Use of ESP

Recent developments in the oil industry have led to renewed interest in artificial lift methods such as, electrical submersible pumps (ESP’s), gas lift and sucker-rod pump. When the oil is being extracted from the ground is due to the difference among the reservoir and well-bore pressure by producing naturally or using artificial lift mechanisms. In … Read more


Aeroplanes are one of the main means of transportation in the 21st Century. The main part of the Airplane that enables it to fly is the wings (also known as aerofoil). This essay will examine in great detail about the physical characteristics of the aerofoil and the importance of these parts in enabling the airplane … Read more

Afflux and back water curve

Let us discuss the terms: 1. Afflux and 2. Back water curve and Derive an expression for the length of the back water curve. Whenever an obstruction comes across the width of the channel, the water surface in the upstream side of the obstruction no longer remains parallel to the bed but the depth of … Read more

Seismic noise attenuation using 2D F-X Prediction Design Levinson-Durbin filter mode

Abstract: The Seismic noise attenuation is very important for seismic data interpretation and analysis. In our paper, we propose a 2D F-X Prediction Design Levinson-Durbin filter mode method for2D seismic land data random noise attenuation by applying Design Levinson-Durbin filter The key idea of this paper is to consider that The FXDecon works on each … Read more

Slip forms

During the process of construction, the slip-forms are raised while the concrete is in a plastic state. These are used for the construction of tall structures, e.g., chimney. Slip-forms may be classified as : (i)Straight slip-forms (ii)Tapering slip-forms (iii)Sand slip-forms for special applications. Straight slip-forms are used for silos, straight-chimneys, water towers, etc. Tapering chimneys … Read more


1.1 Problem Summery In packaging industries, flexible packaging and lidding seal materials are manufactured by dry bond lamination process. This dry bond lamination is done by heat seal coating machine. In heat seal coating machine dry bond lamination is achieved by blow of dry hot air, which is provided by gas fired furnace. Aim of … Read more

Coatings for increased turbine engine efficiency

Recently used turbines for power generation and aero-jet aircraft engines applications experience incessant efforts towards increasing the thermal efficiency [1]. Greater efficiency and higher output inescapably need to increase the turbine operating temperature, which needs novel methods to overcome the restraints of hot sections materials [2]. Early, before 25 years ago, the increase in the … Read more

Measurement Of Temperatures in a Furnace

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION The Measurement of Temperatures of furnace is a very difficult task. Sensors also breaks due to the extreme high temperature of furnace and it requires daily maintenance. Scientists had designed temperature controller of furnace through Conventional PID controller. But it was proved insufficient due to its poor malleability and low control fidelity. So, … Read more

Asphalt binder

Chapter One: Introduction 1.1 Overview Asphalt binder is the basic building material in road pavement construction; it is mixed with mineral aggregate to produce the asphalt concrete. Due to the big differences in physical and chemical properties between asphalt and aggregate, adhesive bonds play a major role in determining the asphalt’s concrete performance. However, bonding … Read more

Electronic voting machines

Arguably, the most important change in society in the past few decades has been the automation of important tasks with computers, and the formation of a worldwide network of these computers that allows their storage and computing resources to be combined. It seems that almost every aspect of the modern world relies on technology in … Read more

Self-driving cars

Self-driving cars. Ten years ago, something like this would seem completely unbelievable. Now however, it’s becoming our reality. A lot of questions come to mind with this subject: how will this affect our lives? How will this affect our future? Is this good for us? Is this bad? These questions must be strongly considered and … Read more

Concrete Cracks

ABSTRACT Cracks have a significant effect on the safety of concrete structures but estimating the tribute of crack in a specific measurement is very difficult due to multiple factors applied in a single concrete member. The main emphasis of this seminar is mainly established on the observation results of some completed and under construction randomly … Read more

Scene parsing approaches

ABSTRACT Different from traditional convolutional neural networks (CNN) this model has intra-layer recurrent connections in the convolutional layers. Therefore each convolutional layer becomes a two-dimensional recurrent neural network(RNN). The units receive constant feed-forward inputs from the previous layer and recurrent inputs from their neighborhoods. The recurrent iterations proceed the region of context captured by each … Read more

SLs based on reactive (Q) compensation (SLQ) and impedance-type load

Due to growing penetration of asynchronous inverter-interfaced generation (e.g., wind, solar photovoltaic, etc.) the complexity of future power systems is expected to reduce extremely. This would cause undesirable large excursions and rates of change of the system frequencies (RoCoF) following a loss of infeed which would pressure the system security [1]. Besides, loss-of-infeeds more than … Read more

Artificial Intelligence programs

The 4 different Artificial Intelligence programs that were used either functioned using rules or the connectionist model. Rule-based approaches are top-down approaches in which one identifies the function that needs to be performed and the rules/mechanisms that are needed to perform that function. On the other hand, the connectionist model represents a bottom-up approach in … Read more

To increase energy efficiency in a cellular heterogeneous network and improve the network handling capacity

There are various reasons why diverse mobile network operators and versatile mobile makers are as one comprehensively inquiring about various approaches to optimize their system execution from the energy efficiency and capacity standpoint [1]. In recent years, with the explosive growth of mobile communications in terms of number of connected devices and the demand for … Read more

Selection of Battery size by using Power Flow decision program for Microgrids

Abstract. This paper concentrates on determining the size of energy storage system (ESS) for microgrid (MG). Renewable energies are intermittent and their productions are stochastic can cause insufficiency of supply in electrical systems. Applying an energy storage system (ESS) can alleviate the impact of renewable energies. ESS plays an important role in the MG, which … Read more

Water flooding

ABSTRACT Water flooding is a significant recovery process used for secondary recovery and pressure maintenance to increase the life of a producing well. This is a reservoir management practice for maximize the efficiency and optimize the Hydrocarbon recovery. Different reservoir characteristics are the cause of less understanding about the selection of water flooding design and … Read more