GERMANY SECTION 1 In the Euro Area Germany is the largest economy and fourth largest in the world. Germany is among the leading exporting countries in the world, currently being third in the overall world ranking and its exports make up more than one-third of its national output. The major exports of Germany include vehicles, … Read more

Investment in a Global Business

Investment means the production of goods or capital utilized in the further production of other goods and services.Investment entails sacrificing current consumption in exchange for future utilization and benefits. Investment that accumulates over time compulsorily results in growth termed economic growth. Like every evolutionary stage, Investment started being concentrated on only physical production which created … Read more

Risk Measurements of the Economy

Every new method that emerges in risk measurement has been developed by improving the weak aspects of previous models. Researchers and investors discovered those aspects in consequence of past experiences and economic crises in financial markets. For example in 1970’s, fluctuations in interest rates caused high inflation rates which were resulted as economic stagnation in … Read more

Housing delivery systems

1.1. Background Housing delivery system in most of developing countries is an integration of various interrelated components which comprises land, building materials, infrastructure, building policies and regulations and the most crucial component is finance. Finance component in housing delivery is very important due to the fact that it cause huge financial requirement for housing production. … Read more


Abstract The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. … Read more

Chinese FDI

Abstract In the early 21 century many Chinese companies ranging from a small shop to medium size enterprises in various industries could be seen positioning themselves in various parts of Africa, and Cameroon in arriving to complement other multinationals from other investing countries like US, UK, France etc. that have been there to a lesser … Read more


1 Introduction As important determinants of investment and consumption decisions, expectations are an important field of research in macroeconomics. Especially in the attempt to un- derstand the dynamics and fluctuations in economies, various theories of expectation formation have been developed. As a first model, the theory of adaptive expectations assumed businesses and individuals to form … Read more

Investment in property during Brexit

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Problem Statement Investing in property is a big business that can become highly profitable. There are main two types of property investment, which are buy-to-sell and buy-to-let. Buy-to-sell investment involves property development activities such as renovation and re-lease or selling of existing buildings in order to make a profit … Read more

Social economics history

Living after the End of History, in which there is “no alternative” to neoliberal capitalism, defending any form of planned economic relations is seen as harmlessly anachronistic at best or outright malevolent at worst. After all, the decay and final implosion of the Eastern Bloc regimes seemed to confirm once and for all the moral … Read more

How trade increase welfare

This part of the paper attempts to provide a brief summary of David Ricardo’s concept of comperative advantage and Samuelson and Jones’ Specific Factor model, as well as indicating a comparison between the two, alongside with their merits and shortcomings. In 1776, Adam Smith in his An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the … Read more

Earthquakes in Nepal

What Happened? Background Information, Statistics, and More   Three years ago, on the 25th of April 2015, the worst earthquake since 1934 devastated Nepal, creating massive damage and loss of human lives. The earthquake measured a 7.8 magnitude on the Richter scale, impacting roughly 8 million, injuring over 22,000, and killing nearly 9,000 individuals. To … Read more

Colombian exchange

It is difficult to overstate the importance of the Columbian exchange and its effects are still evident to see today. The exchange of organic produce, livestock and disease from 1492 onwards have shaped cultures around the world. The traditional agents of the Exchange have been viewed as Europe and the Americas, however Nunn and Qian … Read more

Globalization, an interconnected world

Globalization has helped the world become more interconnected and has resulted in improved trade and cultural exchange. Globalization has also assisted the mass production of services and goods between different countries.   Stack (2002) defines globalization as ‘a blanket term referring to the increasing modern interconnectedness of nations, markets and people’. In this essay I … Read more

Fiscal policy

We are going to go over the terms fiscal policy and the types of fiscal policy that can be implemented in helping the economy out of a recession or to help the government by raising taxes. From my understanding, not all of this is very black and white and easy to understand. So, I hope … Read more

The idea of a “smarter planet”

Introduction   Since the reform and opening-up policy was launched in 1978, China is undergoing a giant transformation. It has been progressively assertive in an international arena. Owing to Deng Xiaoping’s era, the socialist market economy orientation has been steadfastly promoted. Urbanization has been rapidly constructed and economic achievement has been intensely made. Until 2016, … Read more

Globalisation as a worldwide economic phenomenon

University of Toronto Winter 2018: SOCD25H3 S Advanced Seminar in Economy, Politics, and Society Final Research Paper Topic: Globalization as a worldwide economic phenomenon. Analyzing globalization from economistic, cultural and structural perspective Student Name: Anthony Wong Student Number: 1002162072 Instructor: Professor Rania Salem Date of Submission: April 6, 2018 1. Introduction Globalization is considered a … Read more

Nazism and Stalinism, born from an economic crisis of World War I

During the 20th century, Europe was protagonist of two charismatic leaders that fought to impose their ideology to the entire world. These leaders were none other than Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. The former founded a political regime in Germany called Nazionalsocalism, better known as Nazism; the latter founded a political regime in URSS (Union … Read more

The history of banking

The history of banking can be traced to its first prototype existing in the merchant’s world in the 14th century who profited by offering grain loans to farmers who sought to transport their commodities between cities of Sumeria. Barclays bank is a British multinational firm with its headquarters in London, United Kingdom. Its origins can … Read more


Globalization is defined by Merriam-Webster as, “an act or process of globalizing, or the state of being globalized; especially, the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets.” (Merriam-Webster, 2018) With the introduction of the Internet to modern society, … Read more

PPP hypothesis

Where denotes the real exchange rate between the two countries. In its weaker relative form, it only requires: Clearly, the absolute version implies the relative, but not vice versa. Unlike the absolute which requires the real exchange rate of the goods to be in parity, the relative only require that it is constant over time. … Read more