Globalisation as a worldwide economic phenomenon

University of Toronto Winter 2018: SOCD25H3 S Advanced Seminar in Economy, Politics, and Society Final Research Paper Topic: Globalization as a worldwide economic phenomenon. Analyzing globalization from economistic, cultural and structural perspective Student Name: Anthony Wong Student Number: 1002162072 Instructor: Professor Rania Salem Date of Submission: April 6, 2018 1. Introduction Globalization is considered a … Read more

Nazism and Stalinism, born from an economic crisis of World War I

During the 20th century, Europe was protagonist of two charismatic leaders that fought to impose their ideology to the entire world. These leaders were none other than Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. The former founded a political regime in Germany called Nazionalsocalism, better known as Nazism; the latter founded a political regime in URSS (Union … Read more

The history of banking

The history of banking can be traced to its first prototype existing in the merchant’s world in the 14th century who profited by offering grain loans to farmers who sought to transport their commodities between cities of Sumeria. Barclays bank is a British multinational firm with its headquarters in London, United Kingdom. Its origins can … Read more


Globalization is defined by Merriam-Webster as, “an act or process of globalizing, or the state of being globalized; especially, the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets.” (Merriam-Webster, 2018) With the introduction of the Internet to modern society, … Read more

PPP hypothesis

Where denotes the real exchange rate between the two countries. In its weaker relative form, it only requires: Clearly, the absolute version implies the relative, but not vice versa. Unlike the absolute which requires the real exchange rate of the goods to be in parity, the relative only require that it is constant over time. … Read more

Germany’s economy

Germany, the third-largest exporter and importer of goods, is a federal parliamentary republic located in central-western Europe. With a population count totaling 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most inhabited member country of the European Union. In today’s economy, Germany stands to be a great power with a strong and sustainable economy. By nominal GDP, … Read more


THE CURRENCY OF WAR? INTRODUCTION As any semblance of diplomacy between most of the Western World and nations like North Korea continues to wither away, the need to increase speculation and outright regulation of cryptocurrencies has become ever more vital. At this point in time, it is widely speculated that nations like North Korea have … Read more

Circular economy

This article is about circular economy and the policies concerning Circular Economy. The first part of the article will describe what circular economy is and the counterpart of Circular Economy. Afterwards a couple of benefits of circular Economy will be described. The last part of the article will discuss rules from the past, current rules … Read more


PUBLIC EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT: HOW MALAYSIA REFORMS AMONG THE CRISIS ABSTRACT Since 1989, Malaysia has implement the Public Expenditure Management reforms through the using of the Modified Budgeting System (MBS). Public Expenditure Management (PEM) is an approach to public sector budgets are oriented towards achieving the desired social results. PEM introduced based on the three purposes … Read more

Identify the correlation of economic growth (GDP), poverty reduction and reduction in income inequality in Tanzania

Over the past few years Tanzania government has been struggling to solve the mismatch or disconnection between economic growth and poverty reduction. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) of Tanzania provides annual GDP growth rate averaged 6.72% from 2002 until 2015, highest being 12.40% in the third quarter of 2007 and a lowest record of 2.60% … Read more

Resource curse

Resource curse is a theory of economics, multi-fingered and mining resource-related economic and social issues. Abundant natural resources, economic development could be a curse rather than a blessing, most of the slower growth in countries rich in natural resources than those countries with scarce resources. Economists attributed the deteriorating terms of trade, the Dutch disease … Read more

To what extent has privatization and commercialization policy impacted Nigeria’s economic development

The decades following World War II witnessed an enormous expansion of government intervention in national economies, particularly in the 1960s and early 1970s, when the public enterprise was seen as a major contributor to economic growth and socio-political stability (Hemming and Mansoor, 1988:31). The interventionist development policies of the period resulted in the creation of … Read more

Comparative advantage

History First, Adam Smith, in 1776, first suggested the concept of absolute advantage as the basis for international trade in his publication “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”. Absolute advantage, as a principle, refers to the ability of an entity (like an individual, a firm, or a country) to … Read more

Market risk

Question 1 Market risk is a risk of financial institutions earnings decreasing due to uncertainties in the movement of market factors, such as changes in interest rates, asset prices, market volatility and market liquidity. We use Value-at-risk to calculate the exposure of the market risk to a financial institution. There are various risk factors in … Read more

Japan’s contribution to ASEAN

Nowadays only few people exactly know where East Asia is, what countries organize East Asia, or why such extensive regional identification should signify more than some geographical region. Absolutely it is the nation-state. East Asia specifically means China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. East Asia is tremendously distinct region, as very complicated as the West. There … Read more