Essay: Dubai’s Environmental Improvement Plan Study

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  • Dubai's Environmental Improvement Plan Study
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1 CONTENTS
2 Introduction 2
2.1 The Paris Agreement 2
2.2 U.A.E.’s Commitments 2
2.3 Ongoing Initiatives 3
2.3.1 Components of Sustainability Efforts 3
2.3.2 Green Building Regulations and Specifications in 2011 & Dubai Strategic Plan 2015 4
2.4 Future Initiatives 5
2.4.1 Dubai Expo 2020 5
2.4.2 The Dubai Plan 2021 5
2.4.3 Dubai Integrated Energy Strategy 2030 (DIES) 6
2.4.4 Dubai Clean Energy Strategy 2050 7
3 Dubai Carbon Centre of Excellence 8
3.1 Background 8
3.2 Goals 8
3.3 Hotel industry 9
3.4 CO2 Emission Factors 10
4 Case Study: The Jumeirah Group Dubai 10
4.1 Background 10
4.2 Choice for Comparison 10
4.2.1 Dubai 10
4.2.2 The Maldives 10
4.3 Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai 11
4.3.1 About 11
4.3.2 Sustainability Efforts 11
4.3.3 Potential to Improve 16
4.4 Jumeirah Vittaveli, Maldives (JMV) 17
4.4.1 About 17
4.4.2 Sustainability Efforts 17
4.4.3 Future Plans 21
4.4.4 Potential to Improve 21
5 Conclusion 22
6 Resources 23
6.1 Appendices 23
6.2 Other References 23

2 INTRODUCTION
2.1 THE PARIS AGREEMENT
“As more and more of us become carbon neutral and change the patterns in our lives to be part of the solution instead of part of the problem, we are now beginning to see the changes in policy that are needed.”1 Al Gore, former Vice President of the United States (1993–2001). Nobel Peace Prize Winner 2007 with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
The message of scientists and climate change visionaries has finally resonated with the global governments and culminated in the signing of the Paris Agreement in October 2016.
“The Paris Agreement’s central aim is to;
– strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change
– strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change.
Additionally, The Paris Agreement requires all Parties to put forward their best efforts through “nationally determined contributions” (NDCs) and to strengthen these efforts in the years ahead. This includes requirements that all Parties report regularly on their emissions and on their implementation efforts.”2

2.2 U.A.E.’S COMMITMENTS
In line with these directives the UAE has set forth an ambitious and progressive agenda. In particular, the “strategy of economic diversification” from a predominantly oil based economy to one that “… will pursue a portfolio of actions, including an increase of clean energy to 24% of the total energy mix by 2021.”3
As a consequence, the Emirate of Dubai has embraced the commitments of the UAE under The Paris Agreement by setting out its own radical agenda.

2.3 ONGOING INITIATIVES
Dubai has had a focus on issues such as energy diversification and environmental sustainability for some years, it is now aggressively pursuing its agenda through the establishment of several strategies and formation of institutions to implement such strategies.
2.3.1 Components of Sustainability Efforts

2.3.2 Green Building Regulations and Specifications in 2011 & Dubai Strategic Plan 2015

2.4 FUTURE INITIATIVES
2.4.1 Dubai Expo 2020

2.4.2 The Dubai Plan 2021
The Dubai Plan 2021 encompasses six strategic pillars, with “A Smart & Sustainable City” as a major component affirming Dubai’s commitment to sustainability “…. the importance of sustainability in managing against Dubai’s future growth by ensuring the availability of clean energy sources and protecting natural resources such as soil, water, and air, and promoting sustainable consumption….”
Most significantly the Dubai Plan 2021 reaches out to the community, “Dubai Plan 2021 is a plan for everyone. It impacts the lives of everyone living in Dubai or visiting it for business or pleasure. Similarly, we each have a part to play in achieving its objective.”5 This recognizes that the participation of all Dubai residents, whether Emirati or expatriates, and businesses is essential for Dubai to accomplish its 2021 objectives.

