Essay: HOW TO MANAGE THE DISCHARGE OF WASTES WITH THE DEVELOPMENT IN COLOMBO MUNICIPAL COUNCIL

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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1. Waste management refers to the collection, transportation, processing, recycling and disposal of waste materials. These waste materials are solid, liquid, gaseous and even radioactive substances. Managing these human generated wastes requires reducing their effect on health and the environment as well as recovering resources from it. There are existing waste management methods that include disposal methods, recycling methods and avoidance and reduction methods.
2. The waste handling and transport system vary from region to region, country to country. There are waste management concepts that are universally accepted and implemented under the area of waste hierarchies that included 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle). This is further elaborate under extended procedure responsibility (EPR) and the polluter pay principle. Consolidating this matter directed on the implementation of a solid waste management program in every region in every country. Solid waste management programs are particular designed to better management of solid wastes for the purpose of protecting environment where the world can practiced Green Environment.
3. At present, decreasing the availability of space and places to disposal their waste and it is predicted that problem will be worse in future. Infrastructures, equipment and other resources for waste collection and disposal are lacking in most parts of the country, so uncontrolled dispersal and dumping of garbage is widespread. There are no proper places and facilities for final disposal most of the solid waste produced by households and manufacturing fields. Waste that are improperly dumped can hinder water flow of drainage channels, and provides breeding places for disease vectors such as rats and mosquitoes. More over if dumped wastes in proper convention lay by internationally, after long time it will affect the condition of ground water any how due to the component variety and long term reaction. Open dumping sites in natural areas cause pollution of ground and surface water. Open burning of waste at low temperatures is also widespread and it leads to increased atmospheric pollution and many cause serious health problems too. The significance of this research is that we can find the lapses in present situation and make use of this opportunity to utilize waste material in a productive manner, with the intention of minimizing the environmental pollution.
4. Education is considered to be one powerful tool in making the people aware of the importance of resources management, sustainability in the main aim of education program. Teaching to people regarding the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation and how they can and are going to contribute to enhancing the environment’s present condition. Waste management in Sri Lanka is a linear system of collection and disposal and developing Sri Lanka is facing a massive waste disposal problem today.
RESEARCH PROBLEM
5. Present development projects are not consists with 100% solid waste management system. The solid waste management has become an uncontrollable problem in some areas of Sri Lanka at present scenario. As a result of these development projects and improper implications of solid waste management the country is now facing lot of aftermath such as floods during rainy season, environmental pollution, water pollution, air pollution and syndromes of disease.
6. It is obvious when flooded as well as open collecting sites in ground cause pollution of ground surface and water. Furthermore it leads to pollute the air of atmosphere and spread of disease like Dengue. As far as concern of development will the government is able to address this issue with the help of existing rule and convention laid to waste management. Moreover amid of continues development of the country it is required to give more emphasize on how to manage the discharge of wastes to overcome the future risks.
7. Discharge of wastes is major issue for the world as we are experiencing at present. After end of humanitarian war the country is continuing number of ongoing development projects with the combination of foreign investment. These mass development projects are taking place mostly in urban areas and some of these projects do not carry proper waste management system to answer the aftermath issues.
8. Why country cannot overcome or reduced up to expected level these issues? Is it because of the scarcity of legislation, objectionable or unawareness practices of the human been and unnecessary political involvement and interference? What are the actions to be taken to overcome these issues?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
9. Overall objective of this study is to identify the key processes which will help to develop sustainable waste management system for key urban areas in Sri Lanka. Specific objectives are:
a. Identify prevailing practices and negative impacts of waste disposal (Socio, Economic and Environment).
b. Barriers to sustainable urban waste management practices in Sri Lanka (Policy/ Institutional, Technical, Financial).
c. Identify key elements of sustainable waste management in urban areas.
d. Derive the most suitable Waste Management system for Colombo district and country.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
10. After completion of humanitarians war Sri Lanka is on possesses of developing the infrastructure facilities for future development of the country. Comparing with early stage, government is now controlling the whole island. Comparing with most of the developed countries, Sri Lanka is consisting with sufficient land space, and also is not that much populated though population of motherland is on process of increasing island wide. After the war some root causes influence the come up more industries/buildings, moreover infrastructures developing projects in urban cities as well as in countryside areas taking place very active manner.
11. Solid waste management is a growing environmental and social problem to Western province comparing to other areas of country and in that Colombo district is holding number one place. Western province was unable to manage the total growing capacity of solid waste produced in their area of responsibility. This inability and mismanagement of solid waste within the Colombo area will create enormous environmental and social shock to the environment. Therefore, as the world practises proper applications are to be applied to address this issue.
12. Solid wastes comprise all wastes resulting from human and animal activities, that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. Solid waste is commonly called trash, garbage or refuse. Industrial and municipal solid wastes are often viewed as pollution but their increases become resources if we learn to make use of proper procedures of the materials found in the waste stream.
