Cost of Pharmaceuticals

(Draft) Throughout the years, the United States has experienced a disparity in the prices paid for pharmaceuticals when compared to the rest of the world. In a study conducted in 2011, the United States comprised 45% of pharmaceutical profits while the remaining countries made up the a total of 55% (True cost). The increasing cost … Read more

Childhood obesity

DEFINITION: Obesity occurs when more calories are consumed than are expended over time. Children < 2 years age: Obesity is defined based on weight for length for children <2 years age. The sex-specific weight for supine length ≥97.7th percentile on the World Health Organization (WHO) charts (1) is defined as Obesity. Children > 2 years: … Read more

The Dangers of Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most commonly used drugs in the world today. Used for fun and getting away from problems in life, it is getting more and more popular among today’s millennials. What most people do not know is that for every action comes an equal or opposite reaction. Much too often people view … Read more

Distal Biceps tendon ruptures

# INTRODUCTION Distal Biceps tendon ruptures still remain challenging to diagnose in clinical practice for many physicians. Especially diagnosing if it is complete or partial distal biceps tear in clinical setting in some cases is still difficult even for many experienced clinicians. Doing that without having proper imaging like Ultrasonography or MRI is even more … Read more

Utilization of the various instrumentation available in the ability to effectively arrest or recover periodontal disease processes.

The proper use of periodontal instrumentation is the ability to adequately remove calculus and arrest or recover a patient’s periodontal disease and is an essential function of a dental hygienist. There is an increasing variety of instrument types available for dental hygienists to perform this task. These instruments range from traditional manual hand scaling, ultrasonic … Read more


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding constitutes a considerable problem for many women causing discomfort and decreased quality of life. About 10-15% of women experience episodes of DUB at sometime during the reproductive years of their lives. Annually 5-19% of women seek medical care. It accounts for more than 25% of all hysterectomies. A wide range … Read more

Compare the clinical outcome of transcatheter device closure of ventricular septal defect

Evolving technology in the interventional techniques has now made the transcatheter closure of anatomically selected ventricular septal defects feasible with satisfactory results and low morbidity rates10. In most centers, the procedure is approached using antegrade or transvenous method by creating an arteriovenous guide wire loop; which is the standard technique for transcatheter VSD device closure. … Read more


Each cancer and tumor type is unique as is the individual in which it develops. Some cancers do not respond to established cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, because tumor cells have developed ways to evade the immune system by taking advantage of peripheral tolerance. Recent advances in immunotherapy have given rise to … Read more


Lupus denotes the scientific illness occurring when the immune systems of an individual attack its own organs and tissues. This leads to inflammation that affects the body. The inflammation attained from lupus could affect numerous different body parts comprising blood cells, joints, brain, skin, lungs, heart, and kidneys. Lupus can be complex to treat as … Read more

Breast cancer

Imagine your life getting impacted by a disease that is going to change up your whole life in a negative way. Not knowing how the outcome is going to be. Going to the doctor after feeling the big lump forming on your left breast and the doctor tells, “You have Breast Cancer…”Breast Cancer is the … Read more

Active birth

Fundamentally, Active birth is a woman’s choice to move freely and adopt any position that she instinctively feels appropriate and to aid her general comfort. Despite the fact that women have adopted more up- right positions during labour for thousands of years, since the advent of modern medical practice post-renaissance, the majority of women labour … Read more

Borderline Personality Disorder

INTRODUCTION This case study involves a 31-year old woman, Jodie, who exhibits the classic symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). She suffers from intense bouts of anger and feelings of emptiness which have severely impacted the relationships in her life. While she doesn’t know why she acts the way she does, she has come to … Read more

Homelessness – palliative care

Introduction Whether we like to admit it or not, homelessness is a prevalent issue within our Canadian society. According to statistics Canada, approximately 13% of the Canadian population earns what is considered a ‘low-income’ salary and estimates 150,000-300,000 Canadians experience homeless annually per year (retrieved from Homelessness is a state where an individual or … Read more

