Nicomachean Ethics – Aristotle

Nicomachean Ethics is a book that was written by Aristotle where he explained his definition and standards of ethics. Moral virtue is something that Aristotle believed you learned through practices. He defines it as “a state of character concerned with choice, and choice is deliberate desire,” and “it is this that is concerned with passions … Read more

Explain how Aristotle’s ideas show him to be an ancient philosopher (i.e. in accordance with the ancient world view)

(including that the cosmos serve as a model for human conduct that encourage to seek goodness in life, which is one that Aristotle placed a huge emphasis on) Aristotle’s had a technological approach to goodness and the order of which things should be. He believed that everything had a purpose, and the purpose of everything … Read more

Cogito – Descartes

Descartes presents the Cogito as a means of proving his existence in the meditations. Following his three stages of doubt, Descartes has found himself in hyperbolic doubt, unable to find a single certain truth to build his beliefs upon, until he performs the Cogito in the second meditation. He uses this to argue for his … Read more

Belief behind Festivals

FESTIVAL In Malaysia, the main festival that Chinese culture celebrates is Chinese New Year and Mid-Autumn Festival. Chinese New Year is the best festival for Chinese culture, because it is a new year for them and it is a great opportunity for families gathering and enjoys the reunion dinner. Chinese culture will pray to their … Read more

Freedom of will

The problem of freedom of the will is one that tries to decipher the limits of human freedom. In trying to solve this problem, several questions come to light concerning how to properly designate praise and punishment as well as how to deal with the confusing feelings of guilt and remorse. The question itself is … Read more

Aristotle: Within the Living Thing

Throughout Aristotle’s De Anima, a theoretical relationship between soul and body is gradually developed. In this paper, I will explain how Aristotle characterizes this relationship, as well as the compatibility of his view with the concept of the separability of soul. In doing so, it is also necessary to adequately describe Aristotle’s definition of soul, … Read more


​Plato’s critique of a democratic republic is very apparent. In almost every one of his work he expresses what he thinks the right form of government, and a democratic republic is not very high on his list. One reason why he would not like a democracy is that it killed is friend and mentor, Socrates. … Read more


In class we discussed relativism. We primarily talked about life situations and how to apply relativism. Boghossian’s argument for relativism is a different perspective than what we have discussed previously in class. Boghossian’s argument stems from the three terms moral relativism, moral absolutism and moral nihilism. In all three of these terms Boghossian is able … Read more


The question somehow seems ticklish and behooves a thorough explication of most individual perception of essence being who have desire for/ to be in faith or less obvious feelings submerged in belief force of the conscious mind. In trying to know the mean by which it is done, and this reckoning would have to be … Read more

Underdevelopment and foreign aid

After the Second World War, development economics emerged with the aim of narrowing the gap between developed and underdeveloped through the implementation of foreign aid. While the impact of aid on economic growth has been well-documented, there has been increasing calls to look at the effectiveness beyond the economic growth criterion (Feeny, 2005). Since its … Read more

Natural Moral Law

Formally introduced by the 13th century philosopher Thomas Aquinas, Natural Moral Law (hereon NML) proposes that goodness can be achieved by discovering and acting upon what is natural. Everything has a purpose/telos, and by fulfilling this purpose, it is thought that goodness can be reached. Aquinas builds his argument upon the synderesis rule: “Good is … Read more

Legal status of non-Christians

How did conceptions of human nature influence the ways in which medieval canonists and theologians defined the legal status of non-Christians? Conceptions of human nature were ever-present in medieval discourse from the Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas to the canonistic commentaries of the school of Bologna. The legal, broadly understood here as the ordering of … Read more

Consumer ethics

During the past years, many internationally questioned scandals (e.g. Watergate, the Chernobyl disaster, the Dutroux case, Enron/Arthur Andersen fraud, Kerviel and the SociétéGénérale Banking scandal, Europe horsemeat outrage) have surfaced. These have been the drive to wide-ranging range serious questions about the role of ethics in today’s business and society. Also academicians of the marketing … Read more


Introduction In this paper, I would like to critically reflect and analyze the apparent ocularcentrism, that is, its hierarchical privileging of sight over the other senses, observable in the history of Western culture. To begin with I will attempt to examine the origins of this hegemony of the visual sense. Following which I move on to … Read more

Schizophrenia Crisis

Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that is defined by severely impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviors. Those individuals diagnosed with this illness tend to lose contact with reality and start to experience manifestations such as hallucinations and delusions (Rajesh & Tampi, 2018, p. 82). Psychosis is the main feature of this disorder and can cause an … Read more

Major Depressive Disorder

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by both anhedonia and sustained sadness, and is one of the most common mental health disorders in the United States (APA, 2013). Over a one-year period, an estimated 15.7 million adults living in the United States suffered from at least one episode of MDD (Kessler et al., 2005). Similarly, … Read more

The Philosophy of Childhood

The key aspects of my evolving understanding of childhood can be divided by ideas of the agency, ability, qualities of children. Entering into the semester my ideas about childhood and children were largely informed by literary and cultural norms I had been exposed to, as well as my own experiences with young relatives. The popular … Read more