Abstract: Buses are the most popular mode of public transport provided by Indian government. It is urgent requirement for public transport corporations to provide user friendly and less complicated service so that large number of people will make use of it for their day today life which results in high revenue. The current ticketing system in buses uses paper based format. Use of wireless technologies like Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Global Positioning System (GPS) resulted in faster communication. This paper proposes a suitable ticket fare collection system by combining both of the above mentioned technologies.
Keywords- public transport, RFID, GPS, ticket fare collection
Now a day’s buses are the most popular mode of public transport. Still in many urban and rural areas people are using substandard vehicles. The use of these vehicles is not safe as well as it leads to vehicular pollution. Therefore it is felt that there is an urgent requirement for public transport corporations to provide user friendly and less complicated service. The conventional system of public transport is based on paper based bus tickets that ultimately lead to argument between people, corruption that is responsible for a huge wastage of time. There is no any government authority to take control over the whole system.
The traffic is increasing day by day which leads to traffic congestion and pollution, particularly in peak time period. The best solution to this problem is presented in .So Buses which are low cost and high carrier loading and coverage of lines can effectively relieve the transportation crowding and play positive action on the energy saving and emission reduction. Ultimately Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) will simply improve safety, security, efficiency and comfort of the transport system and the environment . Therefore there is an important role for public awareness programs to show transport users how they can enjoy increased safety and security, better information, greater convenience and reduced journey times and how populations can enjoy healthier environments produced by sustainable mobility. Similarly System proposed in uses wireless sensor network which provides lost cost, highly reliable and highly stable intelligent public transportation system which solves the problems of energy saving, localization and communication distance.
II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
The system consists of various parts as shown in fig.1.
Figure 1.Overview of total system.
The proposed design for bus ticket fare collection consist PIC microcontroller, RFID reader, GPS module, keypad and local LCD display which is installed on door of bus. All the stations of specific bus routes and their appropriate fares are stored as a database in PIC microcontroller’s EEPROM memory. All passengers are supplied with RFID cards which hold the available balance in rupees. When bus reaches bus stop, passenger has to enter his destination location with the help of keypad provided. Then depending on current location from GPS and destination location entered by passenger, appropriate fare is deducted from the card and the available balance is displayed on the local LCD screen.
III. HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT
A. PIC microcontroller:
The core of this system is PIC microcontroller which is interfaced to various components such as keypad, LCD, door drive circuitry with door. This system uses PIC 18f4520 as a controller to perform the controlling action.PIC 18f4520 is having special features such as
‘ 32KB of ROM
‘ 36 I/O lines
‘ 256 bytes of EEPROM
‘ Wide operating voltage range between 2V-5.5V
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that uses radio waves to automatically identify and track item, wild lives, or person by using tags that are applied or incorporated on them. The RFID technology was first used in World War II. Sir Alexander Watson-Watt used this technology to develop Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system. The transceiver was fitted on every British aircraft, which responded to radar signals from ground by transmitting an identification signal in the opposite direction. The tracking and ticketing systems using RFID can be used to solve the existing problems ,. Since the GPS system can also be merged, we propose the tickets based on RFID for its low cost, ease to access, user friendly, reliability, durability and portability.
Figure 2.Basic RFID system
Fig.2 shows basic two components of RFID system.
‘ RF tag:
Radio Frequency (RF) tags or transponders: It is located on the object to be identified; Transponders may be either active or passive. Active transponders have an on-tag power supply (such as a battery) and actively send an RF signal for communication while passive transponders obtain all of their power from the interrogation signal of the transceiver and either reflect or load or modulate the transceiver’s signal for communication. Generally both the types of tags communicate only when they are interrogated by a transceiver.
‘ RF reader:
RF tag readers, or transceivers: It sends a signal to the tag and read its response. Depending upon the design and the technology used, it may be a read or write/read device. The transponders themselves typically consist of integrated circuits connected to an antenna. The readers generally transmit their observations to a computer system running RFID software or RFID middleware.
The working principle of RFID system is that the reader puts the signals to be sent into a carrier signal with a certain frequency after encoding. And then the signals will be sent out by antenna. When the pulse signals are received by tag which works within the scope of reader, the circuit in the chip will do some work like modulating, decrypting, and decoding.
Since the RFID systems have various advantages as compared with other identification systems, these systems may have capability to inhibit upcoming new fields such as the use of contactless smart cards as tickets for short distance public transport
GPS stands for Global Positioning System which was established by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) to provide real time navigation system for US military. GPS is a technique of locating target in three dimensional aspects anywhere on the earth. The GPS operational configuration consists of 24 satellites which orbit around the earth at the altitudes of approximately 11,000 miles in precise orbits twice a day. The frequencies broadcast by GPS satellites are derived from a fundamental frequency of 10.23 MHz. GPS satellites emit continuous navigational signals and these GPS transmissions are line-of-sight transmissions. These GPS satellites consist of inbuilt clocks, transmit radio signals which contain their exact location, time, and other information. These signals from the satellites are monitored and corrected by control stations, are received by GPS receiver.
GPS data is received in different NMEA (National Marine Electronics Association) standard message formats over a serial interface.GPS sentences always begin with the following specifications: $GPGGA, $GPGLL, $GPGSA, $GPGSV, $GPRMC, $GPVTG as shown in table.I.Most of GPS receivers use NMEA 0183 standard for message reception. The ‘send’ device and ‘receive’ device should have same setting so as to transfer the NMEA data. The NMEA standard is formatted in lines of data called sentences. Every sentence is a group of data bits separated by commas.
Table I.NMEA standard formats
$GPGGA: Global positioning system fixed data
$GPGLL: Geographic position latitude / longitude
$GPGSA: GNSS DOP and active satellites
$GPGSV: GNSS satellites in view
$GPRMC: Recommended minimum specific GPS data
$GPVTG: Course over ground and ground speed
IV. SYSTEM FLOWCHART
Fig.3 shows the flowchart of the entire process.
V. RESULT AND ANALYSIS
The simulation part is developed using Proteus Professional 7.Fig.4 shows simulation result.
Figure 4.Simulation Result
As mentioned earlier to get the location information, GPS is used and its testing on the hyper terminal is shown in the fig. 5 and fig.6
Figure 5. ‘A’ in GPRMC field indicates valid data
Figure 6.’V’ in GPRMC field indicates invalid data
In this paper we discussed and developed automated ticket fare collection system for buses which is based on PIC microcontroller. In traditional approach of ticketing systems, hand held machines are provided to the conductors for fare calculation. So earlier system is time consuming and pollutes environment as people throw used tickets anywhere. Real time solution for ticket fare collection system overcomes the traditional approach and provides flexibility and reliability. The proposed system deducts fare directly from RFID card and sends data to server. With this it is possible to calculate the number of people travelling through bus. The total system has low cost and takes accurate & reliable measurement.
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