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Ethical and Legal Implications of Autonomy

Within the healthcare system, it is important for healthcare professionals to maintain ethical standards, including those that govern respect for persons, a primary component of which is autonomy, and beneficence.   According to R.G. Rodriguez, Ph.D. (2009), autonomy is an element within the professional code of healthcare ethics that allows for a patient to govern … Read more

PBL WRTE-UP – A Gut Feeling 

PBL WRTE-UP – A Gut Feeling Introduction In this scenario a clinical scientist is researching potential oral rehydration treatments that can be used to treat conditions that cause extreme water loss, such as cholera. To understand how these potential treatments work, it is essential to look at how water, ions and solutes are transported within … Read more

The biopsychological model

“Engel’s original intent for development of the biopsychosocial model was to alleviate emphasis on “biomedicine” and to provide a more holistic approach to patients” (Tavakoli, 2009). Engel (Cited in Farre & Rapley, 2017) critiqued tradition biomedical approaches by expressing that the model only focuses physiological causes for disease and illness. The patients themselves are being … Read more

Exercise is Medicine – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

INTRODUCTION: Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is a global health initiative directed by the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) that promotes the incorporation of physical activity by qualified health care professionals into treatment programmes for patients (Exercise is Medicine, 2019). It is widely acknowledged that physical exercise is crucially important for one’s optimal health and … Read more

Communication in Nursing / Heron’s Model

Communication is predominantly one of the most effective skills explored in nursing and is defined as ‘a transfer of information between a source and receiver,’ (Sheldon, 2009, cited by Dougherty and Lister, 2011, p.191). This simplistic level of communication is largely described through linear models such as Berlo’s expansion of Shannon and Weaver’s theory 1949, … Read more

A portfolio of teaching plans in medical education

A portfolio of teaching plans in medical education Medical education has evolved over the last few decades and “doctors must be prepared to teach and learn not only within their own profession but also across disciplines”(Peyton,1998). The Department of health initiative UMC ISS (undergraduate medical curriculum implementation support scheme) had a huge impact on medical … Read more

Doctors who question and teach us

Doctors who question and teach us. (1) The practice of medicine has changed in recent years as described by Atul Gawande. Briefly describe this change and what he proposes to do to make the practice of medicine work better. Atul Gawande is a surgeon, writer, and public health researcher (1) who talks how medicine has … Read more

The therapeutic goods administration

The therapeutic goods administration contributes to the safe use of medications in two ways. The first way is through regulating therapeutic goods. This is achieved by having systems in place that ensure manufacturers meet standards for producing goods, authorise supply, monitor products once they reach the market and take action if there are any defects … Read more

The role of the clinical mentor

University of Southampton Faculty of Health Sciences Facilitating Assessment and Learning in Practice Settings Level 6 Tutor ++++ Reflective Report 2061 Words 14th Nov 2016 REFLECTIVE JOURNAL Learning Outcome: 1 What? Identify one aspect relating to the learning outcome and briefly justify this choice The role of the clinical mentor encompasses various different aspects of … Read more

Gold Nanostructures for Cancer Treatment

With cancer currently one of the most fatal diseases in the world, it is important to develop effective methods of detection and treatment, which would allow for quick diagnosis and efficient treatment that is of little discomfort to patients. Gold nanostructures with near infrared absorption may be the most promising solution, due to their ability … Read more


1. Introduction Nanotherapeutics is a rapidly progressing area in the field of Nanomedicine, which is being utilized to overcome several limitations of conventional drug, including poor aqueous solubility, lack of site specific targeting, rapid systemic clearance, intestinal metabolism and systemic toxicities. Nanotherapeutics includes, but not limited to, solid-lipid nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, mesoporous silica … Read more


Chapter I Introduction: Malaria is a life-threatening disease and is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions mainly around the equator. Malaria is a protozoan disease and transmitted through infected female anopheles mosquitoes. There are five Plasmodium species which can infect human beings namely Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Plasmodium vivax (Pv), Plasmodium malariae (Pm), Plasmodium ovale … Read more

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Summary of Disease Processes Priority medical diagnosis: Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease includes all vascular disorders of the blood vessel system outside of the heart. Acute and chronic vascular diseases may develop progressively from atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atherosclerosis is defined as the process of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin building … Read more

Definitive control of the airway

Definitive control of the airway, a skill anaesthesiologists now consider paramount, developed only after many harrowing and apneic episodes spurred the development of safer airway management techniques1[barash pg no 7]. Anaesthesiologists who practised before muscle relaxants recall the anxiety they felt when a premature attempt to intubate the trachea under cyclopropane caused persisting laryngospasm[ barash … Read more

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

What is IBD? Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease which is dominated by inflammation in the gut. The inflammation is the result of an immune system defects inducing the production of adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines by specialized white blood cells called macrophages. (Katsanos et al, 2018). It is a life-long disease which can … Read more

Medical Waste Management

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The value of medical waste management in the protection of public health and the environment cannot be denied (Thakur and Ramesh, 2015). One concern in the society nowadays is the inadequate treatment and improper disposal of medical wastes in various medical facilities due to the harmful effects of such … Read more

Personalised medicine

In a large patient population, a medication or a drug that is proven to be efficacious in most of the patients usually fails to work in some other patients. Moreover, when the medication does not work, it may cause severe side effects and sometimes may cause death. Drug efficacy and safety variability between patients have … Read more

The advancement of medicine

The start of medicine is hazy, cave drawings and other historical artifacts show ancient civilizations having a wise elder which people consulted for medical advice. There were various traditions, some effective but mainly most were based around spells curses spirits demons and other supernatural creatures. Around the 11th century the Islamic world had made a … Read more

Surfactants (surface active agents)

Surfactants (surface active agents) are amphiphilic compounds which have the ability to reduce the surface tension of two phases; liquid and liquid, liquid and gas or liquid and solid.1 It is important to note that not all amphiphiles behave as surfactants, only those with somewhat equilibrated hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.2 Principally, surfactants are made up … Read more


Nursing as a profession of front line care, requires not only scientific knowledge procured through study, but most importantly a high level of interpersonal and practical skills. All components of communication; verbal and non-verbal are essential prerequisites in meeting the needs of patients and their families as well as integral parts of nursing such as … Read more

Rate of discovery of new drugs

Over the years, the rate of discovery of new drugs has declined significantly, leading to an urge to explore alternative environmental sources apart from the soil, for novel antibiotics. In this study, water samples were collected from different places around Bath and they were screened for antibacterial activity against six test bacteria. A total of … Read more