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The stages of protein synthesis from DNA

A gene is a segment of DNA which is used for an amino acid sequence which then creates polypeptides. Protein is synthesised through a process in which the DNA is decoded and then the amino acids are then generated from this. This is called gene expression. There are some components needed in order for DNA … Read more


Contents Introduction Synthesis of silver nanoparticles Polyol method Different shapes of AgNPs Properties Therapeutic applications Conclusions and further perspectives References 1.Introduction In the past years, nanoparticles (NPs), mainly those of noble metals, like silver (Ag) or gold (Au) have been the focus of research due to their definite properties: chemical biological physical ones. Due to … Read more

Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a fundamental part of understanding our society, it aids in the discovery of social norms, confirms or refutes different hypotheses about society and is a crucial part of the development of knowledge in modern society. Qualitative research is a method among many others of how we describe and explain our social world, … Read more

Phosphofructokinase Structure and Function

Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is an enzyme of glycolysis which occurs at a critical point, regulating pathways within the third step of the process. PFK catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to fructose-1,6-biphosphate (F1,6BP) by adding a phosphate from ATP, thus creating ADP. The enzyme is sustained allosterically and the △ºG (-14.2 kj/mol) of the reaction is … Read more

Identification of unknown bacteria

Identification of unknown bacteria is a critical part of microbiology. The purpose of the experiment is for students to learn different characteristics of bacteria, construct a proper dichotomous key, carry out tests to differentiate and narrow down bacteria, and use the results to identify two unknown bacteria. By carrying out this experiment, students learn how … Read more

Diversity of life

This essay is a draft and may be incomplete in areas. Pandinus imperator (scorpion) Pheretima praepinguis (Earthworm) Chordates (tiger) Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) Characteristics: Common earthworms are in the phylum Annelid, and their scientific name is . All earthworms are eukaryotic, and they are heterotrophs meaning that they cannot make their own food. This mean that … Read more

The digestive system of earthworms

Nutrition Structures and Mechanisms The digestive system of the earthworm is divided into many different sections, each of which have a certain function. These different digestive systems consist of the oesophagus, the intestine the pharynx, the crop and the gizzard. Food is swallowed by the pharynx as it enters the earthworms mouth, this includes such … Read more

Analysis of ‘Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change’

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to analyze the article; Functional mismatch in a bumble bee pollination mutualism under climate change, for the purpose of examining the authors’ writing style, experimental process/methodology, with the express goal to clarify the article for a variety of audiences, as well as determining the validity of the conclusions … Read more

The importance and success of the printing press within the scientific revolution

The scientific revolution was the arrival of modern science during the early modern period, with significant advances in physics, astronomy and mathematics helping lead to a transformation in societal viewpoints about nature and life itself. With this advancement, the scientific enlightenment emerged, and the Renaissance was born. A radical change in art, science and culture … Read more

Adding tomato and asparagus powders in processed cheese

Abstract: Rheological, chemical and sensory properties of processed cheese fortified with different levels of tomato (1%, 2% and 4% wt/wt) and asparagus (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) powders were analyzed. Both of the powders decreased the pH and lipolysis indexes and increased proteolysis extent of processed cheese. Phenolic and lycopene content and antioxidant activity decreased … Read more


A synthesized BiVO4/TiO2 nanocomposite by hydrothermal method was employed for the removal of MC-LR. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to assess the effects of operating variables (pH, contact time, and catalyst dose) on the MC-LR removal. The coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated 98.7% for the response. The obtained maximum MC-LR removal efficiency was … Read more

Molecular clouds

Abstract Molecular clouds are dark, cold, dense regions of high extinction within the ISM. They confine the majority of the mass in the ISM and these clouds are the primary sites of star formation within the galaxy. Molecular clouds have a characteristic filamentary structure that is omnipresent across the ISM within both star forming regions … Read more

