Hazardous mycobacteria in the piggery environment

Aims of the study 1) Examination and quantification of environmental samples from piggeries for the presence of hmycobacteria. To develop and apply DNA and rRNA-based methods for the detection of potentially hazardous mycobacteria in the piggery environment. 2) Sequencing (16S rDNA) and typing (RFLP, MIRU-VNTR) of the mycobacterial isolates from porcine origin and compared them … Read more

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac was born on December 6th, 1778 in Saint-Leonard-de-Noblat. He was the eldest of five children born to a well respected lawyer, Antoine Gay, and his wife Leonarde Bourigner. Antoine Gay, who began the habit of calling his family the “Gay-Lussac’s” to attract care to their family estate neighboring St. Leonard. Since a … Read more

Vitamin D3

Background Vitamin D3, a fat-soluble steroid hormone known as cholecalciferol, is critical for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism [1]. Vitamin D3 acts by enhancing calcium absorption and mobilizing calcium from bone, thus helping to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. Endogenous vitamin D is not biologically active, and instead must be metabolized within the … Read more


ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to investigate Turkish elementary school students’ misconceptions and errors in circle and circle theorems . It is necessary to design specific study to determine and examine Turkish elementary school students’ misconceptions and errors in circle and circle theorems. In this research, elementary students’ misconceptions and errors in circle … Read more

Potential influence of mammal species diversity on pathogen prevalence

Introduction Emerging and re-emerging diseases of wildlife increasingly pose threats to animal and human health. Studies across a range of host-pathogen systems indicate that host species’ diversity can regulate the ability for a pathogen to establish Johnson et al. (2015). Studies of natural populations have also examined correlations between the spatial distribution of disease and … Read more

Schrodinger equation

Chapter 1 Introduction ——————————————————————————————————- Two types of empherical observation-discreetness of energy (which are taken place in light matter interaction) and the nature of light as a particle and nature of particle (electron etc.) as a wave (also known as wave-particle duality) motivate towards the quantum mechanics. In 1900 Max Planck postulated that exchange of energy … Read more

Comparative Study Between the Effects of Manure & Weed Composts On The Growth of the Okra Plant (Abelmoschus esculentus)

ABSTRACT The growth of the okra plants, or Abelmoschus esculentus, under different treatments of manure and weed compost was evaluated and studied. The study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness of the organic composts on the growth of the okra plant and conclude which option is more effective. The study used different concentrations … Read more

The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and potassium silicate in alleviating the adverse impact of salt stress in Thevetia peruviana

Abstract The current investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and potassium silicate (K-Si) in alleviating adverse impact of salt stress in Thevetia peruviana. The plants were irrigated with water salinity (0, 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dSm-1 sodium chloride (NaCl) with and without application of AM-fungi or K-Si. Potassium … Read more


BACKGROUND The Cretaceous Period, which began 145.5 ma (Bui et al., 1995) was the final stage of the ‘’Age of Dinosaurs’’. The Cretaceous Period saw some major worldwide events, such as; increased sea floor spreading rates along mid-ocean ridges and the highest marine transgressions of the post- Pangean world (The Mesozoic Era II, 2010). Movements … Read more

Green synthesis of nanoparticles

1. Introduction Nanotechnology was defined as the manipulation of matter via a number of elements and/or real processes to produce components along with specific properties, which can be used in certain application [1]. A new nanoparticle could be defined as a new tiny particle which includes a minimum of one sizing below 100 nanometers in … Read more


More than 150 species of mycobacteria are validly described, and most of them are opportunistic pathogens. All mycobacteria cause risk for human and animal health. Human infections due to environmental mycobacteria are increasing in both industrial and developing countries. The most susceptible risk groups are children, seniors and people or animals with immunosuppressive conditions. Drug … Read more

Plant pigment

Have you ever thought of what makes your lollipop blue? Do you know where all these colors come from? Many of the dyes we use in foods come from plant pigments. Plant pigment is a protein molecule that reflects a certain color of light from the sun. Many products take these pigments and compose them … Read more