2.4.3 Dubai Integrated Energy Strategy 2030 (DIES)

2.4.4 Dubai Clean Energy Strategy 2050

3 DUBAI CARBON CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE
3.1 BACKGROUND
In 2011 the government of Dubai had already implemented strategies to move the country towards a low carbon emission economy, a major component was the establishment of Dubai Carbon Centre of Excellence (Dubai Carbon), setup in agreement between the United Nations Development Program and Dubai Supreme Council of Energy.
3.2 GOALS
Dubai Carbon’s objective is to incentivize industry by demonstrating that environmentally sustainable solutions can monetize a liability, for example the conversion of wet food waste into “biosolid fuels.”

3.3 HOTEL INDUSTRY
Since its inception Dubai Carbon has managed to successfully involve the private sector in environmentally sustainable practices, particularly the tourism and hospitality industry which accounts for about 20% of Dubai’s economy.
The Government of Dubai’s efforts in conjunction with its institutions such as Dubai Carbon have contributed to positive results. As shown below;

3.4 CO2 EMISSION FACTORS
Activities taken into consideration when calculating CO2 emissions:
Electricity Consumption (kWh)
District Cooling Energy Consumption (kWh)
Utility Water Consumption (imperial gallon)
Waste Sent to Landfill (kg)
Petrol Consumption for Generators (liters)
Diesel Consumption for Generators (liters)
Petrol Consumption for Vehicles (liters)
Diesel Consumption for Vehicles (liters)
Refrigerants Usage (kg)*
CO2 in Fire Extinguishers (kg)
LPG Consumption (kg)
4 CASE STUDY: THE JUMEIRAH GROUP DUBAI
4.1 BACKGROUND
The Jumeirah Group Dubai established in 1997 is a fairly recent entrant to the hospitality industry. Some 20 years later is has become a well-known and established global brand with over 22 luxury hotels and resorts in its portfolio, which operate over 6,000 luxury rooms, numerous restaurants and spas, in addition to a waterpark, academy, and loyalty program. The importance of a large corporate, such as Jumeirah, working towards enhancing environmentally sustainable efforts cannot be emphasized enough, as the UAE maintains one of the highest carbon footprints per capita among high-income, non-OECD countries (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development).
4.2 CHOICE FOR COMPARISON
The Jumeirah Group successfully operates several luxury properties in Dubai as well as in The Maldives. Both countries face numerous and distinctive environmental challenges.
4.2.1 Dubai
Dubai’s geography is challenging to say the least; characterized by vast areas of arid desert, infrequent rain, and high temperatures, this makes Dubai vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Rising global temperatures coupled with rising sea levels are a direct threat to a coastal urban city such as Dubai.
Over the last 30 years Dubai has rapidly evolved from a traditional subsistence economy reliant on fishery, oasis agriculture and livestock grazing into the fastest growing city in the world. Such rapid urbanization has created various problems; pollution, depletion of groundwater, poor waste management, high energy demands due to; energy intensive processes such as water desalination, industrial and tourism energy consumption.
Dubai’s tourism sector is set for rapid expansion, aiming to attract 20 million visitors by 2020, which poses massive challenges to environmental sustainability in this Emirate as a hotel in Dubai produces about double the carbon emissions as compared to a European counterpart.
4.2.2 The Maldives
Much like Dubai, the geography of The Maldives, lowest lying country in the world, places it in grave danger due to climate change. A country comprising of nearly two thousand islands in the Indian Ocean, only about two hundred of which support a population of approximately 340,000 and the population is growing, as is the demand for energy with few natural resources to support such growth. The Maldives faces other challenges; high population density, poverty, and poor communication channels, and near total dependency on imports such as fossil fuels, large quantities of which are needed to support its primary source of income, tourism, and fisheries.
The Maldives is responsible for approximately 0.003 % of global CO2 emissions, but due to climate change and its adverse effects this country is in danger of being wiped out. The government of The Maldives understands that the countries survival depends on mitigating the extreme effects of climate change. Sadly, a lack of finances severely hinders its efforts, hence there is a need for the affluent, high CO2 polluting countries, to assist in every way possible.
4.3 MADINAT JUMEIRAH, DUBAI
4.3.1 About
The Madinat Jumeirah Luxury Resort covers over 40 hectares of land, is ideally located on a two kilometer stretch of private beach, includes four luxury hotels interconnected by five kilometers of canals and landscaped gardens. The resort has over 1000 rooms, 90 boutiques, 2 grand ballrooms, 1000 seat theatre, 44 bars and restaurants, spa with 26 treatment rooms, fitness center, tennis courts, squash courts, a waterpark and over 15 swimming pools.
4.3.2 Sustainability Efforts
4.3.2.1 Green Globe Certification
In 2014 Madinat Jumeirah received the international Green Globe Certification for sustainable tourism, so recognizing Jumeirah’s commitment to making a positive impact on the environment.
“The Green Globe certification is a structured assessment of the sustainability performance of travel and tourism businesses and their supply chain partners. Businesses can monitor improvements and document achievements leading to certification of their enterprises’ sustainable operation and management.”
Continuous improvement in sustainable practices, as outlined in Green Globes “Standard Criteria and Indicators”, is required to maintain the Green Globe Certification. This is achieved through an annual review which must demonstrate that more than 50% of targets set the previous year have been achieved.
Madinat Jumeirah has worked actively to implement the guidelines as laid out by Green Globe and has demonstratively succeeded in certain areas of its operations.
4.3.2.2 Strategies Implemented to Achieve Sustainable Targets
Madinat Jumeirah targets were designed according to the guidelines laid out under the Green Globe Certification Criteria.
A. Sustainable Management Policy
A first step was to create a sustainable management plan (SMP) which requires the establishment of a dedicated environmental team to oversee the implementation of the SMP’s target/KPIs (Key Performance Indicators). and provides a broad policy statement; with regard to ALL aspects of sustainability. (Appendix 1)