PCC in physiotherapy

Introduction Communication has been suggested to be a factor in establishing effective relationships between clinicians and patients (Pizzari et al., 2002). Additionally, poor clinician- patient communication may contribute to poor treatment adherence, which in turn can lead to adverse patient health outcomes (Safran et al. 1998; Wilson et al. 2007). Previously in physiotherapy studies, patients … Read more

Analysis of a Career in Pediatric Nursing

INTRODUCTION A career in pediatric nursing can be emotional, stressful, physically demanding, and one of the most rewarding jobs. Becoming a nurse is really taking a job in caring, even more so as a pediatric. These nurses take care of infants through childhood until their adolescents. In addition to that there are multiple issues and … Read more

Adopted children diagnosis with ADHD

Evidence suggests adopted children are more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD compared to non-adopted children. This difference exists for a number of reasons. The first concerns the risky sexual behaviour displayed by young adults with ADHD. This risky sexual behaviour may lead to unwanted pregnancies, ending with termination or adoption. Due to the highly … Read more

Gait initiation

Can the reaction time in gait initiation be influenced by emotional ascendancy, elicited by both visual and auditory stimuli in healthy subjects between 18 and 35 years? Emotion, according to Merriam Webster the definition of emotion is “a conscious mental reaction (such as anger or fear) subjectively experienced as strong feeling usually directed toward a … Read more

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder of connective tissue characterized by autoantibodies that target nuclear antigens (1). Patients with SLE might experience several forms of oral manifestations including dryness, soreness, oral ulcers, mucositos, glossitis and periodontal disease (2). Patients’ interpersonal relationships might be affected by the type of oral health complications the patient … Read more

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever remains a significant cause of cardiovascular disease in the world today. Despite a documented decrease in the incidence and prevalence of the disease in industrialized countries, rheumatic fever remains a medical and public health issue in both industrialized and both developing countries. The most devastating effects of this disease are amongst children and … Read more


Besides eating, one must consume water. There is a reason why people could survive 40 days without food but only a couple without water. Hydration is a key point to your success. Your body is made up to 60% water. Water is extremely important, especially for blood. 92% of your plasma is made up of … Read more

HIV and Hepatitis A & B vaccination

Abstract Prevention of opportunistic infections in HIV+ patients is important in reducing morbidity and mortality for these patients. Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are two important infections in HIV+ patients for which the main method of prevention is vaccination. The aim of this audit was to evaluate the compliance of Beaumont Hospital’s Infectious Diseases department … Read more

Early-onset schizophrenia

Introduction While it is most common for the onset of schizophrenia to present itself in adult years, there has been a recent desire for scholars to investigate early interventions of early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) amongst adolescent years of life. The adolescent years within this literature review will be defined as the years between 12 to 18. … Read more

The NUS Coffee Cup Campaign

Introduction The NUS (National Union of Students) have produced a campaign aiming to reduce the number of disposable coffee cups used across UK campuses, by normalising reusable coffee cups (Ref, Appendix i). The health promotion initiative, titled the “NUS Coffee Cup Campaign”, was part of their 2018’s sustainability campaigns (NUS, 2018). The production of plastic … Read more

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Autism refers to a wide spectrum of developmental disorders, characterized by difficulties in communication, repetitive behavior and general social interaction. Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) alludes to a wide range of conditions portrayed by difficulties in social abilities, tedious practices, discourse and nonverbal correspondence. It is has many subtypes, influenced by many hereditary or … Read more

How to write a health essay


Understanding how to write a health essay starts with understanding the question being asked. Only after understanding the question can you conduct thorough and specific research and structure your arguments properly.

