Summary Review of Thomas G. Benedek, “The History of Gold Therapy for Tuberculosis.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, no. 1 (2004): 50-89

Thomas G. Benedek’s article discusses the history of gold therapy as a way to treat patients with pulmonary tuberculosis- that is, how it was introduced, the various clinical studies, and why it was eventually abandoned as a treatment. Benedek’s thesis he attempts to support is that the history of gold therapy illustrates chronic problems found … Read more

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen found generally in humans. “In 1881 S. pneumoniae was discovered by Leo Escolar and was isolated/grown by Louis Pasteur and George Sternberg.” (Cristina Jackson 1) Streptococcus pneumoniae causes multiple diseases, the most common being pneumonia. Other diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae include otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, peritonitis, and sinusitis. … Read more

Reproductive Cloning

In reproductive cloning, a mature somatic cell (like a skin cell) is removed the the animal that is being cloned, the DNA is transferred into an egg cell or oocyte that had its nucleus removed. The dna from the somatic cell can be added to the empty egg in two ways, the first method they … Read more


Vaccines Can you believe that something that is supposed to protect you from diseases can contain harmful substances?Well although vaccines do contain harmful substances they have the right amount of it so they it won’t be so harmful Many people believe vaccines are a really bad thing and that they just cause other horrible things.people … Read more

A Study on Quality of Life

In order to analyze the situation at hand, one must first understand the concept of correlation. A correlation can be defined as the statistical relationship between two variables. In a correlational design, researchers observe how strongly those variables are associated. In the experiment at hand, a positive correlation of r=.6 between time spent volunteering and … Read more


In many cultures, evidence-based medicine is a method which is rarely used, as there are other methods which people believe to be equally, if not more effective at treating their ailments. Around the world, animals have been used as primary methods of medicinal resources. Zootherapy is described to be the healing of human diseases and … Read more

The Trigeminal Nerve

The trigeminal nerve is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. The nuclei of the sensory trigeminal nerve are composed of three parts and cover the entirety of the midbrain, pons, medulla, and into the top of the cervical spinal cord. From rostral to caudal, the nuclei consist of parts in the mesencephalic nucleus, chief sensory … Read more

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system plays a major role in the body. The endocrine system secretes hormones that play a big role in metabolism, growth, and responds to stress. When the body endures stress the body goes through general adaption syndrome (GAS). There are three phases in GAS the first is the alarm phases or also known … Read more

Views on Quantum Physics

The discussion of the way things appear to us and the way they actually are comes down to the visual world and a constructed reality. Virgil is a man who was blind almost from birth but had surgery to remove cataracts and his replace the lens in his eyes; the world after gaining eyesight became … Read more

Modern Scientific in Comparison with the Classic Scientific Method

The classic scientific method can be modified in many ways, specifically due to the fact that we scientists have more tools and technologies available in the present day. The stereotypical scientific method is straightforward: an observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion. In real life, scientific research involves many different paths, especially for geoscientists. Therefore, I propose … Read more

Tiny Motors Can Clean Pollution

In the video Tiny Motors Can Clean Pollution – Headline Science, it is discussed that scientists are currently developing new tiny, soft motors that are run on things such as light magnets and chemical solutions. These new motors are supposed to serve specific functions, like cleaning up pollution. One specific motor, created by a team … Read more

Chemical Reactions

A chemical reactions occurs when two or more molecules in an original substance rearrange and form a new substance. Many chemical reactions are irreversible. Meaning, once the reaction has occurred and created something new, you can not turn it back into the original substance. Chemical reactions are composed by a chemical equation. It starts with … Read more


Neurons. The key component to how we think, feel, and act. If it weren’t for neurons, we would live a senseless and boring life. Luckily, we have no shortage of neurons in our world. With billions of people, and even more animals covering the earth, neurons are everywhere, allowing us to experience the world in … Read more

Nuclear pore complexes

Introduction Nuclear pore complexes (NPC) completes the vital role of channelling molecules between the cytoplasm and nucleus. NPC are aqueous channels formed from a complex network of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as nucleporins. They are roughly cylindrical in shape (Diameter ~120nm, height ~70nm) and embedded into the double membrane known as the nuclear envelope. Typically, … Read more

The Realities of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease has become a growing problem all across the globe. It is the leading cause of dementia; in 60-70% of dementia cases, the patient has Alzheimer’s (Rich Roll Podcast). It is estimated that by the year 250, 135 ½ million people will have Alzheimer’s disease (Rich Roll). With so many people being affected across … Read more

Epilepsy and treatment

Epilepsy is a neurological disease that affects 1.2% of the United States population. For treatment, there were two primary options before responsive brain stimulations. A patient could either receive medication or undergo surgery to remove the origin site of their seizures, or their seizure focus. However, a problem arose after drug-resistant patients had seizures starting … Read more

Cell Metabolism

In the Chapter 3 reading, I found cell metabolism fascinating because I never understood the concept of metabolism; all I knew was that mine is not the same as it used to be when I was in high school. Metabolism is a series of chemical processes in our cells, which allow humans to do a … Read more

Microbial Infections

Microbial infections are considered as the major causes of morbidity and mortality. However, among the causative microbes, bacterial infection is the most prevalent one. Although various antibiotics discovered time to time rescued mankind from different dreadful diseases, the extensive and uncontrolled use of broad-spectrum antibiotics resulted in the development of antibiotic resistance in microbes. Thus, … Read more

Therapeutic antibodies

Therapeutic antibodies are mostly manufactured in mammalian host cell lines including Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, PER.C6 human cells and NS0 murine myeloma cells. The expression system of choice is usually determined by its ability to deliver high productivity with acceptable product qualities. Murine NS0 cells are non-immunoglobulin secreting myeloma cells that require the presence … Read more

Conservation of Mechanical Energy Lab

Abstract In this lab experiment the overall purpose was to prove that energy exists in one way or another, and does not simply disappear. Thus proving the conservation of mechanical energy. Through a test gravitational potential energy using a cart, pulley, and mass hanger we determined the change in energy / change in distance was … Read more

How to write a science essay

Coming up with a good science essay requires critical analysis of several elements in writing since scientific arguments are different from other disciplines.

