference: http://www.yorku.ca/anderson/Intro%20Urban%20Studies/Unit1/what_is_urban.htm)

Definition Rural

-Where the population density is less and most of  the people (male ≥ 75%) are engaged with agricultural activities  is known as rural.

-Rural areas are characterized by farms, vegetation, and open spaces.

-In Rural area culture was very deep-rooted. Everyone loved culture and cultural heritage above everything else.

-Rural means relating to or characteristic of the country or the people who lived there, you won’t see any skyscrapers or taxies and similar facilities.

(Reference :https://www.nal.usda.gov/ric/what-is-rural)

1.2 Different Definition of: Rural area / Village

Village

– A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from few hundreds to thousand or upto 2500.

-Villages are normally permanent with fixed dwellings, and also the dwellings of a village are fairly close to each other and are not broadly developed over a large area or landscape, or we can say a disappeared settelement.

-Village are normally provided with the basic facilities like primary school, primary medical treatment and such other small basic relief treatment.

-In the past, villages are well known for its subsistence agriculture, consisting of perhabs 5 to 30 families. Houses were situated together for socialibility and defence, mainly land surrounding the living was farmed.

(Reference :http://www.dictionary.com/browse/village)

1.3 Scenario: Rural / Urban India & Gujarat as per Census 2011 {Population Growth}

Gujarat’s population has reached 6.03 crore, while the urban population has risen from 37 per cent in 2001 to 43 per cent in 2011, making it one of the fastest growing urbanised states, according to the Census.

The Census said Gujarat is the 10th most populous state. It has 5 per cent share of the country\’s population and 6 per cent of geographical area. Gujarat\’s population has increased by 97,12,611 during the decade of 2001 to 2011.

Gujarat Population 2011

As per details from Census 2011, Gujarat has population of 6.03 Crores, an increase from figure of 5.07 Crore in 2001 census. Total population of Gujarat as per 2011 census is 60,439,692 of which male and female are 31,491,260 and 28,948,432 respectively. In 2001, total population was 50,671,017 in which males were 26,385,577 while females were 24,285,440.

Figure 1.3.1

Figure 1.3.2

Gujarat Urban Population 2011

Out of total population of Gujarat, 42.60% people live in urban regions. The total figure of population living in urban areas is 25,745,083 of which 13,692,101 are males and while remaining 12,052,982 are females. The urban population in the last 10 years has increased by 42.60 percent.

Sex Ratio in urban regions of Gujarat was 880 females per 1000 males. For child (0-6) sex ratio the figure for urban region stood at 852 girls per 1000 boys. Total children (0-6 age) living in urban areas of Gujarat were 2,952,359.

Average Literacy rate in Gujarat for Urban regions was 86.31 percent in which males were 90.98% literate while female literacy stood at 70.26%. Total literates in urban region of Gujarat were 19,672,516.

Average Literacy rate in Gujarat for Rural regions was 71.71 percent in which males were 81.61% literate while female literacy stood at 57.78%. Total literates in rural region of Gujarat were 21,420,842.

(Reference:http://www.census2011.co.in/census/state/gujarat.html)

1.4 Rural issues & Concerns.

Issues & Concerns

1. The financial, manpower and managerial resources loyal to the implementation of rural development programmes are utterly inadequate.

2. Better implementation of rural development programmes can be ensured only if those responsible for actual implementation are paid reasonably well, appropriately trained, and sufficiently motivated. But this has not been done as yet.

3. It is being increasingly observed that the objectives of one programme conflict with those of others, and there is no institutional mechanism for reconciling them. Consequently, many programmes utterly fail in fulfilling their objectives. In addition, they also affect other programmes.

4. In many cases, instruments of rural development are not properly selected, and their levels are not consistent with the objectives they seek to achieve. The is results in the wastage of valuable public resources, and unnecessary delays in achieving the objectives.

5. The political parties have a vital role to play in rural development. But unfortunately this role has not been effectively realized by any democratic political party so far. The political parties, today, are guided more by party interests rather than by national interests.

6. Peoples are migrating from rural to urban because lack of quality of education, low literacy rate, low physical facilities.