Test for Flavonoids

a. Shinoda Test(Magnesium Hydrochloride reduction test): To the test solution add few fragments of Magnesium ribbon add concentrated hydrochloric acid drop wise, pink scarlet, crimson red or occasionally green to blue colour appears after few minutes. b. Zinc Hydrochloride reduction Test: To the test solution add a mixture of zinc dust and concentrated hydrochloric acid. … Read more


1.0. Introduction/Background to the Study Accumulation of organic pollutants can cause serious problems in various environmental compartments due to their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation. Depending on the environmental compartment in which organic compounds are present (e.g. soil, benthic sediments, surface and ground waters), they can undergo slow changes resulting from biodegradation, a major degradation process. … Read more


Spermatogenesis is the development of spermatogonia into spermatozoa and this process takes place in the seminiferous tubule of the adult testis. Three central processes encompasses spermatogenesis: mitotic replication of spermatogonia, meiotic proliferation of spermatocytes, in which genetic material is recombined and segregated, and post-meiotic differentiation into spermatozoa, also termed spermiogenesis (Russell et al., 1990a), (Soares … Read more

Adaptation of plants

Introduction For all varieties of plants to survive they need to have adaptations that allow them to survive in their environment. There are many factors that cause plants to develop adaptations. For some of these adaptations it is known that plants can sometimes change the way they photosynthesise, respire and transpire which can give them … Read more

Comparing the Effect on Activation Energy of Manganese Dioxide and Catalase as Catalysts of Hydrogen Peroxide

Introduction The activation energy of a chemical reaction is the amount of energy required to break apart the bonds of the reactants in order to bring them into a transition state, where they form new bonds to form products releasing energy. A catalyst, whether it is biological or not, provides an alternative route for the … Read more

Amaranthus dubius leaf extract

Amaranthus dubius leaf extract ( Muthukumar et al.,2015), used to synthesis iron nanoparticles because it contains various photochemicals like amaranthine, isoamaranthine, phenols, flavonoids, and lysine that are used as reducing agents(Yizhong et al., 2003; Jannathul et al., 2014). 20 gm of leaves were heated with 100 mL distilled water at 50 °C for 45 min … Read more

Musculoskeletal System

1 Introduction This report covers tasks 1-3 of the musculoskeletal system. Task 1 will cover the identification of the main parts of an adult skeleton, using diagrams and tables there will be details of a long bone and its structure. There will also include an explanation of the different properties of bone and cartilage, and … Read more

Calcium chloride

An unknown compound was discovered in a local landfill. Investigation of the identity of the unknown compound served the purpose to determine the reactivity of the compound and its hazards to the environment to determine if it was safe or toxic for the environment and needed to be removed from the landfill. The goals included … Read more

Cancer – A Study

Introduction Cancer is a class of disease in which group of aberrant cells develop uncontrollably by neglecting the ordinary rules of cell division (Hejmadi, 2010). Cancer is noted to ensue in all communities and in all parts of the world. It disturbs animals and also man. In humans, cancer is recognised to have been present … Read more

How to write a science essay

Coming up with a good science essay requires critical analysis of several elements in writing since scientific arguments are different from other disciplines.

However, the steps involved in writing scientific essay is more or less like other paper works involving stages such as planning, thorough research and analysis, making an outline, actual writing, conclusion and work-editing. There are myriads of challenges facing writers in this sector due to the high demands in a scientific paper. Science writing should generally honor accomplishments of science (Roach & Folger, 2011). In this regard, arguments in science should largely be based on facts and data hence it is a requirement that science essay-writers should embrace research work and have multiple facts at hand. This paper, therefore, gives an analysis of various strategies in writing a comprehensive science essay which makes a difference in scientific reasoning. It discusses the various steps in writing and what is essential in each stage. It is an informative paper aimed at improving writing skills in science which is currently running out of professionals.

