Adopting the ‘cooperative principles’ formulated by Grice (1975), Leech (1983) posits that politeness concerns a relationship between two interactants called ‘self’ and ‘other’. In common conversation, ‘self’ will usually be identified with the ‘speaker’ and ‘other’ will usually be identified with the hearer(s) (Leech, 1989: 131). Leech also highlights two aspects of politeness, namely ‘cost’ … Read more

Effects of media violence

As a counselor, one must become familiar with the science of Statistics as a method for communicating information obtained from a study. Statistics involves the process of collecting, organizing, analyzing, summarizing and interpreting numerical data (‘Statistics,’ n.d.). It is important that counselors become not only cognizant of how to comprehend statistics from research but the … Read more


To measure the Apathy domain, four scales were created: Anxiety, Guilt, Intentionality, and Care. These scales were based on the concepts of Rollo May’s Theory of Personality. According to May (1967) as cited in (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013) Apathy is what people become when they isolate themselves. It is the indifference they feel when … Read more

The Amygdala

Have you ever thought what happens when you make decisions? You might react emotionally, but the critical part of the brain that provides the necessary reaction is the Amygdala .The Amygdala is like a tool, to overcome your fear initially, and to think clearly with reason and logic. Even though the Amygdala is roughly the … Read more

Cognitive development – Piaget, Vygotsky, and Information processing

There are many theories that involve cognitive development. Although these theories are on the same subject, they vary depending on different factors. By carefully studying the textbook and watching the videos, we can make some conclusions on how different and similar these theories on cognitive development are. The three theories that we will be comparing … Read more

Contemporary research of emotion

Nowadays researchers try to look deep in the brain structure to indicate how, where and what triggers emotional response. They found two main brain structures responsible for emotions, different types of emotions and the brain pathways through which emotional response is delivered. Leaders in organizations use those findings so they can understand their emotions better … Read more

Moser et al on interpretation bias in high and low socially anxious individuals

Moser et al (2008) conducted a study, investigating interpretation bias in high and low socially anxious individuals. Participants were assessed for their behavioral responses and brain activity (using Electroencephalogram) to ambiguous sentences ending in positive or negative words. Context The authors build their study on the long-standing research that anxious individuals interpret information in a … Read more

Transactional Analysis

Task 1 Communication and administration are nearly related. Pioneers who are acknowledged to be great ace the craft of communication. By definition a pioneer is one who has an emulating. Notwithstanding the business or calling, a pioneer utilizes correspondence verbally and non-verbally particularly by a good example. That capability to get cross, win trust from … Read more

Sensory perception – accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information

The sensory information in my opinion, can provide an accurate view of the world. It is because people’s lives revolve around senses and thought. There are five senses in living things, they include; sight, touch, taste, smell and hear. People’s thoughts are primarily an interaction with the sensory system. The accuracy of the sensory information, … Read more

Personality Theory and Assessment

Personality is a set of behavior, cognitive, and emotional patterns than makes an individual different from others. Psychologists have proposed many theories to explain the different characteristics of personalities and its development, but the four major theories are the psychoanalytic, humanistic, trait, and social-cognitive theory. 1- Freud’s psychoanalytic theory ‘ Freud stated that unconscious forces … Read more

Erick Erickson’s eight stages of development

Abstract: This paper will discuss the eight stages of development. these eight stages include trust vs untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair. This paper will also discuss the ultimate goals for each one of those … Read more