The currency of gold

Prior to the 1870s, European countries faced challenges trying to maintain smooth financial operations under various gold, silver, and bimetallic standards. Discoveries of silver, technological advancements, and France’s loss to Germany in the Franco-Prussian war were among the factors that eventually gave way to the emergence of the Classical Gold Standard in the 1870s. After … Read more

The Euro

The Euro is a currency based on the political and economic union that is the European Union. With 28 member states the European Union’s goal is to create a single European market that allows people, goods and services to flow freely within the confines of the Union. One of the Union’s attempts to accomplish the … Read more

Sovereign Wealth Fund

The Sovereign Wealth Fund is a state-owned investment fund. The past of Sovereign Wealth Funds dates back to 1950s. They have been becoming more and more popular in recent years. These funds pertaining to governments are large-scaled worldwide. Besides all these, there is a dispute whether it threats countries which is invested by SWFs or … Read more

What are Commercial Banks?

Commercial bank is defined as an authorized financial institution by the law whereby they receive money from individual and businesses as well as lending money to them. Commercial banks are open to the public and serve individuals, institutions as well as businesses (, undated). In a more detailed explanation, commercial banks is a financial institution … Read more

Investment Banking

Do you want to make money out of money? If yes, then the solution is Investment bank. To be precise, Investment bank is nothing but a bank which matches the expectations of people having the capital with people who need the capital. 1 It is a financial intermediary that specializes primarily in selling securities and … Read more

Evolution of BASEL

The pre-Basel era was characterized by increasing globalization, leading to rapid expansion of international financial services sector. The swift proliferation contributed to gradual deregulation, which created new revenue opportunities for banking institutions, and intensified competition. International banks indulged in regulation arbitrage, and relocated to less stringent geographies. The need for a stricter and more stringent … Read more

The effect of exchange rate and inflation on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

Exchange rate movements do affect FDI values because they not only greatly affect the amount of cash inflows received from investments but also affect the amount of cash outflows required to pay to continue operating these investments. Currencies appreciate and depreciate according to prevailing Market conditions (Kabura 2013). These movements of exchange rate affect inflation … Read more


ACTIVITY ONE A Brief Company Profile Lekwot & Sons Limited, a limited liability partnership business, was incorporated January 9, 2007. It is engaged in the sales of retail and wholesale consumer products in 2 major states of the federation, Nigeria. The Company does business in five strategic merchandise units, grocery, entertainment, health and wellness, apparel … Read more

Initial Public Offerings

INTRODUCTION In the early nineties, Initial Public Offerings were considered to be one of the hottest items in the stock market, tempting many new firms to consider this scheme as a means to raise their much needed capital to finance business expansions and to jumpstart new projects. Through the years, however, IPOs seem to have … Read more

Implementation of the IFRS in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study The globalization of capital markets is an irreversible process and the benefits associated with mutually recognized and prospected International Accounting Standards are enormous. The earliest recognized standard setting body was the ‘Committee on Accounting Procedures (CAP)’which was formed in 1938 but the move towards developing an acceptable … Read more


ABSTRACT This study investigated the determinants of VAT revenue in Nigeria. This study used consumption cost, Gross Domestic Product, Household cost and international trade values collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin from 1994-2014 . The time series data was analysed using the Error Correction Model (ECM) method of analysis with the aid … Read more

Risk and expected return

2.1. Introduction This chapter presents the theories that have been developed and established to give details about the relationship between risk and expected return .Moreover, it presents the historical development of the asset pricing models, the assumptions and development of CAPM, arbitrage pricing theory, three-factor model, four factor model, and the impact of aggregate volatility … Read more

Bank Rakyat

Company background Under the Cooperative Ordinance 1948, Bank Rakyat was established on 28 September 1954. Nowadays, the biggest Islamic cooperative in Malaysia is Bank Rakyat with assets totaling RM89.18 billion as at end of December 2014 The transformation in 2002 of the Bank from a conventional banking system to a banking system based on Syariah … Read more


1. Background of microfinance Microfinance consists of the provision of financial services in small increments, typically to very poor people. 1.1. History The beginnings of the microfinance movement are most closely associated with the early 1970’s and economist Muhammed Yunus, who was a professor in Bangladesh. Bangladesh was a very poor country at the time … Read more

Assets under management

Assets under management (AUM) is the total [market value] of assets that an [investment company] or financial institution manages on behalf of investors. There are many assets under management definitions. Some financial institutions include [bank deposits], [mutual funds] and cash in their calculations; others limit it [to funds] under discretionary management, where the investor assigns … Read more


MALAYSIAN CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIAL COMPANY ‘ CHAPTER 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION Dividend policy remains a source of controversy despite years of theoretical and empirical research, including one aspect of dividend policy, the linkage between dividend policy and stock price risk (Allen and Rachim,1996). Paying large dividends reduces risk and thus influence stock price (Gordon, 1963) and … Read more

Development of the Chinese microfinance company process

Abstract Purpose of the dissertation This dissertation sought to assess the development of the Chinese microfinance company process and the future prospects. More so, the study analyzed the relationship between the microfinance institutions and the market. Methodology used in the study The study was conducted in three main stages: the study presented the current microfinance … Read more

Islamic banking

Islamic banks conform to the tradition that must be adhered to (jurisdiction) and Islamic Law (shariah). The fundamental point of Islam is to guide human advancement along the right lines and in the right bearing. Islam manages all parts of monetary improvement, yet dependably in the structure of aggregate human advancement and never in a … Read more