“Environment- We aim at protecting the environment in particular sea, coast and landscaping, while implementing strong continuous plans for energy and water saving, through the use of the best resource available. (Figure 1)
Social- We aim at providing Exhilarating experience to our community to increase their wellbeing and capacity building (personal education) potential.
Culture- To be an Ambassador of the Emirati culture and offer cultural connections to our colleagues, guest and local communities.”

Figure 1 – Targets/KPIs

B. Social/Economic
C. Cultural Heritage
Policies with regard to both these criteria are laid out as part of Madinat Jumeirah’s Corporate Social Responsibility Policy. (Appendix 2)
D. Environmental Policy
A policy document was created to clearly set out Madinat Jumeirah Environmental Policy and identifying the main areas focus. (Appendix 3)
SOLID WASTE – PAPER, CARDBOARD, PLASTIC, GLASS, ALUMINUM CANS AND HAZARDOUS WASTE
Recycling
Madinat Jumeirah recycling centers located at the Al Qasr receiving areas, in partnership with DULSCO;
– recycle large quantities of paper, cardboard, glass, plastic, and aluminum cans;
– measure and document quantities daily to benchmark.
– sort at source
– use only bio degradable bags
– collect and recycle all printer cartridges and photo copier toner bottles.
Global Purchasing Policy/ Sustainable Development
Contractors will be asked to;
– reduce packaging
– provide chemicals that are less damaging to the environment and take back or buy back if not used.
Fair Trade/Organic
– preference to local produce
– sustained foods inclusive of fish, meats, fruits, flowers, materials and forna etc

UTILITY USAGE – WATER AND ELECTRICITY
Implementation of water saving measure in all areas
Maintain landscaped gardens;
– irrigation using treated effluent water
– select only local trees and forna for landscaping.
– reduce the usage of non-essential lighting wherever possible.

GENERAL
– Reduce overall Madinat Jumeirah carbon emissions from previous years annual carbon footprint report.
– Ask Tenants and contractors to provide an Environmental Impact Assessment to better understand the overall effect of Madinat Jumeirah on the Environment.

