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Unitary PLC – advantages, disadvantages, examples

Unitary: – A Unitary PLC is a simple form of controller. This contains all the basic system components in a single box. Unitary PLC’s are mainly attached directly to the device or application system which is being controlled. Unitary PLC components include processor, which run the software program, also allows ports for input and output … Read more

The Invention of Radios

The Radio was the best invention in the 19th century that gave birth to whole field of electronics;however, radios are still being used today in so many ways regards to politics, economics,geography, and socially. Inventing radios have changed society drastically. The things being played on the radio we listen to today has a different purpose … Read more

Iron and its many uses in the world

Iron exists in all living organism as an irreplaceable dietary, needed for making hemoglobin in human and animal body. Iron is an important material that made up the needed appliances for our daily life. We can find iron and its alloy in skyscrapers, buildings, houses, tools, and many machineries. According to the Encyclopedia of Science, … Read more

Developments in Mechantronics

Introduction Recent development in mechatronics, what kind, why beneficial, what are those material, what brand. In depth later Composite has been used widely in many areas. It has since gained more popularity because of its unique properties compare to normal materials. In recent year, there has been many research conducted to study about useful composites … Read more

Metal Alloys

METAL ALLOYS An alloy is a blend of two or more metals. the blend can form a solid solution or it can be simple mixture, depending on the size of the crystals that form and how the homogenous alloy is Many people believe steel is an alloy of iron and nickel, but actually steel is … Read more


Concrete It is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Often, additives and reinforcements (such as rebar) are included in the mixture to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time, the … Read more

Testing in concrete construction

Testing are important in concrete construction. Tests concerned with fresh concrete are to check the workability of concrete. Tests on hardened concrete are to find the strength, creep effects, durability, etc. Testing of Fresh Concrete Following tests are commonly employed to measure workability of fresh concrete: (1)Slump test (2)Compaction factor test (3)Flow test (4)Kelly Ball … Read more

Field Coil Connected In Series And Parallel

In this method, the field coil is divided into various parts.These parts can be connected in series or parallel as per the requirement. The Figure shows the two parts of field coil connected in series and parallel. Two Parts Of Field Coil Connected In Series And Parallel For the same torque, if the field coil … Read more

Concrete calculations

Equation is valid provided the neutral axis is in the flange, dn < t. The force C then acts at a depth If the neutral axis is in the web of a T-section, the force C has to be reduced by an amount Cn given by which can be regarded as a negative force acting … Read more

Importance of Preventive Maintenance

If you’ve been involved in the boating, yachting, or shipping industry you have undoubtedly heard the acronym for B.O.A.T – Break Out Another Thousand. When you own anything on the water, you recognize that it comes with high maintenance costs. Planned maintenance often gets overlooked because the changes in performance are seemingly insignificant. However, the … Read more

Feasibility of Prefabricated Deep Energy Exterior Retrofitting in Existent Housing to Reach Net Zero Energy Levels in the South Eastern Climates of Canada

February 4, 2019 Abstract In an effort to achieve 2030 targets set by the Paris agreement, Canada is in desperate need to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Residential housing accounts for 17% of Canada’s energy requirements and 16% of GHG emissions. Therefore, many are looking into greener alternatives to housing but with new constructions … Read more

Ultrasonic welding as a technology

Literature Review Introduction Over the years, in terms of the materials used in building aircraft and other aerospace structure, the aviation industry has evolved from wood and fabrics used by the Wright brothers to metals and composite materials seen today in commercial aircrafts such as Boeing 787 which is made up of 50% composites (Mraz … Read more

Advantages of Building Information Modelling

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT ABSTRACT BIM (Building Information Modelling), an innovative parametric software has seen widespread use in AEC design firms worldwide. BIM enhances the efficiency of the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) world to a point where buildings can be edited digitally in real time. BIM has recently attracted extensive attention in the Architectural, Engineering … Read more

Functional Safety international Standards

Abstract Functional Safety international Standard IEC 61508 gives functional safety for electro technologies (Electrical, Electronics and programmable electronics) and safety related technologies. IEC 61511-1 give the requirements for the specifications, design, Installation operation and maintenance of SIS (Safety Instrumented System) for process industries. And it has wide spread use in many industries and countries. IEC … Read more

Construction Safety and Health

Construction Safety and Health Introduction Different companies or organizations are expected to conduct their construction activities following regulations that are laid down by these bodies and institutions. For instance, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an institution of the Department of Labor in the United States that its responsibility is to ensure healthy and … Read more


SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION OBSTACLES TO EDUCATIONAL BUILDINGS IN EGYPT   ABSTRACT The main goal of this research is to highlight on obstacles facing the application of sustainability and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) requirements to the construction of educational buildings in Egypt. The research methodology utilized the method of questionnaire surveys to collect the … Read more

Ethical conduct and the legal ramifications for professionals within the construction industry

  Paper Abstract: An increasing emphasis on ethical conduct and the legal ramifications for professionals within the construction industry has brought about a remarkable change: In an effort to improve the operating efficiency and reliability of construction companies, the design and implementation of systems has resulted in the ability to enforce accountability whilst reducing errors, … Read more

Increasing The Productivity By Reducing The Scrap And Rework Using Lean Manufacturing

1.0 Introduction: 1.1 History The origin of Ashok Leyland can be traced to the urge for self-reliance, felt by' independent India. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, India's prime minister persuaded Mr. Raghunandan saran, an industrialist, to enter auton10tive manufacturing. In 1948, Ashok motors were set up in Chennai, for the assembly of Austin cars. The company's destiny … Read more

Construction today and lean manufacturing

1.1 From manufacturing to Construction Inspired by the work of the Henry Ford’s ‘introduction of the assembly line production system’ and refined by Toyota, which also created many elements and concepts to arrive at what is called lean manufacturing. In 1992 lean manufacturing had already had a profound impact on industries of cars manufacturing and … Read more

Behavior of structures

Collapse load of steel frame works allowing for the effect of strain hardening, M.R. Horne and I.C. Medland , (1966). Concerned with an investigation into the behavior of structures composed of the new high yield-stress steel to B.S. 968 and the applicability of the plastic theory to the design of such structures. As part of … Read more

Data analysis

METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction In this chapter is discussed about methodology for this project. The process for the production of the final result of the project must be clearly understood of the project processing to the production of final outcome must be clearly understandable. There will give more effective way in order to give the best … Read more