Desalinization: Status and Prospects

Abstract Desalinization was researched for its feasibility as a long-term solution to current and future water demands worldwide. After briefly describing the two primary desalinization processes, thermal processes and reverse osmosis, several environmental and financial issues were evaluated for their impact on the feasibility of desalinization. Specifically, chemical waste disposal, brine effluent disposal, energy consumption, … Read more

Host-Directed Therapies: A New Avenue to Save Lives

Host-Directed Therapy (HDT) is a revolutionary way to boost a patient’s immune system in order to fight different diseases that modern medicine and medical procedures are having trouble with. In this current age, the creation and approval of drugs is an extremely difficult and long process, resulting in a shortage of drugs. Furthermore, most of … Read more

Energy losses in pipes and fittings experiment

The energy losses in pipes and fittings experiment was conducted by Rylan Verge, Alice Huang, Erin Agbay, and William Olmsted. The purpose of this experiment was to develop an understanding of pressure losses in pipe flow. According to the memo, the team is part of a large consulting firm that is tasked with predicting the … Read more

Rate and Order of a Reaction

Theory Much of what surrounds us relies on a few, simple chemical concepts, one of them, whose rules dictate my experiment, is the concept of rate and order of chemical reactions. The question in which my work is based is: how these two things, rate and order of reactions, are affected by both a change … Read more


Past Abstract Wolbachia are a genera of alpha-proteobacteria, and infect the cell cytoplasm of over 80% of Lepidoptera species. The endosymbionts can alter host physiology, causing cytoplasmic incompatibility and female-biased sex ratios. This would reduce the fitness of the host population, and potentially hinder conservation efforts. This would be particularly problematic if virulent strains could … Read more

Aircraft – mathematics

Math SL Internal Assessment Lift and Drag Introduction When you look at aircrafts, they look like they shouldn’t be able to leave the ground because of how big they are. I always watched aircrafts, take off and land, over and over. According to Newton’s Third Law, every action has an equal and opposite reaction, lift … Read more

Euclid’s postulates

Introduction: Thousand of years ago simple mathematics started with simple numbers being added and subtracted, then multiplied and divided. Now today, math has grown into complex functions and theories that are seen everywhere in different types of dimensions. Knowledge in math has greatly advanced since the beginning and Euclid was one of the many mathematicians … Read more

Bisphenol A – BPA

Bisphenol A, also known as BPA, is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant. BPA is a polymerizing agent that is commonly found in items such as plastics, store receipts, dental adhesive, and lining of beverage and food cans.3 Six billion pounds per year are produced worldwide, which is prevalent in aquatic life as well.4 The Environmental Protection … Read more

Colonization of the Americas – genetics

Over the past few decades, genetics has become essential in calculating the arrival time of the first migrations into present day America as well as determining the genetic composition of these first inhabitants. While the archaeological record is demonstrably useful in the reconstruction of migration patterns, a bias exists which poses that the likelihood of … Read more

How to write a science essay

Coming up with a good science essay requires critical analysis of several elements in writing since scientific arguments are different from other disciplines.

However, the steps involved in writing scientific essay is more or less like other paper works involving stages such as planning, thorough research and analysis, making an outline, actual writing, conclusion and work-editing. There are myriads of challenges facing writers in this sector due to the high demands in a scientific paper. Science writing should generally honor accomplishments of science (Roach & Folger, 2011). In this regard, arguments in science should largely be based on facts and data hence it is a requirement that science essay-writers should embrace research work and have multiple facts at hand. This paper, therefore, gives an analysis of various strategies in writing a comprehensive science essay which makes a difference in scientific reasoning. It discusses the various steps in writing and what is essential in each stage. It is an informative paper aimed at improving writing skills in science which is currently running out of professionals.

Planning how to write a science essay

The most critical point in science essays is the planning stage. It is where ideas are generated and the entire outlook of a paper is decided. Moreover, the topic of discussion is also narrowed down in this stage. Given a general topic, researcher should concentrate on the key words in the topic. They are general words from which ideas are generated (Tan, 2001). Planning requires and understanding of the research question in details. A writer should be able to break down a question into several parts and come up with sub-parts that collectively address research question comprehensively. Most importantly, planning should be an advanced course of action, meaning it should take its own special time.

