In a study conducted by Oputa (2008) in Enugu metropolis, to analyse the cost and economic problems associated with educational wastage in schools; a random sample of fifty (50) principals were used for the study. Validated questionnaire for wastage were administered to the subjects and their response noted in tables. Sixty two percent of the principals indicated that government waste financial resources as a result of secondary schools wastages. The study showed that generally, economic problems are associated with some schools. Government waste resources that could be channel to other ministries and most principals are not financial prudent in their money business.
There is great need for government to monitor the money disbursed to schools to ensure goal attainment. Principals should be giving training on financial management while still in service. These will help to reduce wastages in secondary schools in our country. In another study conducted by Bukoye (2006) on factors contributing to educational wastage in public secondary schools in municipality division of Kwara state, found out that there is no significant difference between male and female principals on factors contributing to educational wastage. This is based on the premise that both male and female principals face similar problems on educational wastages.
Okon (2009) in his studies titled ‘cross ethnic study of programme encompassing further education training: Remedy for educational wastages’ it was across the ethnic groups of Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba secondary education. Specifically the study examined the influence of variables such as sex, location and believes on remedy for educational wastages. The study made use of 600 principals, 200 from Ibadan, 200 from Kano and 200 from Enugu. An instrument called education training: Remedy for educational wastages scale (ETREWS) was used to gather data for the study, two hypotheses were postulated. The second hypothesis was on sex. The results showed that difference exist in the education training: Remedy for educational wastages of male and female principals across the ethnic groups with males having more training especially on how to manage educational resources.
Again Akindele (2010) in his study looked at the theoretical frame work of managing educational wastages in Edo State. From the total population of principals, 120 of them consisting of 80 males and 40 females were selected by purposive sampling method. Five hypotheses formulated for the study were analysed using percentage t-test and ANOVA statistics. The result of hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in the perception of educational wastages based on gender was rejected. The implication of this is that there is significant difference in educational wastages of male and female principals on wastages. The conclusion here was that male principals perceived wastages more serious than female principals.
2.4 Summary of Reviews
In summary, the literature highlighted the different definitions of the concept of educational wastages with the researcher paying special attention with the emergence of human capital theory formalized by Schultz (1961) and Becker (1962, 1964). Schultz analyzed educational expenditure as a Form of investment whereas Becker developed a theory of human capital formation and analyzed the rate of return to investment in education and training. The various typologies of educational resources were examined. From the conceptual discourse of literature, the following deductions were made; Strategies: meaning and concept, Wastages: meaning, concept and indicators, Educational resources: meaning concept and types, Strategies for curbing financial wastages in schools, Strategies for curbing human resource wastages in schools, Strategies for curbing infrastructural wastages in schools, Strategies for curbing school dropouts in schools and Strategies for curbing the failure rate in schools.
Empirical data have proven that the effect of educational wastages on government and house hood are on the increase. Wastages are not pleasant to the scarce resource of every given society and this constituted waste might be traced to not planning in advance, thus many principals are faced with problems ranging from finance to financial management ideas.
From the reviewed literature, it was evident to the best of my knowledge that little or nothing has been done in the area of Strategies for curbing financial wastages in schools, Strategies for curbing human resource wastages in schools, Strategies for curbing infrastructural wastages in schools, Strategies for curbing school dropouts in schools and Strategies for curbing the failure rate in public secondary schools in Rivers State, thereby creating a missing gap in knowledge which this study intends to fill empirically. The researcher concludes that there is need for adequate training, planning and supervision of resources to curb educational wastages.
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