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Socrates’ ideal city / Plato’s Republic

The ideal city, or polis, in the eyes in Socrates in Plato’s Republic is one that is just and virtuous, where every single person contributes in one way or another, is enlightened, and is aristocratic. In this city, the people are divided into three different groups, but they all have a vital role. He constructs … Read more

Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism

Frank Jackson’s ‘Epiphenomenal Qualia’ challenges the basic principles of physicalism through the examples of fictional characters named Mary and Fred. Jackson concludes that there are indeed non-physical qualities to experience. In reaching that conclusion, Jackson relies on the Knowledge Argument. The Knowledge Argument, a major component of explaining qualia, provides that complete physical knowledge regarding … Read more

Analysing Mill’s ideas on non-intervention/the colonial exception & contradictions

This essay will first outline Mill’s ideas on non-intervention, the colonial exception and how this relates to his ideas on individual liberty, before evaluating how these ideas contradict each other. Firstly, it will contend that his view that colonialism is nurturing the local people to prepare them for gaining individual liberty is inconsistent given the … Read more

Argument from evil

I. Introduction Argument from evil is essentially an argument that objects to the existence of God on account of the existence of evil in the world. The fact that evil plagues this world in multitude and enormity consolidates the foundation of atheism. There are four versions of this argument. The first version of the argument … Read more

What is Moral? Consequential theory and deontology

Definition of the word morality is a group of standard applied to people, personally or socially, and used to define correct or wrong behaviours and personalities, according to the Cambridge Dictionary. In other words, morality sets the guideline for what people “ought to do”. (Potthast&Panza, 2010) It is not as difficult to explain the word … Read more

Locke’s Two Treatise of Government

In 1689, Locke introduced his Theory of Government which was controversial to British thinkers, defending and summarising bourgeois rule and its new system in theory. The whole book is divided into two parts, which separates in to critical and constructive. The rationalism spirit which differs from his philosophy empiricism has laid the keynote of modern … Read more

Existence of God – Descartes and Aquinas

The discussion on God’s existence has been a very controversial topic throughout our the history of mankind. In order to fully understand God’s existence, we must first have a wide range of knowledge and understanding on the way of being and existence. The study of metaphysics has allowed us to understand and think about the … Read more

Can machines think? Measuring artificial intelligence

“Can machines think?”, the notion of Artificial Intelligence was first, seriously, contemplated by Alan Turing; considered by many as the ‘father of computer science’. At first glance, especially at the time this question was first asked, one might dismiss it quickly – how can it be possible for a machine to think, they simply do … Read more

Reading week 2 – Global ethics by Andrew Heywood

Macintyre 1966 stated that the very process of moral argument presupposes the principle that everyone is to be treated the same until reason to the contrary is shown. This principle however does not prescribe how anyone should be treated. Here are a few decisions facing contemporary policymakers and citizens around the world: who is responsible … Read more

Act utilitarianism

There are two different types of utilitarianism: Rule-utilitarianism and Act utilitarianism, however I’ll only be discussing the latter. Is Utilitarianism is a moral theory that believes the right action is the one that produces the best outcome for the greatest numbers. For example: The best outcome would be the one that produces the greatest amount … Read more

Can a weak form of AI consent? Attempts to strip weak AI of moral worth

The continuing advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) provides many unique and troubling ethical issues concerning the boundaries that demarcate a robot from a human being, and whether the former is worthy of any moral considerations. Notably, the potential roboticisation of the sex trade, and the introduction of nascent AI poses the question of whether a … Read more

Do human rights activists have a right to concern over developments in robotics inc AI

Human rights and the fight for human rights has occurred since the very existence of man. Nelson Mandela very famously quoted,” To deny people their human rights is a violation of being a human.”(Mandela 1994) Firstly what are human rights? Human rights is defined by (Hutchings 2010) as,” The rights that we as human beings … Read more

George Ritzer’s “McDonaldization” process

Consumerism takes advantage of changes in society and it “seduces into accepting the deeply unsettling condition of postmodernity” (Smith, 1999: 50). Consumers “can buy short term comfort in the market place” (ibid). Through advertisements people are trained to think that the solution for dissatisfaction is the fulfillment of their wishful fantasies. People’s needs, which can … Read more

Free Will – everything is inherently biased

We are all a product of our circumstances. While some are endowed upon us, the others we create. Is there free will when it comes to defining the conditions that will eventually define you? Not only do these circumstances connote towards being of material welfare, but they may also comprise of factors that go beyond … Read more

Is euthanasia moral or immoral?

Mr. Blackburn Inquiry Skills 2 Dec. 1996 Euthanasia In today’s society there are many disagreements about the rights and wrongs of euthanasia. Although death is unavoidable for human beings, suffering before death is unbearable not only for terminal patients but for the family members and friends. Euthanasia comes from the Greek word “Thanatos” meaning death … Read more