The research, which should largely be from peer reviewed journals, is followed by the writing proper. In your senior education experience there will be different questions for health essays but their responses should follow the same structure. The conventional structure is one with the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion. After completing the first draft, its arguments should be refined. Then you put such finishing touches as the formatting structures in order. And before you hand in your paper make sure it is not plagiarised; that is well-referenced and is original.

Below is a guide on how to write a health essay and if you follow these guidelines you give yourself a better chance at getting the grade you are hoping for:

Understand the essay question

An understanding of the question being asked is the beginning of writing a successful health essay. Get the question that is being asked, wrong, and it does not matter how well you elucidate your arguments, the essay will be wrong. With this in mind, take as much time as you can to understand the question being asked. Pester your instructor for clarification; consult your dictionary for the precise meaning of those deceptive terms. Understanding the question being asked will help you develop a seamless structure for your essay. It will also demonstrate the direction you need to take when reading for your essay.

Research from Peer-reviewed Journals

Researching your health essay will be as time-consuming as writing it. You should comb through the mounds of research sources with a fine tooth comb. Choosing from the different sources is a research skill that needs to be cultivated as much as choosing the right words for your essay. At your disposal is your school library with all that it contains: both electronic and print; newspapers, magazines, encyclopaedias and health surveys.

You are also not restricted from contacting professional organizations and healthcare institutions. The list is wide and varied. Unless you have been prompted by your tutor to conduct interviews and surveys, you need to avoid health institutions and other professional bodies. Concentrate on non-empirical research materials.

For non-empirical/theoretical research it is advisable to use peer-reviewed journals. This helps you to directly evaluate research that bears on your research topic. Research on peer-reviewed journals is preferred to duplicating opinions and summaries from the textbooks and internet sources. Peer reviewed journals are the platforms where scientific debates take place. It is therefore a highly valuable skill to be able to disseminate findings from such authoritative platforms. It also goes a long way to demonstrate your understanding of the question in the essay. To access peer reviewed journals online you can visit such electronic databases like MEDLINE and PUBMED.

Structure your essay; introduction, body, conclusion

Different essay questions will invariably follow a similar structure. A conventional health essay should have the introduction, the main body and the conclusion.

The Introduction

The introduction should have an overview of what you plan to include in your paper. In addition, it should also indicate your plan on how to articulate your arguments.

The Body

The overview and how you plan to go about your arguments will be reflected in the main body. The arguments presented in the main body should be coherent and flow seamlessly from one to the other. The paragraphs should be written in such a manner that they naturally flow from one paragraph to the next.

The Conclusion

The conclusion contains a sum up of all that has been discussed in the main body. Also in the conclusion you can present the message you want your reader to get. Be careful not to go beyond what has been presented in the essay.

Refine your arguments for Coherence and Flow

After writing the first draft, you are supposed to make sure that your essay specifically addresses the question asked. You should also ensure that the arguments flow in a coherent fashion.

Students have employed several ways to ensure that their essay is specific and is coherent. The three most common ways include: leaving the essay for a week or more after writing the first draft before attempting changes; reading the essay aloud to enable judgments on coherence and flow; and diagramming the structure to ensure a logical progression.

Formatting structures for finishing touches

The finishing touches of a health essay have to do with complying with formatting structures set out by your higher education. You need to follow these formatting structures or else you will not impress your tutor and will not get the grades you are hoping for.

Some typical formatting structures include font size and style (size 12 and Times New Roman); margin size which should not go beyond 2cm; line spacing (the essay should either be doubled spaced or 1.5); and you double check if your essay requires footers and headers or not.

Avoid plagiarism by referencing properly

It is academic theft to use sources and not acknowledge its owners. This is called plagiarism. You should always acknowledge the sources you used to formulate your arguments. This can be achieved with proper documentation. Documentation entails proper in-text citation and referencing which is done at the end of the essay. Failure to do this will mean your essay will lack in originality and could get you kicked off of your course. A free plagiarism checker such as can help you double check you haven’t accidentally plagiarised.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a health essay‘ guide.