Planning how to write a science essay

The most critical point in science essays is the planning stage. It is where ideas are generated and the entire outlook of a paper is decided. Moreover, the topic of discussion is also narrowed down in this stage. Given a general topic, researcher should concentrate on the key words in the topic. They are general words from which ideas are generated (Tan, 2001). Planning requires and understanding of the research question in details. A writer should be able to break down a question into several parts and come up with sub-parts that collectively address research question comprehensively. Most importantly, planning should be an advanced course of action, meaning it should take its own special time.

Carrying out research and analysis of findings

Learning how to write a science essay involves a lot of research and analysis. Research involves finding relevant sources of information on which basic facts are argued out. This can be done in the library or on the internet. Internet, specifically, has wide range of information but some can be irrelevant. However, it is easier to explore internet sources than going through books and articles. Moreover, there are online scientific journals which provide comprehensive information about current issues in the world of science. Researchers should, therefore, differentiate between relevant and immaterial sources of information to reduce the risks associated with producing irrelevant scripts (Betts et al., 2005).

Analysis, on the other hand, is putting together the various sources plus information there in, to gain understanding of real context of writing. It further involves getting an assurance that the materials at hand are enough to cover all areas required in research paper. Above all, analysis should enable a writer make some sense out of the sources before beginning actual writing.

The preparation of an outline

This is not as technical as the previous stages, but still involves a broad analysis of what researcher needs to cover. Most essays have three basic sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, writer is at liberty to choose his own outlook depending on his ability to organize thoughts well. If a writer has difficulty in recapping what he analyzed in the research stage, it is important then to organize an outline prior to beginning actual writing. There are no basic rules regarding outlines of scientific essays, it all depends on how logical ideas can be presented.

The actual science essay writing process

It is the main interest in scientific writing since arguments and facts are presented in the actual writing. There are varieties of issues to consider when writing an essay. First, it is at this stage that basic points in an essay are introduced. This implies that writer should be able to present an argument logically and reach a conclusion too (Betts et al., 2005). This is for purposes of organization and producing a well-written essay. It should, therefore, have a logical progress in which facts are presented in the right order. Moreover, in writing, it is important to support all key ideas with relevant data. Studies presented in science writing should not just be cited, but rather, a brief description of its key findings should be given. Science also requires that all nonobvious statements be accompanied by proper references.

In addition, writing should aim at producing a myriad of possibilities and go ahead to perform tests to prove them. The best criteria is rejecting impossible hypotheses rather than accepting real ones. It is the basis of elimination in scientific research and always based on facts. This is a step aimed at accepting or rejecting various hypotheses in science based on quality proofs (Betts et al., 2005). Moreover, science essays should be critical. The facts in each statement should be carefully examined and vague ideas should not be presented at all. In a case where a writer cannot comprehend certain statements, it is important to follow up with a good research. It is in this stage that proper citations and referencing are decided and used. Writers should be familiar with the four basic writing styles; APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. Lastly, writing should be concise, meaning, avoiding use of general statements. Most importantly, technical terminologies not familiar to common psychologists should be avoided or accompanied by their definition.

Writing the conclusion

This stage also involves critical thinking and is not merely a brief summary of points illustrated in an essay. The focus should be broadened at the end of an essay, and use an appropriate last sentence which gives readers/scientists something to ponder about. In addition, it is in the conclusion that writer warns readers about consequences of ignoring scientific findings if it touches on the contemporary society.


It involves cross-checking a piece of work to ensure there are no unnecessary mistakes. The most effective program for editing is grammarly which proof reads and points out mistakes for writer to correct. All grammar mistakes are corrected at this stage and it improves quality of writing.

In conclusion, science essay writing is more challenging compared to writing on other subjects. Science requires a deeper analysis and understanding of facts and does not deal with writer’s opinions. It is important, therefore, to do a lot of research prior to beginning writing in this field and have quality facts at hand. Above all, planning of a science paper is the major determinant of success in writing.


Betts, K., Farquharson, K., & Seitz, A. (2005). Writing Essays and Research Reports in the Social Sciences.Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.

Roach, M., Folger, T., ed. (2011). The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2011: The Best American Series. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Tan, Lyn. (2001). Home Help in Essay Writing. Carlton South Vic, Australia: Curriculum Press.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a science essay‘ guide.