(Reference:http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/problems/the-problems-faced-for-rural-development-in-India/4791/)

1.5 Various Measures for Rural development:

•Projects / Schemes by Government sector

-PradhanMantri Jan DhanYojana(PMJDY)

PradhanMantri Jan DhanYojana is national mission for financial inclusion to ensure access to financial services, namely, banking/saving and deposit account credit in an affordable manner.

-PradhanMantriSwasthyaSurakshaYojana (PMSSY)

PMSSY was announce in 2003 with objectives of correcting regional imbalance in the availability of affordable tertiary health care service and also to augment facilities for quality medical education in the country.

-PradhanMantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY)

PMMY under the micro unit development and refinance agency bank is a new institution being setup by Government of India for development and refinancing activity relative to micro unit.

-PradhanMantriJivanJyotiBimayojana (PMJJBY)

PMJJBY provides life insurance cover of Rs 2 lakhs for an annual premium of Rs 330/- .

-PradhanMantriAwasYojana (PMAY)

One of the primary needs of any human being is a house. A house is a security that allow every individual to flourish under a sense security, knowing that at the and of days hard work, there is a place where he or she can relax.

-SansadAdarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY)

SAGY is a rural development program broadly focusing upon the development in the village which include social development and cultural development among the people on social mobilization of the village community.

-PradhanMantriFasalBimaYojana (PMFBY)

On 13th January 2016, the Government under the leadership of  Prime Minister Shree NarendraModi has launched a new crop insurance policy name pradhan mantra fasalbimayojana this will help in easing of the burden of premiums on farmers who take loans for there cultivation.

-Jyoti Gram Yojana (JGY)

Jyoti Gram Yojana is an initiative of the Government of Gujarat to           ensure availability of 24-hour three phase quality power supply to rural area of the state and to supply power to farmers living in scattered farm house through feeders having specially design transformers.

-PradhanMantri Gram SadakYojana (PMGSY)

PradhaMantri Gram SadakYojana is a nationwide plan in India to provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected villages.

-Saradar Patel AavasYojana (SPAY)

-E-Gram Yojana

1.6 Projects / Schemes by Govt. sector

Pro Poor

Pradhanmantri Jan DhanYojana (World’s largest Financial Inclusion programme)

PanditDeenDayalUpadhyayaShramevJayateKaryakram

DeenDayalUpadhyayaAntyodayaYojana

Mission Housing for all

Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Bank (MUDRA Bank)

PradhanmantriUjjawalayojana

Pro Farmer

Enhanced Compensation for distressed Farmers due to crop damage

DeenDayalUpadhyaya Gram JyotiYojana

Soil Health Card Scheme

PradhanMantriKrishiSinchaiYojana

Jan Suraksha Schemes (PMJJBY, PMBSY, APY)

RashtriyaGokul Mission

1.7 Projects 1.7 Project/ Schemes by Private sector

-Public Private Partenership (PPP)

-Memorandum for consideration (MFC)

-Viability Gap Funding (VGF)

1.8 Other projects / Schemes.

-Bachat Lamp Yojana

-Indira AwasYojana

-GraminBhandaranYojana

-JananiSurakshaYojana

-Rajiv AwasYojana

1.9 Concept: Ideal Village

1.9.1 Example or live case studies of ideal village of India / Gujarat.

– Example or live case studies of ideal village of India / Gujarat.

1. Mawlynnong – Asia\’s cleanest village

2. Punsari – The village with WiFi, CCTVs, AC classrooms and more

3. Hiware Bazar – The village of 60 millionaires

4. Dharnai – First fully solar-powered village

5. Chappar – A village that distributes sweets when a girl is born

6. Kokrebellur – A village that really loves its birds

7. Ballia – The village that beat arsenic poisoning with an indigenous method

8. Pothanikkad – The village with a 100% literacy rate

9. ShaniShingnapur – A village so safe that people don’t need doors

(Reference :https://www.scoopwhoop.com/inothernews/mera-gaon-mahaan/)

1.9.2 The Idea of a model village

The Idea of a model village.