Carrying out research and analysis of findings

Learning how to write a science essay involves a lot of research and analysis. Research involves finding relevant sources of information on which basic facts are argued out. This can be done in the library or on the internet. Internet, specifically, has wide range of information but some can be irrelevant. However, it is easier to explore internet sources than going through books and articles. Moreover, there are online scientific journals which provide comprehensive information about current issues in the world of science. Researchers should, therefore, differentiate between relevant and immaterial sources of information to reduce the risks associated with producing irrelevant scripts (Betts et al., 2005).

Analysis, on the other hand, is putting together the various sources plus information there in, to gain understanding of real context of writing. It further involves getting an assurance that the materials at hand are enough to cover all areas required in research paper. Above all, analysis should enable a writer make some sense out of the sources before beginning actual writing.

The preparation of an outline

This is not as technical as the previous stages, but still involves a broad analysis of what researcher needs to cover. Most essays have three basic sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, writer is at liberty to choose his own outlook depending on his ability to organize thoughts well. If a writer has difficulty in recapping what he analyzed in the research stage, it is important then to organize an outline prior to beginning actual writing. There are no basic rules regarding outlines of scientific essays, it all depends on how logical ideas can be presented.

The actual science essay writing process

It is the main interest in scientific writing since arguments and facts are presented in the actual writing. There are varieties of issues to consider when writing an essay. First, it is at this stage that basic points in an essay are introduced. This implies that writer should be able to present an argument logically and reach a conclusion too (Betts et al., 2005). This is for purposes of organization and producing a well-written essay. It should, therefore, have a logical progress in which facts are presented in the right order. Moreover, in writing, it is important to support all key ideas with relevant data. Studies presented in science writing should not just be cited, but rather, a brief description of its key findings should be given. Science also requires that all nonobvious statements be accompanied by proper references.

In addition, writing should aim at producing a myriad of possibilities and go ahead to perform tests to prove them. The best criteria is rejecting impossible hypotheses rather than accepting real ones. It is the basis of elimination in scientific research and always based on facts. This is a step aimed at accepting or rejecting various hypotheses in science based on quality proofs (Betts et al., 2005). Moreover, science essays should be critical. The facts in each statement should be carefully examined and vague ideas should not be presented at all. In a case where a writer cannot comprehend certain statements, it is important to follow up with a good research. It is in this stage that proper citations and referencing are decided and used. Writers should be familiar with the four basic writing styles; APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. Lastly, writing should be concise, meaning, avoiding use of general statements. Most importantly, technical terminologies not familiar to common psychologists should be avoided or accompanied by their definition.

Writing the conclusion

This stage also involves critical thinking and is not merely a brief summary of points illustrated in an essay. The focus should be broadened at the end of an essay, and use an appropriate last sentence which gives readers/scientists something to ponder about. In addition, it is in the conclusion that writer warns readers about consequences of ignoring scientific findings if it touches on the contemporary society.


It involves cross-checking a piece of work to ensure there are no unnecessary mistakes. The most effective program for editing is grammarly which proof reads and points out mistakes for writer to correct. All grammar mistakes are corrected at this stage and it improves quality of writing.

In conclusion, science essay writing is more challenging compared to writing on other subjects. Science requires a deeper analysis and understanding of facts and does not deal with writer’s opinions. It is important, therefore, to do a lot of research prior to beginning writing in this field and have quality facts at hand. Above all, planning of a science paper is the major determinant of success in writing.


Betts, K., Farquharson, K., & Seitz, A. (2005). Writing Essays and Research Reports in the Social Sciences.Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.

Roach, M., Folger, T., ed. (2011). The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2011: The Best American Series. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Tan, Lyn. (2001). Home Help in Essay Writing. Carlton South Vic, Australia: Curriculum Press.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a science essay‘ guide.