In accordance with the main areas of focus in The Environmental Policy, Madinat Jumeirah has taken the following initiatives;
Bottle Crushers
Three Mega Jaw bottle crushers reduce glass bottles into “cullets” which can 100% be used to manufacture new bottles reducing the impact on the environment because;
– stops landfill pollution by recycling 80% of the volume of waste from glass bottles
– the crushed glass is recycled at local glass factories, becomes a valuable commodity
Reducing;
– CO2 emissions, as reduced volume of glass entails fewer truck collections
– waste glass management and disposal costs
– noise pollution
– energy costs by 40%
– water pollution by 50%
– accumulative GHG by 41%

Composting Machine
In 2015 Dubai produced 3.27 million tons of food waste., making a composting machine a valuable addition to a commercial enterprise such as a hotel or restaurant, where large quantities of food waste are created.
At Madinat Jumeirah a single Green Good /Oklin Composter (GG300s) reduced food waste by 80% – 90% and converts up to 800 kg/ day or 300 tons/ year of wet food to compost, whereas previously approximately 2 tons/month of food waste was being sent to the Dubai landfill.
This process has several advantages;
– the composter produces “soil” which can be used as fertilizer and 2.1tonnes of composted waste per month is used to fertilize the resort’s gardens.
– saving in waste management costs
– reduces CO2 by eliminating transportation to landfills

Oil Filtration System – Vito 50
This oil filtration system cleans oil and doubles its life cycle and results in oil consumption dropping by approximately 40%, thereby reducing both cost and waste.
Once the oil can no longer be used in the kitchen, its recycled and converted to biodiesel, eliminating disposal costs.

Transesterification of Vegetable Oils

Transesterification is a chemical reaction used for the conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel. In this process vegetable oil is chemically reacted with an alcohol like methanol or ethanol in presence of a catalyst like lye. After the chemical reaction, various components of vegetable oil break down to form new compounds.
The triglycerides are converted into alkyl esters, which is the chemical name of biodiesel. If methanol is used in the chemical reaction, methyl esters are formed, but if ethanol is used, then ethyl esters are formed. Both these compounds are biodiesel fuels with different chemical combinations. In the chemical reaction alcohol replaces glycerin.
Glycerin that has been separated during the transesterification process is released as a byproduct of the chemical reaction. Glycerin will either sink to the bottom of the reaction vessel or come to the surface depending on its phase. It can be easily separated by centrifuges, and this entire process is known as transesterification.
The biodiesel produced by the process of transesterification has much lower viscosity, which makes it capable of replacing petroleum diesel in diesel engines. 6
This process has several advantages;
– converts a waste product to an environmentally friendly and commercially viable commodity
– biodiesel is biodegradable
– reduction of GHG emissions
– obtained from a renewable source, vegetable oil or animal fats
Other Initiatives
– Electrolyzing Water System; chemical free method of sanitizing foods, utensils, and kitchen.
– Room Management System; guests control energy consumption from an iPad.
– Farmers Market; encouraging and supporting local food production thereby reducing emissions from long-haul transportation.
– Save Water Awareness; within work areas.
– NTA (nitrilotriacetic) or Chlorine Free Detergents; biodegradable.
– Biodegradable Packaging

4.3.2.3 Reduction of CO2 Emissions & Sustainability Management Plan (SMP)
The SMP 2014 set out the targets/KPIs for the period 2014 to 2016 (Appendix 1) and these have been achieved, as evidenced by a 31% reduction of CO2 emissions by three of the main resort hotels.
DATE AVERAGE tCO2
2016 44,666
Jan 2017 – August 2017 23,333

4.3.3 Potential to Improve
– Winnow Food Management System; which can measure the waste and compile data to inform chefs of the times and types of waste.
– Solar Panel Installation; as energy usage contributes to 60% of a hotels carbon footprint.
– Water Audit; after energy water consumption, sustainable water consumption is extremely important.
– Restaurant Management System; monitor what the guests at hotel restaurants tend to order.
– On-Site Garden; organic produce grown on site.
– Ozone laundry System; can eliminate hot water, almost all warm water, waste water volume, and reduce laundering cycles. Fewer chemicals are required and linen and towel life is extended. Drying times can be reduced producing less heat. ozone reverts back to pure oxygen after it is used, there are no chemical residues.
– Grey Water Recycling Program; reduces the use of fresh water, which in Dubai is energy intensive due to de salination process, and reduction of water costs.