However, the steps involved in writing scientific essay is more or less like other paper works involving stages such as planning, thorough research and analysis, making an outline, actual writing, conclusion and work-editing. There are myriads of challenges facing writers in this sector due to the high demands in a scientific paper. Science writing should generally honor accomplishments of science (Roach & Folger, 2011). In this regard, arguments in science should largely be based on facts and data hence it is a requirement that science essay-writers should embrace research work and have multiple facts at hand. This paper, therefore, gives an analysis of various strategies in writing a comprehensive science essay which makes a difference in scientific reasoning. It discusses the various steps in writing and what is essential in each stage. It is an informative paper aimed at improving writing skills in science which is currently running out of professionals.

Planning how to write a science essay

The most critical point in science essays is the planning stage. It is where ideas are generated and the entire outlook of a paper is decided. Moreover, the topic of discussion is also narrowed down in this stage. Given a general topic, researcher should concentrate on the key words in the topic. They are general words from which ideas are generated (Tan, 2001). Planning requires and understanding of the research question in details. A writer should be able to break down a question into several parts and come up with sub-parts that collectively address research question comprehensively. Most importantly, planning should be an advanced course of action, meaning it should take its own special time.

Carrying out research and analysis of findings

Learning how to write a science essay involves a lot of research and analysis. Research involves finding relevant sources of information on which basic facts are argued out. This can be done in the library or on the internet. Internet, specifically, has wide range of information but some can be irrelevant. However, it is easier to explore internet sources than going through books and articles. Moreover, there are online scientific journals which provide comprehensive information about current issues in the world of science. Researchers should, therefore, differentiate between relevant and immaterial sources of information to reduce the risks associated with producing irrelevant scripts (Betts et al., 2005).

Analysis, on the other hand, is putting together the various sources plus information there in, to gain understanding of real context of writing. It further involves getting an assurance that the materials at hand are enough to cover all areas required in research paper. Above all, analysis should enable a writer make some sense out of the sources before beginning actual writing.

The preparation of an outline

This is not as technical as the previous stages, but still involves a broad analysis of what researcher needs to cover. Most essays have three basic sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, writer is at liberty to choose his own outlook depending on his ability to organize thoughts well. If a writer has difficulty in recapping what he analyzed in the research stage, it is important then to organize an outline prior to beginning actual writing. There are no basic rules regarding outlines of scientific essays, it all depends on how logical ideas can be presented.

The actual science essay writing process

It is the main interest in scientific writing since arguments and facts are presented in the actual writing. There are varieties of issues to consider when writing an essay. First, it is at this stage that basic points in an essay are introduced. This implies that writer should be able to present an argument logically and reach a conclusion too (Betts et al., 2005). This is for purposes of organization and producing a well-written essay. It should, therefore, have a logical progress in which facts are presented in the right order. Moreover, in writing, it is important to support all key ideas with relevant data. Studies presented in science writing should not just be cited, but rather, a brief description of its key findings should be given. Science also requires that all nonobvious statements be accompanied by proper references.

In addition, writing should aim at producing a myriad of possibilities and go ahead to perform tests to prove them. The best criteria is rejecting impossible hypotheses rather than accepting real ones. It is the basis of elimination in scientific research and always based on facts. This is a step aimed at accepting or rejecting various hypotheses in science based on quality proofs (Betts et al., 2005). Moreover, science essays should be critical. The facts in each statement should be carefully examined and vague ideas should not be presented at all. In a case where a writer cannot comprehend certain statements, it is important to follow up with a good research. It is in this stage that proper citations and referencing are decided and used. Writers should be familiar with the four basic writing styles; APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. Lastly, writing should be concise, meaning, avoiding use of general statements. Most importantly, technical terminologies not familiar to common psychologists should be avoided or accompanied by their definition.

Writing the conclusion

This stage also involves critical thinking and is not merely a brief summary of points illustrated in an essay. The focus should be broadened at the end of an essay, and use an appropriate last sentence which gives readers/scientists something to ponder about. In addition, it is in the conclusion that writer warns readers about consequences of ignoring scientific findings if it touches on the contemporary society.


It involves cross-checking a piece of work to ensure there are no unnecessary mistakes. The most effective program for editing is grammarly which proof reads and points out mistakes for writer to correct. All grammar mistakes are corrected at this stage and it improves quality of writing.

In conclusion, science essay writing is more challenging compared to writing on other subjects. Science requires a deeper analysis and understanding of facts and does not deal with writer’s opinions. It is important, therefore, to do a lot of research prior to beginning writing in this field and have quality facts at hand. Above all, planning of a science paper is the major determinant of success in writing.


Betts, K., Farquharson, K., & Seitz, A. (2005). Writing Essays and Research Reports in the Social Sciences.Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.

Roach, M., Folger, T., ed. (2011). The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2011: The Best American Series. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Tan, Lyn. (2001). Home Help in Essay Writing. Carlton South Vic, Australia: Curriculum Press.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a science essay‘ guide.