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Act utilitarianism

There are two different types of utilitarianism: Rule-utilitarianism and Act utilitarianism, however I’ll only be discussing the latter. Is Utilitarianism is a moral theory that believes the right action is the one that produces the best outcome for the greatest numbers. For example: The best outcome would be the one that produces the greatest amount … Read more

Can a weak form of AI consent? Attempts to strip weak AI of moral worth

The continuing advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) provides many unique and troubling ethical issues concerning the boundaries that demarcate a robot from a human being, and whether the former is worthy of any moral considerations. Notably, the potential roboticisation of the sex trade, and the introduction of nascent AI poses the question of whether a … Read more

George Ritzer’s “McDonaldization” process

Consumerism takes advantage of changes in society and it “seduces into accepting the deeply unsettling condition of postmodernity” (Smith, 1999: 50). Consumers “can buy short term comfort in the market place” (ibid). Through advertisements people are trained to think that the solution for dissatisfaction is the fulfillment of their wishful fantasies. People’s needs, which can … Read more

Free Will – everything is inherently biased

We are all a product of our circumstances. While some are endowed upon us, the others we create. Is there free will when it comes to defining the conditions that will eventually define you? Not only do these circumstances connote towards being of material welfare, but they may also comprise of factors that go beyond … Read more

Is euthanasia moral or immoral?

Mr. Blackburn Inquiry Skills 2 Dec. 1996 Euthanasia In today’s society there are many disagreements about the rights and wrongs of euthanasia. Although death is unavoidable for human beings, suffering before death is unbearable not only for terminal patients but for the family members and friends. Euthanasia comes from the Greek word “Thanatos” meaning death … Read more

Living in the past present and future

Some people claim that the living in the present can actually cause more harm than good. They say that in order to lead a productive and profitable life, one must study both the past and the future, the present is only a stepping stone. I think that this is quite the opposite. The past must be learned from, … Read more

Abortion should not be legalized

Abortion is the worst thing a woman can do against human dignity. It is a crime against life. No woman has the right to kill a new living being. Many countries ban abortion and many institutions fight against it. Abortion is immoral and it should not be legalized. Abortion is also a threat to the mother’s health. A … Read more

Plato and his Views

Plato argues that there is a difference between sense-perception and knowledge. Many of us assume that we know the world through our eyes. All we have to do is open our eyes and whatever is in front of us is real. When learning philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology. Plato a well-known philosopher … Read more

George E. Moore and his Claims to Human Conduct

According to George E. Moore, ethical claims all concern human conduct while philosophical ethics ultimately concerns itself with knowledge of what “good” is. Moore also believes philosophical ethics ought to concern itself with what is good instrumentally, or good as a means rather than good as an end, as a property. According to Moore, what … Read more

Free Will and Determinism

For centuries the argument of free will and determinism has been the ongoing great debate. Between a philosophical and scientific stance there have been many debates as to which notion upholds truth and abides by the laws of nature; determinism or free will. Free will is the concept that we as conscious human beings have … Read more

Socrates and Plato

Socrates and Plato used the Allegory Cave to explain the critical thinking skills of common society by explaining what the imagined reality is supposed to be like and what the actual truth is like the real world outside the cave. They believed life was like being in a cave and that’s what life was about … Read more

Walzt’s theory of realism

Known as one of the most influential theories within international relations, Realism attempts to address how states interact based upon the concepts of power and security. The primary interest within this theory is self-preservation, which claims that states only work to increase their own power relative to others. Developed by many theorists, realism’s long history … Read more


Utilitarianism is the theory that we should always try to maximize happiness. When it comes to Bernard Williams, he is considered one of the greatest critics of Utilitarianism. The first test case for the utilitarianism theory he covered was for George the Chemist. Geroge just got his Ph.D. in chemistry. He is finding it to … Read more

Nicomachean Ethics – Aristotle

Nicomachean Ethics is a book that was written by Aristotle where he explained his definition and standards of ethics. Moral virtue is something that Aristotle believed you learned through practices. He defines it as “a state of character concerned with choice, and choice is deliberate desire,” and “it is this that is concerned with passions … Read more

Explain how Aristotle’s ideas show him to be an ancient philosopher (i.e. in accordance with the ancient world view)

(including that the cosmos serve as a model for human conduct that encourage to seek goodness in life, which is one that Aristotle placed a huge emphasis on) Aristotle’s had a technological approach to goodness and the order of which things should be. He believed that everything had a purpose, and the purpose of everything … Read more

Morality believed to be Deontological – Kant

Kant believed morality to be deontological; the word ‘Deon’ when translated is the Greek term for duty. Therefore the deontological argument is based on doing acts because they are good in themself and not based on the consequences or other factors including emotion. Kant supposed that one was able to create a moral system based … Read more

Discourse on Inequality – Jean-Jacques Rousseau

If she intended for us to be healthy, I almost venture to affirm that the state of reflection is a condition contrary to nature, and that the man who meditates is a depraved animal” (Rousseau, Second Discourse 113). Discuss. In his Discourse on Inequality Jean-Jacques Rousseau presents the current state of the enlightened man as … Read more

Morality of Active and Passive Euthanasia

Is there a moral difference between active and passive euthanasia? Rachels believes that there is no moral difference between the two. To start out, Rachels uses a clear example to explain why active euthanasia may be the preferred method. Lets say that there is a patient who is very ill with cancer and can only … Read more

Cogito – Descartes

Descartes presents the Cogito as a means of proving his existence in the meditations. Following his three stages of doubt, Descartes has found himself in hyperbolic doubt, unable to find a single certain truth to build his beliefs upon, until he performs the Cogito in the second meditation. He uses this to argue for his … Read more

Belief behind Festivals

FESTIVAL In Malaysia, the main festival that Chinese culture celebrates is Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival. Chinese New Year is the best festival for Chinese culture, because it is a new year for them and it is a great opportunity for families gathering and enjoys the reunion dinner. Chinese culture will pray to their … Read more