The idea of  model village has been explored earlier as well, most notably through the PradhanmantriAdarsh Gram Yojana launched by the Central Government in 2009 10. The scheme was implemented in pilot mode in 1000 villages of Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu, with an allocation of Rs 10 lakh per village. This limit was later raised to Rs 20 lakh per village. The target villages under the scheme were those with more than 50% of the population belonging to Scheduled Castes (SCs). Additionally, State Governments have also taken steps in this direction. Himachal Pradesh launched a MukhyaMantriAdarsh Gram Yojana along similar lines in 2011, with the allocation of Rs 10 lakhper village.

The proposed “SansadAdarsh Gram Yojana” of the Central Government aims to involve MPs more directly in thedevelopment of model villages. By adopting a village(s) under this initiative, an MP has the opportunity to directly benefit all sections of a village community in an integrated, efficient and participatory fashion. The following Sections in this brief highlight the important objectives that a model village could achieve, and covers the core features of a model village in India.Section 6 covers the important guidelines under the new “SansadAdarsh Gram Yojana”.

1.9.3   Objectives

-Objectives

A model village project has the following important objectives:

  • Prevent distress migration from rural to urban areas, which is a commonphenomenon in India’s villages due to lack of opportunities and facilities that guarantee a decent standard of living.
  •  Make the model village a “hub” that could attract resources for the development of other villages in its vicinity.
  •  Provide easier, faster and cheaper access to urban markets for agricultural produce or other marketable commodities produced in such villages
  •  Contribute towards social empowerment by engaging all sections of the community in the task of village development.
  •  Create and sustain a culture of cooperative living for inclusive and rapid development.

1.9.4   Key elements of a model village

Figure 1.9.4

1.9.5   Resources

•Funds under existing schemes across different sectors such as health, education, skill development, livelihood etc could be utilized, and based on the specific demands of the village, resources could be channelized into the development of the village. Some important Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) which could be utilized are NRLM, NHM, SSA, NREGA, BRGF, RKVYand Mid-day Meal Scheme.

•MPLAD funds (Rs 5 crore per year) could be utilized for the construction of high quality, sustainable assets such as school buildings, hospitals, AnganwadiCentres and school kitchens for Mid-Day meals. Funds could also be channelized into road construction, and the construction of toilets in schools and homes, particularly for girls.

•CSR funds, of which a much larger corpus is available after the latest amendment to the Companies Act, could also be used for the purpose of infrastructure development in the constituency.

•Self-help groups, who are eligible for subsidized loans under various Central and State government initiatives

•Gram Panchayats could also raise loans, if legally permitted to do so under the State Panchayati Raj Acts like in the case of Kerala.

1.10 Various infrastructure facilities, its types, importance in rural context

-Infrastructure Fecilities

-Physical infrastructure facility

Road, electricity, sewage, housing, etc.

-Social infrastructure facility

Health center, education, sanitation, etc.

-Social cultural infrastructure facility

Playground, community hall, library, garden, etc.

-Sustainability infrastructure facility

Bio gas plant, rain water harvesting system, solar, etc.

-Transportation facility

Bus stand & railway station

-Recreational facility

Temple, cinema, etc.

-Importanance of Rural Infrastructure

To facilitate rural infrastructure development strategies for socio-economic growth.

1.11 Various guidelines / Norms for Villages for the provisions of different infrastructure facilities.

Norms for Village for the provisions of different infrastructure:

