Essay: Behavior of structures (Page 2 of 2)

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  • Subject area(s): Engineering essays
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  • Published on: September 4, 2019
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It also having three types but hear we are using resistance so we will explain about resistance type only. Others name are as follows.

• Inductance type

• Capacitance type

• Resistance type

These strain gauges works on the principal that they amplify the mechanical deformation or change of structural component in electrical output. It may be of any type in impedance or resistance. It consists of a conductor circuit in its structure attached with component. So when conductor is starched or compressed it results change in resistance of conductor because cross sectional area of conductor got change either increased or decreased. Change in resistance per unit strain is known as gauge factor which indicates about the sensitivity of strain gauge. There different types of strain gauges are available are as follows.

• Un-bonded wire strain gauge

• Bonded wire strain gauge

• Foil strain gauge

• Weldable strain gauge

Un-bonded wire strain gauge

This type of strain gauge gives electrical signal output of relative displacement of one body to another body. It consists of a stationary frame and a movable platform and pins made of insulated material are in those pins loops of wire are wounded which are in pretension. So when component is elongated or contracted the relative movement between frame and platform will occurs and tension in loops get alters after that this is connected with for arm wheat stone bridge for the accuracy purpose. These type of strain gauges are also used for the measurement of force pressure acceleration etc.

Un-bonded wire strain gauge

Bonded wire strain gauge

it consists of wire bonded around a core which is sandwiched between two insulating layers. Sometimes core is flattened this then this is called Flat-grid strain gauge type is also sub divided into three another types.

• Wrap-around wire strain gauge

• Flat-grid strain gauge

Bonded wire strain gauge

Weldable strain gauge

They are mainly invented due to ease in installation working principal is same as that of other resistance based strain gauges. There installation is easy. And they can work in any environment. It consists of strain sensitive material and stain component is highly insulated by compacted ceramic. Stain gauge is spot weld on structural component and when structure is stressed the stress get transmitted through weld into strain tube. These types of strain gauges also have dynamic application.

Weldable strain gauge

Foil strain gauge

This type of strain gauge consisting of a membrane of larger width as compare to its thickness and it is made up of strain sensitive material and principal is same means when structural component is strained foil also experiences strain and its resistance get changed. A suitable cementing material should also be required for bonding of strain gauge with structural component.

The strain gauge which we are using is of foil type having following specification

Resistance – 120 ohm and 350 ohm lead attached

We have also used wheat stone bridge system for better accuracy purpose.

Wheat stone bridge

It’s an arrangement of resistances used for achieving greater accuracy in measurement. It consists of two resistances connected in series an again they connected parallel with another two resistance of same resistance value.

Load Cells & Digital Load Indicators

As the name suggests it is an electromechanical device or equipment used to read the value of load is called load cell gives the value of load in digital format. It can be say that it’s a transducer as it converts mechanical forces into the form of electrical energy or signals .Its basic principal of working is based on the strain gauges. The internal structure or sensing system of load cell consists of a Wheatstone full bridge system of strain gauges. So when load is applied then the strain in strain gauges will increases linearly because of another principal hook’s law and because of that resistance will also increasing linearly with the deformation. There are so many different types of load cells are available according to different criteria’s as follows.

• According to construction material

• Aluminum load cell

• Tool steel load cell

• Stainless steel load cell

• According to external structure and working

• Canister type

• Single ended beam type

• Double ended beam type

• Cantilever beam type

• S-beam type

• Platform type

Hear we used a canister type of load cell having capacity of 50 ton or 500 KN shown bellow.

Displacement Transducers (LVDT)

Displacement transducer name LVDT expands and form linear variable differential transducer.

We also require some more instruments which are not have any electronic phase

Name as

• Loading frame

• Hydraulic Jack

• Tool kit etc.

Loading frame

We have given its brief introduction earlier. And our loading frame having following specifications.

Firstly sectional properties of beam-

• Depth of the section h = 600 mm

• Width of the flange bf = 210 mm

• Thickness of the flange tf = 20.8 mm

• Thickness of the web tw = 12 mm

• Radius at root r1 =20 mm

• Depth of web d = h- 2(tf + r1) = 518.4 mm

• Section Modulus Ze= 3060.4 x 103 mm3

• Plastic Modulus Zp = 3510.63 x 103 mm3

• . Weight per Meter W = 1202.71 N/m

• Capacity of frame=500 KN

Specifications of stiffeners

• ISLC 75 section

Loading frame

Hydraulic Jack

It’s a setup in which we can apply large mechanical loads with help of a suitable hydraulic arrangement. Consists of a pressure gauge with analog dial, piston, cylinder, oil filling and exit arrangement and a lever by which we can apply pumping force and it also have a release valve to remove or to release pressure.

The hydraulic jack we used having maximum capacity to apply load of 50 ton or 500 KN its least count is 2 KN and it also have locking arrangement for lever pump.

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