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Music and spatial task performance

In the October 14, 1993 issue of Nature magazine, UC Irvine researchers Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw, and Katherine Ky published a short, one-page article entitled ‘Music and spatial task performance,’ which detailed their research involving exposing college students to 10 minutes of Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major (K. 448), a relaxation tape, … Read more

Reasoning and perception

Reasoning is done deliberately and effortful, but intuitive thoughts seem to come spontaneously to mind, without conscious search or computation, and without effort. People are not accustomed to thinking hard, and are often content to trust a plausible judgment that quickly comes to mind. Perception is reference-dependent: the perceived attributes of a focal stimulus reflect … Read more

Positive psychology

Positive psychology is defined as the study of the circumstances and processes that add to the thriving or ideal functioning of individuals, groups, and organisations (Gable & Haidt, 2005). The three basic areas of research and practice positive psychology is concentrated on are positive emotions, positive traits and positive institutions. Positive emotions comprises of satisfaction … Read more

Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is the mental anxiety or uneasiness experienced by a person who holds two or more conflicting convictions, thoughts, or values simultaneously, or is defied by new information that conflicts with existing convictions, thoughts, or qualities. It is depicted as the hypothesis that “assumes that to reduce discomfort, we justify our actions to ourselves” … Read more


Adopting the ‘cooperative principles’ formulated by Grice (1975), Leech (1983) posits that politeness concerns a relationship between two interactants called ‘self’ and ‘other’. In common conversation, ‘self’ will usually be identified with the ‘speaker’ and ‘other’ will usually be identified with the hearer(s) (Leech, 1989: 131). Leech also highlights two aspects of politeness, namely ‘cost’ … Read more

Seneca’s conceptualisation and valuation of regret

This thesis explores Seneca’s conceptualisation and valuation of the emotion we call ‘regret.’ Regret, as R. Jay Wallace points out in a recent wide-ranging philosophical analysis of the emotion, seems to us to be ‘utterly familiar and even natural’. Yet Stoic moral psychology has often been held to be insensitive to and dismissive of the … Read more

Effects of media violence

As a counselor, one must become familiar with the science of Statistics as a method for communicating information obtained from a study. Statistics involves the process of collecting, organizing, analyzing, summarizing and interpreting numerical data (‘Statistics,’ n.d.). It is important that counselors become not only cognizant of how to comprehend statistics from research but the … Read more

The link between violent media exposure and violence

Violence is very involute and is caused by many factors, customarily acting together. Belligerent media exposure is not the only risk factor for violence, or even the most consequential factor, but it is not a picayune factor either. Many people cerebrate that bellicose media have no effect because they have never killed anyone after visually … Read more


To measure the Apathy domain, four scales were created: Anxiety, Guilt, Intentionality, and Care. These scales were based on the concepts of Rollo May’s Theory of Personality. According to May (1967) as cited in (Feist, Feist, & Roberts, 2013) Apathy is what people become when they isolate themselves. It is the indifference they feel when … Read more

The Amygdala

Have you ever thought what happens when you make decisions? You might react emotionally, but the critical part of the brain that provides the necessary reaction is the Amygdala .The Amygdala is like a tool, to overcome your fear initially, and to think clearly with reason and logic. Even though the Amygdala is roughly the … Read more

Contemporary research of emotion

Nowadays researchers try to look deep in the brain structure to indicate how, where and what triggers emotional response. They found two main brain structures responsible for emotions, different types of emotions and the brain pathways through which emotional response is delivered. Leaders in organizations use those findings so they can understand their emotions better … Read more

Moser et al on interpretation bias in high and low socially anxious individuals

Moser et al (2008) conducted a study, investigating interpretation bias in high and low socially anxious individuals. Participants were assessed for their behavioral responses and brain activity (using Electroencephalogram) to ambiguous sentences ending in positive or negative words. Context The authors build their study on the long-standing research that anxious individuals interpret information in a … Read more

Transactional Analysis

Task 1 Communication and administration are nearly related. Pioneers who are acknowledged to be great ace the craft of communication. By definition a pioneer is one who has an emulating. Notwithstanding the business or calling, a pioneer utilizes correspondence verbally and non-verbally particularly by a good example. That capability to get cross, win trust from … Read more

Transaction analysis, ego state and strokes

(i) TRANSACTION ANALYSIS Transaction analysis is a theory for analyzing human behavior and communication. It seeks to explain or find out how we (human beings) developed into who we become by understanding everything around us. Transactional analysis was developed by Eric Berne for psychotherapy in the 1950s. The objective of TA is to Provide Better … Read more

Personality Theory and Assessment

Personality is a set of behavior, cognitive, and emotional patterns than makes an individual different from others. Psychologists have proposed many theories to explain the different characteristics of personalities and its development, but the four major theories are the psychoanalytic, humanistic, trait, and social-cognitive theory. 1- Freud’s psychoanalytic theory ‘ Freud stated that unconscious forces … Read more

Erick Erickson’s eight stages of development

Abstract: This paper will discuss the eight stages of development. these eight stages include trust vs untrust, autonomy versus shame and doubt, initiative versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation and integrity versus despair. This paper will also discuss the ultimate goals for each one of those … Read more