Table 1

Facilities Planning Commission/UDPFI Norms Required as per Norms

Education

Aganwadi Each Village 1

Primary School Each Village 1

Secondary School Per 7,500 Population 2

Higher Secondary School Per 15,000 Population 0

College Per 125,000 Population 0

Tech. Training Institute Per 100,000 Population 0

Agriculture Research Centre Per 100,000 Population 0

Medical Facility

Gov./PanchyatDispensary or Sub PHC or Health Centre Each Village 1

PHC & CHC Per 20,000 Population 0

Child Welfare and Maternity Home Per 10,000 Population 1

Hospital Per 100,000 Population 0

Transportation

Pucca Village Approach Road Each Village

Bus/Auto Stand Provision All Villages connected by PT (ST Bus or Auto) 1

Drinking Water

Water Facilities

Over Head Tank 1/3 of Total Demand 1.6 lac cap

U/G Sump 2/3 of Total Demand 3.2 lac cap

Public Latrines Each Village 60

Cremation Ground Per 20,000 Population 1

Post Office Per 10,000 Population

1

Gram Panchayat Building Each individual/group panchayat 1

APMC Per 100,000 Population 0

Fire Station Per 100,000 Population 0

Police Station Per 15,000 Population 0

Community Hall Per 10,000 Population 1

1.12 Concept:  Rurban town & its importance

Rurban town &it\’s importance

Rurban town itself includes the rural area with the inclusion of most of the urban facilities. Town with this type of mix up of rural as well as the urban facilities is called the rurban town.It’s main purpose is providing all facilities in village without changing of village’s soul.

-Importance of renewable sources

Renewable energy sources are play very important role in the development of rurban, urban and rural area. Renewable energy sources are very helpful for the next generation people and it can helping for the stability of the energy source Little to no globle worming emission. Improve public health and environmental quality. A vast and inexhaustible energy supply.Stable energy prices.

1.13 Sustainable Development

“Development that meets the need needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.”

Thus the goals of economic and social development must be define in terms of sustainability in all countries – developed or developing, market- oriented or centrally planned. Interpretation will vary, but must share certain general features and must  flow from a consensus on a basic concept of sustainable development and on a broad strategic framework for achieving it.

1.14 Renewable energy source planning particularly for villages

-Renewable energy source planning particularly for Village

Nearly 73 percent of India’s population lives in more than 5.5 lakh villages. The ministry has been supporting programmes for the use of renewable energy products and devices such as biogas plants, solar thermal systems, photovoltaic devices, biomass gasifiers, etc. as well as the Integrated Rural Energy Programme. National Bio gas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP)

-Solar Photovoltaics

-Solar Thermal Energy

-Remote Village Electrification Programs

-Village Energy Security Project

1.15 Techno- economic survey of village. [Design the survey form to collect information from the village]

Form forVarious Information of  Village

-Population according to 2016 is ______________

Table 2

Facility/Item

Availability

Y/N

Number

Condition         Good/Bad

Remark

Drainage system

Water supply

Water storage tank

Waste collection

Health center

Biogas plant

Bank

Telephone exchange

Post office

Power station

School

a)Primary School

b)High School

c)Aanganvadi

CCTV camera

Announcement system

Bus stand

About village

Wi-Fi

Cowshed

Street light

Petrol pump

Library

Police Station

2 Ideal village visit

2.1 Background

It is said that the village is developed when it have the facilities more than the basic requirements. We have observed the following facilities at the time of ideal village visit like Wi-Fi availability, RCC road, proper drainage system, 24×7 CCTV surveillance, speaker system for announcement, garbage dump facility, 24×7 water availability, power station, government hospital & collage, community hall, bank facility.

2.2 Study Area Location

The study area is located 47 kms away from Rajkot city and near Gondal named Moviya.

2.3 Physical & Demographical Growth

We have observed the following physical growth like Wi-Fi availability, RCC road, proper drainage system, 24×7 CCTV surveillance, speaker system for announcement, garbage dump facility, 24×7 water availability, power station, government hospital & collage, community hall, bank facility, which was developed in recent years.

The population of the Moviya village in 2011 was 11050 approximately and in 2015 was 12500 approximately, which can be called demographical growth.

2.4 Economic profile

The economy of Moviya has significant agricultural production within its area. Major agricultural production of Moviya include cotton, groundnuts, sugarcane, milk and milk products, wheat, vegetable oil, vegetables, etc.

2.5 Social scenario

The Moviya village is situated near Gondaltaluka and many small villages are connected with it. Approximate 50% of malesare related with the agricultural activities and remaining males are connected with other activities migrate to near by city.

2.6 Infrastructures facilities

-Infrastructure Facilities

-Physical infrastructure facility

Road, electricity, sewage, housing, etc.

-Social infrastructure facility

Health center, education, sanitation, etc.

-Social cultural infrastructure facility

Playground, community hall, library, garden, etc.

-Sustainability infrastructure facility

Bio gas plant, rain water harvesting system, solar, etc.