13. The working title of the study is initially drafted as effective solid waste management, role of environment education program. In particular, the research will focus on how environmental education program could effectively leads to effective solid waste management. The topic solid waste management is the polite term for garbage management, a system of handling the amount of garbage generated by human. In this research proposal, the background and problem of the study and literature survey are presented. The objective of the study are formulated here vital concepts, questions and assumptions are stated; finally the methodology to be used is discussed.
14. The importance of analysis about waste management in the current international context is recognized with the increasing of global population, extreme economic and cultural globalization and development of manufacturing. This is not the problem within the cities or countries but the around the world. The United Nation Environment programmed has partnered with many countries to find out the much more appropriate answer for address this issue.
LIMITATIONS/CONSTRAINS OF THE STUDY
15. Untrustworthiness of information collects from responsible organizations: Even though interviews and discussion are the basic methods of gathering information, there are also number of drawbacks interconnected when use those details. Firstly it can identify that information is often to some extent subjective and not always completely accountable. It is well known fact that in the world one individual cannot know everything, and may provide incomplete or even erroneous information. In addition to the above problem sometimes people often don’t submit comprehensive or additional information unless otherwise specifically asked from them.
16. Research is only an individual effort: The research is needed to carry out only by an individual where it is reduced the accessibility and the wider coverage of the relevant field. Further this will lead to tunnel view effort of the findings.
SCPOE OF THE STUDY
17. The scope of this research is to find the lapses and failures to derive effective solution to get rid of the issues of solid waste management. It will focus on the requirement of studying legislation relevant to the control of solid waste and attempt to foreseen the institutions responsibilities to implement counter measures. Moreover it illustrates the different types of waste and how it should manage in Colombo municipal council. Further identify the possibilities and introduces some recommended solutions to overcome this issues. As well as give special consideration on the quality of surface and ground water resources where manufacturing fields’ discharges their waste and poor sanitation are major concerns especially where cities are immensely developing. At last produce a solution to overcome the issues with the available limited resources where we can exercise green environment by reducing facts will leads to increasing risk of pollution.
HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
18. The research paper will analyze according to following hypotheses.
a. With the development of country, Department of Waste Management will be able to address the most successful waste management system to Colombo Municipal Council?
b. Sri Lankan government authorities and privet sectors are not practicing most successful wastes management system for Colombo Municipal Council as well as the country.
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
DEFINITION OF WASTE
19. The definition of ‘municipal waste’ used in different countries in varies platform according to waste produced by their countries, reflecting diverse waste management practices. For the purposes of easy understand national yearly reporting of municipal waste to Eurostat, ‘municipal waste’ is defined as follows (Eurostat, 2012e). In this context, municipal waste is understood as waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities. However, the definition also includes waste from the same sources and other waste similar in nature and composition that is ‘collected directly by the private sector (business or private non-profit institutions) not on behalf of municipalities (mainly separate collection for recovery purposes)’ (Eurostat, 2012e).
20. In the EU’s Landfill Directive, municipal solid waste is defined as ‘waste from households, as well as other waste which, because of its nature or composition, is similar to waste from households’ (EU, 1999). The 50 % recycling target in the 2008 Waste Framework Directive and the 2011 Commission Decision establishing rules and calculation methods for verifying compliance with the targets of the Waste Framework Directive (EU, 2011) refer to ‘household waste and similar waste’. These two definitions of municipal waste only refer to the type of waste and not to who has collected it. Nevertheless, countries may document compliance with the 50 % recycling target by using the municipal waste data they report regularly to Eurostat.
21. The more complex municipal waste management systems in use today with sorting steps, pre-treatment, imports and exports, seem to have led to uncertainties and differences in municipal waste reporting. These differences generally reduce the comparability of municipal waste data and also affect the interpretation of recycling rates used in this report. Eurostat has recently published a guideline clarifying which waste types to include in municipal waste reporting, how to allocate the outputs of pre-treatment processes like sorting and mechanical-biological treatment, and how to deal with exports and imports in the reporting (EC, 2011). The quality and comparability of municipal waste data can be expected to improve substantially once countries follow these guidelines.
CONCEPT OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
22. The essence of waste management is encapsulate in the concept of waste management hierarchy, a symbol for the strategic option available for dealing with Solid Waste (SW). This conceptual framework introduced initially in the European Union’s Second Environmental Action Programme (EUEAP II 1977 ‘ 1981), embraces the least desirable to the most desirable option for SWM. The option for the management of SW identified in the waste management hierarchy comprises the following (from the most to the least desirable):
a. Avoid and Minimize. The highest priority in making any waste management system more sustainable is to avoid generating waste altogether; thereby redesign overall quantity of waste to be collected treated and disposed. The next priority is to generate as little waste as possible by minimizing its generation at source.
b. Recovery (Recycle and Reuse). Recovery is a process that aims to remove the usable materials from the SW streams prior to their final disposal. It is relatively high up in the hierarchy as it can contribute significantly to reducing depletion of natural resources.
c. Treat and Process. SW treatment or processing is aimed at recovering material and or energy whilst minimizing the quantity of SW sent for final disposal.
d. Controlled Disposal. The first step on the waste management hierarchy is the replacement of open dumps and disposal of SW in an engineered (Sanitary) landfill, the most widely practised option for the management of SW.
