Germany’s economy

Germany, the third-largest exporter and importer of goods, is a federal parliamentary republic located in central-western Europe. With a population count totaling 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most inhabited member country of the European Union. In today’s economy, Germany stands to be a great power with a strong and sustainable economy. By nominal GDP, … Read more


THE CURRENCY OF WAR? INTRODUCTION As any semblance of diplomacy between most of the Western World and nations like North Korea continues to wither away, the need to increase speculation and outright regulation of cryptocurrencies has become ever more vital. At this point in time, it is widely speculated that nations like North Korea have … Read more

Circular economy

This article is about circular economy and the policies concerning Circular Economy. The first part of the article will describe what circular economy is and the counterpart of Circular Economy. Afterwards a couple of benefits of circular Economy will be described. The last part of the article will discuss rules from the past, current rules … Read more


PUBLIC EXPENDITURE MANAGEMENT: HOW MALAYSIA REFORMS AMONG THE CRISIS ABSTRACT Since 1989, Malaysia has implement the Public Expenditure Management reforms through the using of the Modified Budgeting System (MBS). Public Expenditure Management (PEM) is an approach to public sector budgets are oriented towards achieving the desired social results. PEM introduced based on the three purposes … Read more


  ABSTRACT Real exchange rate has proven to be an important factor in economy of a country therefore its volatility information is of importance to investors, policy makers, government and also other researchers. Exchange rates volatility has increase a lot of doubts in many economic sectors (industrial and agricultural) in Kenya. This study modelled KSH/USD … Read more

Identify the correlation of economic growth (GDP), poverty reduction and reduction in income inequality in Tanzania

Over the past few years Tanzania government has been struggling to solve the mismatch or disconnection between economic growth and poverty reduction. National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) of Tanzania provides annual GDP growth rate averaged 6.72% from 2002 until 2015, highest being 12.40% in the third quarter of 2007 and a lowest record of 2.60% … Read more

Resource curse

Resource curse is a theory of economics, multi-fingered and mining resource-related economic and social issues. Abundant natural resources, economic development could be a curse rather than a blessing, most of the slower growth in countries rich in natural resources than those countries with scarce resources. Economists attributed the deteriorating terms of trade, the Dutch disease … Read more

To what extent has privatization and commercialization policy impacted Nigeria’s economic development

The decades following World War II witnessed an enormous expansion of government intervention in national economies, particularly in the 1960s and early 1970s, when the public enterprise was seen as a major contributor to economic growth and socio-political stability (Hemming and Mansoor, 1988:31). The interventionist development policies of the period resulted in the creation of … Read more

Comparative advantage

History First, Adam Smith, in 1776, first suggested the concept of absolute advantage as the basis for international trade in his publication “An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”. Absolute advantage, as a principle, refers to the ability of an entity (like an individual, a firm, or a country) to … Read more

Market risk

Question 1 Market risk is a risk of financial institutions earnings decreasing due to uncertainties in the movement of market factors, such as changes in interest rates, asset prices, market volatility and market liquidity. We use Value-at-risk to calculate the exposure of the market risk to a financial institution. There are various risk factors in … Read more

Japan’s contribution to ASEAN

Nowadays only few people exactly know where East Asia is, what countries organize East Asia, or why such extensive regional identification should signify more than some geographical region. Absolutely it is the nation-state. East Asia specifically means China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. East Asia is tremendously distinct region, as very complicated as the West. There … Read more

Economic theories

History is replete with all kinds of famous economic theories. No one economic theory is the “perfect one.” There are pros and cons to the popular economic theories of mercantilism, economic liberalism, Hamiltonian, and Listian theories. Certain types of economic theories are championed by nations during certain periods of their growth and certain types of … Read more

Public debt difficulties

Introduction: The answer to public debt difficulties is mainly presented as an economic problematic. Individuals and companies can deal with those complications through bankruptcy. It is a legal tool that protects a person under law in order to deal with a solvability problem, namely the incapacity to reimburse outstanding debts. But for states, declaring bankruptcy … Read more

The effect of population growth on the economic development of Pakistan

Different schools of thoughts in economics have analyzed the relationship between population growth and economic development. The debate on the relationship was pointed in Malthusian population trap (1798). Population increases was bound to stop Life-sustaining resources increases at arithmetic rate, would be insufficient to support Population increases at geometric rate Generally, there are two strands … Read more

The Asian Financial Crisis

Corsetti, Pesenti, and Roubini (1999) document the causes of the Asian financial crisis. In their study, there are three key concepts that characterize the eve of the financial crisis: overlending, current account imbalances, and the maturity structure of capital inflows. According to their study, the fragile banking and financial systems in Asian countries led to … Read more

Economics theories

My research of Classical Economics and Keynesian Economics has given me the opportunity to form an opinion on this greatly debated topic in economics. After researching this topic in great lengths, I have determined the Keynesian Economics far exceeds greatness for America compared to that of Classical Economics. I will begin my paper by first … Read more