4.4 JUMEIRAH VITTAVELI, MALDIVES (JMV)
4.4.1 About
The resort comprises 89 (one or two bedrooms) villas and suites each with their own swimming pool and direct access to the beach or lagoon and 5-bedroom (14 guests) Royal Residence occupies its own stretch of beach, includes 2 private pools, spa, gym, a full-scale restaurant, and private overwater bar.
Jumeirah Vittaveli provides extensive leisure and wellness facilities including a 5-star PADI dive center, award-winning Talise Spa and Talise Fitness, kid’s club, large resort pool, four restaurants and bars.
4.4.2 Sustainability Efforts
Sea level increases pose a definite threat to the existence of a coral atoll like the Maldives but what is unclear is how long the process will take. The survival of the Maldives depends on international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. This in turn, places a greater responsibility on the hospitality industry to find new and effective methods to mitigate the effects of climate change.
The government of the Maldives has stipulated that each resort island must generate its own electricity, provide its own fresh water, and dispose of its own waste, whilst addressing the problems of beach erosion and the impact of guest activities such as snorkeling and diving.
There are positive indicators that the hospitality industry is taking the threat of climate change seriously and working towards solutions to making tourism in the Maldives more sustainable.
4.4.2.1 Green Globe Certification
Jumeirah Vittaveli first achieved Green Globe certification in 2015 and has been re certified again this year, for a third time.
Green Globe is affiliated to the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and is the worldwide sustainability system based on internationally accepted criteria for sustainable operation and management of travel and tourism businesses.
“The Green Globe certification is a structured assessment of the sustainability performance of travel and tourism businesses and their supply chain partners. Businesses can monitor improvements and document achievements leading to certification of their enterprises’ sustainable operation and management.”
Continuous improvement in sustainable practices, as outlined in Green Globes “Standard Criteria and Indicators”, is required to maintain the Green Globe Certification. This is achieved through an annual review which must demonstrate that more than 50% of targets set the previous year have been achieved.
The third re certification validates JMV’s efforts with regard to environmental initiatives and much like Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, JVM has worked actively to implement the guidelines as laid out by Green Globe and has demonstratively succeeded in certain areas of its operations.
4.4.2.2 Strategies Implemented to Achieve Sustainable Targets
JMV targets were designed according to the guidelines laid out under the Green Globe Certification Criteria.
A. Sustainable Management Plan
A first step was to create a sustainable management plan (SMP) which provides a broad policy statement; with regard to all aspects of sustainability. In accordance with the SMP, JMV undertakes to carry out its operations in an environmentally sustainable manner while ensuring the long-term profitability of the hotel.
Sustainability is defined as; creating and maintaining the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations. Sustainability is important to making sure that we have and will continue to have, the water, materials, and resources to protect human health and our environment. (Appendix 4)
JMV Sustainability Management Plan encompasses four key areas:
I. Environmental – to be actively involved in conserving resources, reducing pollution, conserving biodiversity, ecosystems, and landscapes.
II. Socio-cultural – to be involved in corporate social responsibility actions, community development, local employment, fair trade, support local entrepreneurs, respect local communities, implement a policy against commercial exploitation, equitable hiring, colleague protection and last but not least, that our business does not jeopardize the provision of basic services, such as water, energy or sanitation to neighboring communities.
III. Quality – any activity that can sustain itself economically through creating competitive advantages within the industry with inspired service that not only meets, but exceeds guest expectations; it continues to contribute to the economic well-being of the surrounding community through local ownership, employment, buying local products, etc. A sustainable business should benefit its colleagues, customers, business partners, owners, other stakeholders.
IV. Health & Safety – Jumeirah Vittaveli Maldives complies with all established health and safety regulations, and ensures that both guest and colleagues protection instruments are in place.
B. Social/Economic Plan
JMV social/economic policy expands on the Jumeirah CSR (corporate social responsibility) policy, by formulating initiatives relevant to the local communities, these include;
Education: Vocational training of interns from local educational establishments and job opportunities within the company.
JMV Initiatives: In line with this policy JMV has made donations of essential equipment to schools (Guraidhoo Island) and children’s homes in Male.
Healthcare: Supporting initiatives designed to improve health and wellbeing of local island communities.
JMV Initiatives: such as a recent collaboration with a children’s autism center on the island of Hulhumale.
Cultural Preservation: Contributing to the economy of the local islands by buying from local farmers and supporting local fishermen.
JMV Initiatives: Buying organically grown fruit and vegetables, such as watermelons, kullafilla (Maldivian lettuce), copi fiy (lMaliavian greens), papayas and Kurumba (coconuts). Additionally, freshly caught lobster and fish are bought from local fishermen. Community engagement is encouraged by trips to local islands to learn about the Maldivian culture, the hotel hosts nights with locally inspired cuisine, traditional entertainment, and locally crafted souvenirs.
Environmental Protection: Supporting initiatives that protect the environment.
JMV Initiatives: Follow guidelines produced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when they conducted an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) at JVM and maintain an Annual Environmental Protection License (EPL).
For the marine environment. JVM has a resident marine biologist who surveys the local reefs and works on planting coral frames to support natural growth and counter-act the El Nino effect that leads to bleaching and coral dieback. Coral conservation in the Maldives could be the answer to the threat of rising sea levels as it acts as a natural sea defense system.
Only native, drought resistant plant species flourish on the island thereby reducing watering.
Building materials and fitting sourced from local natural materials.
Avoid serving food from threatened or endangered species (IUCN Red List)
Continuous study of how sand movement is degrading the local coral and how best to mitigate the adverse effects.
Olive Ridley Project partnership to highlight the plight of turtles caught in fishing nets and develop a holding facility at the resort to receive injured turtles and then arrange onwards transfer to a full rescue center with a veterinarian on site.
The Talise Spa produces JVM made 100% pure coconut oil used for treatments and available to buy at the spa/ boutique.
C. Cultural Heritage Plan
The design and structure of the resort incorporates local rustic ethnic style and information on the Maldivian culture and history is readily available in the resort “Green Book”.
D. Environmental Plan
JVM has implemented the Jumeirah Sustainability Development Plan and developed its own guidelines including;
– Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Policy(EPP)
– Waste Management Plan
– Pollution Management Plan
– Environment Policy (Appendix 5)
Combined these policies and plans have led to successful environmental sustainability measures being implemented at JVM.
Environmental Purchasing Policy (EPP)
Environmentally Preferable Products
 Purchasing goods and supplies reputable local suppliers (JVM Purchasing Standards) has a positive impact on the local businesses and JVM. This supports the local economy by providing direct financial income for local suppliers which in turn allows for prosperity in the region. In turn the reputation of the resort is enhanced within the local community attracting better team members and improving community and government relations.
Years 2013 2014 2015 2016
% bought from local markets 10 16 27 33