-Transportation facility

Bus stand & railway station

-Recreational facility

Temple, cinema, etc.

2.7 Key elements of ideal village.

Figure 2.7

2.8 Resources

•Funds under existing schemes across different sectors such as health, education, skill development, livelihood etc could be utilized, and based on the specific demands of the village, resources could be channelized into the development of the village. Some important Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) which could be utilized are National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM), National Health Mission(NHM), SarvaSikhsaAbhiyan(SSA), National Rural Employment Garuntee Act (NREGA), Backward regions Grant Funds(BRGF), RashtriyaKrishiVikasYojana (RKVY)and Mid-day Meal Scheme.

•Member of Parliament Local Area Development (MPLAD) funds (Rs 5 crore per year) could be utilized for the construction of high quality, sustainable assets such as school buildings, hospitals, AnganwadiCentres and school kitchens for Mid-Day meals. Funds could also be channelized into road construction, and the construction of toilets in schools and homes, particularly for girls.

•Self-help groups, who are eligible for subsidized loans under various Central and State government initiatives.

•Gram Panchayats could also raise loans.

•Banks also provide better loans schemes with low interest and beneficial subsidi facilities to the people for doing better work in their agricultural work, own business strart up and home production activities.

2.9    SWOT analysis of ideal village

S.W.O.T Analysis:

Strength     Weakness    Opportunity      Threat

-RCC road

-24×7 water availability

-Street light

-CCTV camera

-Wi-Fi availability

-Speaker for announcement

-100% drainage system

-Bank availability -Open drainage          system

-Only 50% roads

– Closed drainage system should be constructed

-50% road should be constructed -Mosquito nuisance due to open drainage system

2.10   Future prospects

For the future prospects there are many things can be apply for safe and better future for next generation. We know that there will be also requirement of energy sources for the next generation people and there for we have to do maximum use of renewable sources.

Nearly 73 percent of India’s population lives in more than 5.5 lakh villages. The ministry has been supporting programmes for the use of renewable energy products and devices such as biogas plants, solar thermal systems, photovoltaic devices, biomass gasifiers, etc. as well as the Integrated Rural Energy Programme.

-National Bio gas and Manure Management Program (NBMMP)

-Solar Photovoltaics

-Solar Thermal Energy

-Remote Village Electrification Programs

-Village Energy Security Project

Renewable energy sources are very helpful for the next generation people and it can helping for the stability of the energy source Little to no globle worming emission. Improve public health and environmental quality. A vast and inexhaustible energy supply.Stable energy prices.

2.11 Benefits of the visits

When we was visit this village we have only little bit idea of this Moviya village. And when we actually know about the roots and the facilities of that village we got clear idea about the model village like Moviya village. And now we can easily work on our project work and provide better planning  and idea for the other villages. We realize that what kind of facilities have in ideal village and then we know that what is actually known as rurban town and model village.

3 Sustainable Technical Options for Solid  &Liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas

3.1   Technical Options for Liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas:

3.1.1 Stabilization pond system for waste water treatment

Stabilization ponds (also called lagoons or waste stabilization ponds) use a natural process for wastewater treatment that employs a combination of macrophytic plants, substrates and microorganisms in a more or less artificial pond to treat wastewater. The technique is frequently used to treat municipal wastewater, industrial effluent, municipal run-off or stormwater. After treatment, the effluent may be returned to surface water or reused as irrigation water (or reclaimed water) if the effluent quality is high enough.

Stabilization ponds are commonly used for wastewater treatment in developing countries. Types of treatment ponds include settling basin,anaerobic lagoons, facultative pond and aerated lagoons.

Technology

Stabilization ponds consist of shallow man-made basins comprising a single or several series of anaerobic, facultative or maturation ponds.[2] The primary treatment takes place in the anaerobic pond, which is mainly designed for removing suspended solids, and some of the soluble element of organic matter (BOD). During the secondary stage in the facultative pond most of the remaining BOD is removed through the coordinated activity of algae and heterotrophic bacteria. The main function of the tertiary treatment in the maturation pond is the removal of pathogens and nutrients (especially nitrogen).

