The Hutton framework

The Hutton framework is a descriptive framework to detail and classify reimbursement systems. Within this framework, two levels can be defined. The first level is the policy implementation level. The main elements of this level are establishment, objectives, implementation and accountability (Hutton et al. 2006). These elements describe how the reimbursement system ‘is embedded in … Read more

Majority rule

Would the people most likely wish for a government where the majority decides what is right for the people, or a single unknowledgeable ruler? If the majority had a strong conscience that would only benefit the government, the society would be able to stay strong and powerful. On the other hand, if a society had … Read more


Anyone can be an advocate. An advocate is someone who publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policy and a person who pleads a case on someone else’s behalf (Oxford Dictionary). There are two main types of advocacy namely individual and collective advocacy. An individual self-advocates on the issues that are specific to them. … Read more

US – Nigerian relations

Introduction No country is self sustained, neither can it dwell in isolation, hence once a state is liberated and attains independence, it legally acquires the administrative capacity to conduct its affairs in relation with other sovereign entities in the international sphere. This consideration is usually in accordance with the priority of the states national interest. … Read more

Winning 'hearts and minds'

INTRODUCTION Winning ‘heart and minds’ it is one of the strategies in psychological operation on counterinsurgency operation. This term has been used in war such as Emergency in Malaya. It became slogan of ‘winning heart and minds’ and be used at many times in commercial advertising campaign. The U.S. Army/ Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual … Read more

Psychological operations (PSYOPs)

Psychological operation or PSYOPs are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to specific audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behaviour of governments, organizations, groups, and individual. It is also can be define as planned psychological activities using methods of communications and other means directed to approved audiences in … Read more

Health reform

In March 2010, President Barack Obama signed the federal health reform into law. The federal health reform consists of the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act also referred to as PPACA. The bill’s key features include the Patient Bill of Rights, expanded insurance coverage, regulated insurance … Read more

Dissertation: Why has democracy failed between 1989 and 1999 in Pakistan?

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Back ground of the study 1.1 Benazir Bhutto Becomes Prime Minister In the 1988 elections, Pakistan People’s Party won 94 seats in the National Assembly without forming any alliance. With the cooperation of 8 M. Q. M. members and 13 members of the Federally Administered tribal Area, the P. P. P. … Read more

A frame work for Citizen Relationship and Grievance Management System (Cir & GMS) through multi-channel access for Government services: The Indian Perspective

A frame work for Citizen Relationship and Grievance Management System (Cir & GMS) through multi-channel access for Government services: The Indian Perspective Abstract: Some industry observers perceive that the primary goal of e-Government is ‘citizen interaction with the Government online. However this is not entirely true. Not all government information and services can be provided … Read more

Democracy and development in Africa – what are the missing links?

Introduction The last two decades of the 20th century witnessed renewed hope about the birth of democracy in Africa. The process was actively supported by most segments of society; labour, students, market women, rural dwellers, and the lumped elements, which saw in it the prospects of reversing the trend of political despair and disillusionment that … Read more

'Mega events'

Introduction This paper will aim to cover the topic of mega events through examining the definition and description of the term by considering the thoughts of academics on the subject matter. The impacts and legacies associated with the occurrence of such events will also be evaluated through reflecting on the thoughts of leading academics and … Read more

The ICT enabled service in the government for the benefit of the public

The purpose of the e-government is to reduce costs for individuals and businesses to deal with government and reach out to a broader part of population and transform public administration from bureaucracy to service providing. According to the United Nations ‘the concept of connected government is derived from the whole-of-government approach which is increasingly looking … Read more


Water is essential of life. It plays a key role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. As the population continues to grow and the economy develops, the competition for water uses between different users intensify, which inducing excessive strain on the environment. Climate change and water pollution further aggravate the situation. Today, 2.8 billion people … Read more

Illegal immigrants

The United States Borders are crossed by thousands of illegal immigrants each year. Not counting the immigrants that come here legally on a Visa, and never renew them. These immigrants come to America in pursuit of the American Dream, ‘happy and free’. Willing to do whatever it takes to acclimate themselves into the American culture … Read more

Homeland Absurdity

Homeland Absurdity In the aftermath of the 9-11 terror attacks, the American people looked to congress to help ensure their safety. The United States Congress responded by quickly passing a bill called Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism, otherwise known as the PATRIOT Act (What is the … Read more