 In accordance with its commitment to support the local community in the Maldives, JVM embarked on a partnership with a local island, Kashidhoo, which leads in the sustainable production of fruits and vegetables and JVM is purchasing 5% of its produce from Kashidhoo. Local fisherman provide all lobster and fish to the resort, this means that JVM is able to ensure that sustainable method, pole and line fishing, is being used to catch the fish.

Purchase of Recycled or Recyclable Supplies
 Where financially viable JVM purchases in bulk fair trade, eco certified and bio degradable products using suppliers who are certified as following best environmental and social practices.
 Printing and writing papers at JVM contain at least 20% post-consumer recycled content.

Waste Management Plan
This is a regulatory document that outlines the Maldivian government’s requirements for all resort operators in the Maldives. JVM has initiated strategies to implement and further such requirements.
Energy Reduction Initiatives
 Daily and monthly monitoring of all energy consumption to ensure 3% reduction rate for the year is achieved.
 A heat recovery system which captures excess heat from generators to warm the water supply on the resort.
 LED lights on timers are used around the resort and solar lamps in certain locations.
 Refrigerator and freezer energy usage is specified and monitored.
 Only electric buggies and bicycles are used on the resort.

Water Reduction Initiatives
 Water usage is monitored and specified to achieve a reduction of 3% in each year.
 Installation of Eco Pure system which treats sea water on site to provide fresh drinking water.

 In house water bottling system produces sparkling and still in reusable bottles, saving 50,000 plastics bottles a year.
 Resort team have been provided with aluminum reusable water bottles and water dispenser s installed to make the resort island plastic bottle free.
 Reducing flow rates of showers and faucets and maintaining dual flush systems.
 Watering of the landscaped gardens is only needed twice a day as only native, drought resistant plants are used for the landscaping.
 Grey water is recycled and used for watering the gardens.
 Black water is treated on site using a septic tank.
 Guests are encouraged to reuse bedlinen and towels.