Removal of pathogens

A study of ten stabilization ponds in Honduras has shown that they were effective in removing helminth eggs, a pathogen, from the effluent and to satisfy the World Health Organization microbiological guidelines for Category B irrigation with wastewater effluent. However, sludge from all ponds was heavily contaminated with helminth eggs.

3.1.2 Duckweed based waste water treatment with pisciculture

Duckweed – a small free-floating and fast growth aquatic plant-has great ability to reduce the BOD, COD, suspended solids, bacterial and other pathogens from waste water. It is a complete feed for fish, and due to the high content of proteins and vitamins A & C, it is also a highly nutritious feed for to 3 times when fed with duckweed, than with other conventional feeds in ponds. Reduction of BOD, COD in effluents varies from 80-90% at the retention time of 7-8 days. The first project funded by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Govt. of India, was successfully completed in collaboration with the Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi. Based on the R & D outputs of the project, the CPCB has made guidelines on the use of duckweed for waste water treatment.

3.1.3 Root zone treatment system

‘Root Zone’ is a scientific term used to cover all the biological activity among different types of microbes, the roots of plants, water soil and the sun. It consists planted filter-beds containing gravel, sand and soil. The RZWT system utilises nature’s way of biologically processing domestic & industrial effluents. This effective technology called Decentralised Wastewater Systems (DEWATS) was developed in 1970s in Germany and has been successfully implemented in different countries mainly in Europe and America.

The root zone wastewater treatment system makes use of biological and physical-treatment processes to remove pollutants from wastewater. Due to its natural process, there is no need to add any input such as chemicals, mechanical pumps or external energy. This reduces both the maintenance and energy costs.

To accomplish this, the root zone wastewater treatment undertakes the following steps:

1. Pre-treatment done in a Settler – a device that separates the liquid from the solid

2. First treatment takes place in a Anaerobic Baffled Reactor – a device with several identical chambers through which the effluent moves from top to bottom.

3. Second treatment happens in an Anaerobic Filter – a device filled with a filter material (cinder), through which the effluent moves from top to bottom.

4. Third treatment takes place in a Planted Gravel Filter – a structure filled with gravel material and planted with water-resistant reed plants, which provide oxygen to the passing effluent.

Figure 3.1.3

(Reference :http: //www.ecoideaz.com/innovative-green-ideas/whats-a-root-zone-waste-water-treatment)

3.1.4 Anaerobic Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System

DEWATS stands for “Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems”. DEWATS represents a technical approach rather than merely a technology package.

DEWATS applications are designed to be low-maintenance: most important parts of the system work without technical energy inputs and cannot be switched off intentionally.

DEWATS applications provide state-of-the-art technology at affordable prices because all of the materials used for construction are locally available.

• DEWATS applications provide treatment for both domestic and industrial sources

• Systems can be designed to handle organic wastewater flows from 1-1000 m3 per day

• Systems are built to be reliable, long lasting and tolerant towards fluctuations in loads

• DEWATS applications do not require sophisticated maintenance

Without considering facilities for necessary chemical pre-treatment of wastewater from industries, DEWATS applications are designed with four basic technical treatment modules which are combined  and configured to provide a custom solution for a given sanitation/wastewater challenge:

• Primary treatment: sedimentation and floatation

•      Secondary anaerobic treatment in fixed-bed reactors: baffled upstream reactors or

anaerobic filters

• Tertiary aerobic treatment in sub-surface flow filters

• Tertiary aerobic treatment in polishing ponds

DEWATS applications are designed and dimensioned in such a way that treated water meets requirements stipulated in environmental laws and regulations.

Advantages of DEWATS technology:

• Provides treatment for domestic and industrial wastewater

• Low initial investment costs as no imported materials or components are needed

• Efficient treatment for daily wastewater flows of up to 1000m3

• Modular design of all components

• Tolerant towards inflow fluctuations

• Reliable and long-lasting construction design

• Low maintenance costs

3.1.5 Aerobic DEWATS

The selection of appropriate technical configuration depends on the

• volume of wastewater

• quality of wastewater

• local temperature

• underground conditions

• land availability

• costs

• legal effluent requirements

• cultural acceptance and social conditions

• final handling of the effluent (discharge or reuse)

DEWATS rely on the same treatment processes as conventional treatment system:

Figure 3.1.5

(Reference:http://www1.gfa-news.de/dwa/shop/produkte.nsf/files/FB-DEWATS_Guidebook_small.pdf/$file/FB-DEWATS_Guidebook_small.pdf)

3.1.6 Soakage pit system

The water in the septic tank is not pure, it is called grey water because it still contains organic materials that need to be filtered out.  A Soak Pit is a covered, porous-walled chamber that allows water to slowly soak into the ground. Pre-settled effluent from septic tank is discharged to the underground chamber from where it infiltrates into the surrounding soil.

 

Figure 3.1.6

 

Soak Pit Schematic Diagram

A-masonry ring

B-stone or brick aggregate

C-brick chamber

D-30cm thick outer casing with coarse sand

E-effluent from septic tank

Design

A layer of sand and fine gravel is spread across the bottom to help disperse the flow. Depth should be between 1.5 and 4m deep, but never less than 1.5m above the ground water table. The Soak Pit is filled with coarse rocks and gravel. The rocks and gravel will prevent the walls from collapsing, but will still provide adequate space for the waste-water.

Working

As waste-water percolates through the soil from the soak pit , small particles are filtered out by the soil matrix and organics are digested by micro-organism.

Soak pit are best suited to soils with good absorptive properties; clay, hard packed or rocky  soils are not appropriate.

Maintenance

• the effluent should be clarified or filtered well to prevent excessive build up of solids.

• The Soak Pit should be kept away from high-traffic areas.

• Particles and biomass will clog the pit so need to be cleaned or moved.

• For future access a removable  lid should be used to seal the pit.

Advantages

• Can be built and repaired with locally available materials.

• Small land area required.

• Power conservative.

• Can be built and maintained with locally available materials.

• Simple technique for all users.

Disadvantages

• Pre-treatment is required to prevent clogging, although eventual clogging is inevitable.

• Negatively affects soil and groundwater properties.

3.1.7 Study Technological Options at Household Level Management like

3.1.8 Kitchen Garden with Piped Root Zone System

With this methodology, treated greywater can be utilized to grow vegetables, flowers or fruits in the court-yard of the house.

Applicability

Houses with adequate court-yard.

Action

House owner will do the installation of the system with the help of trained person.

Description

The system has following components:

• A grease trap to collect silt (450mm x 350mm x 300mm)

• Perforated non pressure PVC pipe (50mm diameter and length as per requirement)

• Digging of trench (150mm to 200mm depth and 200mm width)

• Filling of trench with gravel of size (20 to 25mm size)

• Laying of perforated pipe

• Covering the trench with polythene sheet

• Putting the soil layer (50mm thickness over the polythene sheet)

• Construct a leach pit (900mm diameter with honey comb masonry and water tight cover)

• Put a layer of earth over (25mm thickness) over the pit cover

• Plant suitable vegetables or flowers on both sides of the trench.

Operation and maintenance (O&M)

• Periodical cleaning of the grease trap (every week)

• Cleaning of perforated pipes (once in a year).

Materials required

• Bricks (150 bricks)

• Fine Sand (15 gamlas)

• Cement (1/3 bag)

• 50mm non-pressure PVC pipe and length as per requirement

• Pit cover (1000mm diameter and 50mm thickness 3 to 4kg in height)

• Polythene sheet.

Approximate cost (2006 price level):

Rs 80/- per meter length including labor cost.

Advantages

• Simple and cost effective technology

• Cent percent utilization of water to produce vegetables and fruits

• Prevents water stagnation

• Prevents vector breeding.

Limitations

Use of strong detergent may be harmful to the plants grown in the kitchen garden.

Kitchen Garden without Piped Root Zone System

With this methodology also, greywater can be utilized to grow vegetables, flowers or fruits in the court-yard of the house.

Applicability

Houses with adequate court-yard.

Action

House owner will do the installation of the system with the help of trained mason.

Description

The system has following component:

• A grease trap to collect silt (450mm x 350mm x 300mm)

• A simple bed of appropriate size to absorb the available water

• Let the greywater flow into the bed

• Plant suitable vegetable or flowers at both the side of the trench.

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