Other waste management initiatives
 Refillable containers are used in guest bedrooms and bathrooms.
 All written communication is conducted via email or paperless method.
 Gusts are encouraged to take back batteries which are not recyclable in the Maldives.
 Glass crushing machinery.
 Composting of fruits, vegetables and light gardening waste.
 Re- use or recycling of wooden crates.
 High temperature incineration (>8000 C) of paper, tissues, cardboard, old cooking oil, etc. (No plastics).

Pollution Management Plan
 Dishwashing detergents are biodegradable, not contain NTA and chlorine.
 Laundry chemicals are nontoxic, biodegradable, dilutive concentrates, where possible Green Seal approved and phosphates free.
 Paints are environmentally preferable and meet strict purchasing guidelines which categories banned chemicals.
 LPG is used in the laundry.
4.4.3 Future Plans
JVM continues to strive to improve its environmental sustainability plan and actively searches for new solutions, in line with this it is proposed to implement systems and technologies to better the resort environment.
Composting Machine – A large composter would permit JVM to convert all food waste into compost which can be used in the resort landscaping and if permissible, any surplus can be sold to local islands.
Rain Water Harvesting – This operates by installing a network of gullies on the roof of a building and channeling the water in a filtration system then to a storage tank, from where water can be pumped to areas where it is needed but as rain water is not a consistent supply, a monitoring system and back up supply is required. This is beneficial to the environment and economically viable for commercial use, especially as the cost of water is increasing. cost of water.
Glass Bottle Crusher & Glass Bricks Machine – As explained before for Madinat Jumeirah, a glass bottle crusher makes financial sense but in the Maldives, there isn’t a facility that can manage the crushed glass, so it is proposed to convert the glass to glass bricks which can then be used in the resort landscaping and architecture, and once gain any surplus can be sold.
Solar Energy Technology – This proposal in in its infancy, as it is important that the installation of solar panels do not disrupt the aesthetics of the resort and currently an economically viable option has not been found.
4.4.4 Potential to Improve

Off Shore Wind and Wave Energy
The government of Maldives recently commissioned a study on the viability of off shore wind and wave energy farms (Appendix 6). This study concluded that the Maldives is an ideal candidate for a combined off shore wind turbines and wave energy converters deployment. Additionally, the study further suggests that energy diversification is essential by utilizing both solar and biomass, as this will greatly improve the environmental sustainability of the electric power system, which is currently wholly dependent on diesel fuel.
Considering this is it strongly recommended that JVM assess the viability of installing off shore wind and wave converters and sharing the costs and benefits with neighboring resorts.
5 CONCLUSION
“And with a new understanding of the changing role of business in the community, governments are also challenged to leave behind the old ideas that see the achievement of a more dynamic market economy and a fair society as somehow mutually exclusive…. people now see that enterprise and fairness can advance together…. corporate self-interest and corporate social responsibility are not irreconcilable opposites but can move forward in unison……that social responsibility is no longer an optional extra but a necessity; not a part of the business of a company but at its heart… trust is critical to success; that reputation management is essential; that a brand must enjoy people’s confidence.” The Rt. Hon. Gordon Brown MP, Chancellor of the Exchequer, 2003
The above stated idea of responsible corporate behavior, an integral aspect of which are all aspects of sustainable environmental practices, has been recently adopted by Dubai, which has had a positive impact on corporate attitudes towards environmentally responsible behavior, an outstanding example is The Jumeirah Group.
The government of Dubai rightfully recognized that there was an urgent need to introduce the concept of corporate responsibility as over the last three decades Dubai has sustained an unprecedented period of rapid growth in many sectors of its economy due to an accessible regulatory and business framework. Such unfettered expansion of certain industry such as; construction, tourism, and aviation have resulted in significant environmental challenges. For instance, in 2016 Dubai received 14.9 million visitors and this number is reflected in the fact that the hospitality and tourism sector alone contributed approximately 5% to Dubai’s GDP (gross domestic product).7 This figure cannot be viewed in isolation as there are many activities associated with tourism which also benefit because of an increase in demand; transportation, retail, recreational services, and the arts, whilst also impacting the environmental conditions.
The Jumeirah Group, as a corporate established in Dubai with a significant global presence, is well positioned to implement the environmentally sustainable strategies outlined by the government of Dubai. This is evident by the company’s policy statement regarding sustainability;
“Travel and tourism is one of the world’s largest economic and employment sectors with consequently large impacts. Our current priority is to focus on the impact of our hotels and resorts, where we can have the greatest influence over creating positive outcomes. We are committed to investing in our local communities around the world and the tourism infrastructure. By creating unique employment and career opportunities, sourcing local products and services and helping build local supplier capacity, we aim to bring sustainable economic worth and empower our local communities.
We have also focused on our carbon footprint and are looking at ways to measure the environmental impact of our operations. In this way we can specify an increasingly ecological approach to the building of new hotels and resorts whenever we talk to owners and investors.” (Appendix 7)
The Jumeirah Group has recognized that there is a global trend in the hospitality industry towards incorporating environmentally sustainable practices in all aspects of its operations, as evidenced by the popularity of Green Hotels, and this is further necessitated by expectations of discerning travelers who wish to be help protect the environment. Additionally, in the long run employing sustainable practices or technologies have been shown to have a positive financial impact. As Gordon Brown stated “…corporate self-interest and corporate social responsibility are not irreconcilable opposites but can move forward in unison.”

6 RESOURCES
6.1 APPENDICES
1. The Jumeirah Group. (2014). Madinat Jumeirah Sustainability Management Plan. Retrieved from https://www.jumeirah.com/globalassets/global/hotels-and-resorts/dubai/madinat-jumeirah/facilities/green-globe/madinat-jumeirah-sustainability-management-plan-september-2014-v4.pdf
2. The Jumeirah Group. (2014). Madinat Jumeirah Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved from https://www.jumeirah.com/globalassets/global/hotels-and-resorts/dubai/madinat-jumeirah/facilities/green-globe/madinat-jumeirah-corporate-social-responsibility-policy-web-copy-v1.pdf
3. The Jumeirah Group. (2016). Madinat Jumeirah Environmental Policy. Retrieved from http://iapco2017.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/madinat-jumeirah-environmental-policy-web-copy-v1.pdf
4. The Jumeirah Group. JVM Strategic Sustainability Management Plan. Retrieved from https://www.jumeirah.com/globalassets/global/hotels-and-resorts/maldives/jumeirah-vittaveli/activities/csr-documents/sustainability-management-programme.pdf
5. The Jumeirah Group. (2014). JVM Environnent Policy. Retrieved from https://www.jumeirah.com/globalassets/global/hotels-and-resorts/maldives/jumeirah-vittaveli/activities/csr-documents/environmental-policy-jun14.pdf
6. Rosen,M.A. (2017, April 14) Offshore wind and wave energy assessment around Malè and Magoodhoo Island (Maldives). Sustainability 2017, 9(4). Retrieved from http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/4/613/htm
7. The Jumeirah Group. (2014). Jumeirah Corporate Responsibility. Retrieved from https://www.jumeirah.com/en/jumeirah-group/about-jumeirah-group/corporate-responsibility/
6.2 OTHER REFERENCES
1. National Geographic News. Al Gore Former Vice President of the United States. Nobel Peace Prize Winner 2007 with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2006, November 27). Retrieved from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/11/061127-al-gore.html
2. UNFCCC eHandbook..United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. (Paris,12 December 2015). Available from http://bigpicture.unfccc.int/#content-the-paris-agreemen
3. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Submission by the United Arab Emirates. (22 October 2015). Available from http://www4.unfccc.int/Submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/United%20Arab%20Emirates/1/UAE%20INDC%20-%2022%20October.pdf
4. The Executive Council of Dubai (2014). Dubai Plan 2021. Retriever from http://www.dubaiplan2021.ae/dubai-plan-2021/
5. Khemani.H (2011, November). Producing Biodiesel by the Transesterification Process. Bright Hub. Retrieved from http://www.brighthub.com/environment/renewable-energy/articles/6718.aspx

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