23. The improvement and optimizing of any waste management system entails focusing on moving up the waste management hierarchy, away from disposal towards the direction of waste avoidance and waste minimization. This also require a fundamental shift in emphasis on where the management of SW is targeted away from dealing with waste following its collection towards a system whereby the primary target is the source of waste, the waste generator. How far this change in emphasis can be achieved, in the short term, medium term and long term will determine how much progress is made in moving up the waste management hierarchy.
24. Municipal waste is mainly produced by households, though similar wastes from sources such as commerce, offices and public institutions are included. The amount of municipal waste generated consists of waste collected by or on behalf of municipal authorities and disposed of through the waste management system.
LEGISLATION FRAMEWORK FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
25. The national environmental act no 47 of 1980 and incorporating amendment act no 56 of 1988 as per the instruction given by the act, the Central Environmental Authority (CEA) is responsible for executing the requirements made within the act and the regulations made there under. It carries number of additional authorities, functions and duties, of which the following are of particular important to solid waste management;
a. Advise the minister on national environmental policy and criteria.
b. Regulate the discharges of wastes and pollutants into the environment.
c. Ensure compliance with the act and with regulation made, or require local authorities to do so.
d. Require the submission of proposals for projects (e.g. waste ‘ dumps), for the purpose of evaluating the impacts of such proposal on the environment.
e. Provide information and education to the public regarding the protection and improvement of the environment.
26. In order to execute its tasks, the CEA gets yearly funds allocated to it by the parliament, as well as additional income from the levy of license fees and fines (section 5 of the Act).
27. The executive powers of the CEA (section 24 A,B) are permitted to collect data, entry any premises to take samples and issuing directives (which are legally binding)to persons engaged in environmentally harmful activities.
28. According to section 32 the Minister (advised by the CEA) may make regulations on all matters stated in the act. These regulations may come into effect on the date of publishing in the gazette, but can still be disapproved by parliament afterwards.
29. Under the authorities of a licence, issued by the CEA and in accordance with standards and other criteria which may be prescribed under the act. Such a licence valid for a period of more than one year, and after which it can be renewed. The licence may be suspended or cancelled by the CEA when violated or when environmental damage is likely to result. (Section 23-B, D)
30. The definition for ‘waste’ and ‘litter’ are described under section 33 of in the Act as followers: ‘waste’ includes any matter prescribed to be waste and any matter, whether solid, gaseous, liquid or radioactive, which is discharged, emitted or deposited in the environment in such volume, constituency or manner as to cause an alteration to the environment.
31. The act also includes provisions for the approval of projects, which may include dumpsites or other methods of waste disposal. All organizations or individuals submitting a prescribed project for approval must include initial environmental examination report or environmental impact assessment (EIA) report, under section 23-BB of the act Under the gazette no 772/22, June 1993 Board of Investment of Sri Lanka was assigned as a project approving agency.
32. In certain cases (as determined by the Minister) a project approving agency may only grant its approval with the concurrence of the CEA. Under the current EIA regulations (Gazette No. 772/22, June 1993, approval is only necessary for solid waste disposal facilities if they have a capacity exceeding 100 tons per day.
33. National Strategy for solid waste management 2000 Ministry of forestry and environment. The ministry of forestry and environment is working on a national strategy for solid waste management (NSSWM), aimed at municipal solid waste and a magazine has been published on 05 June 2000. The authors elaborated that the responsibilities are to be shared between national government bodies (ministries, the CEA, etc.), local authorities, the private sector, and the general public. They further mentioned that the implementation has to be co-ordinated through committees at national, provincial and local levels.
34. The Hon. Ministry of Forestry Environment has admitted that in the absence of proper management and disposal practices, the solid waste has become a growing problem in Sri Lanka. He has further stated that the proposed strategy has clearly spelt out the roles of the Central Government, Provincial Councils, Local Authorities, Private sector, Non Governmental Organization and the Public in the implementation of the strategy.
35. The Strategy focuses on three main points.
a. Waste reduction.
b. Reuse and recycling.
c. Final disposal.
36. These points are in accordance with the solid waste management hierarchy, with ranks waste management methods in descending order of priority, starting with waste reduction, then recycling, composting and regarding land filling and incineration only when there is no alternative.
37. In this magazine, the author have described the solid waste as non liquid waste material arising from domestic, trade, commercial, industrial and agricultural activities as well as waste arising from public sectors. They say that they solid waste comprises of various different materials such as food waste, discarded clothing, garden waste, construction waste, factory off-cuts and process waste and packaging in the form of papers, metals, plastics or glass etc. Further the magazine has stressed on the importance of sanitary land fillings, incineration processes, energy recoveries and biogas utilisation as remedial actions of solid waste problem in the country.
38. As per the magazine, the private sector and community participation has been identified as most important factors in the solid waste management activities. Education and awareness creation also plays a big role in to achieve success in this field. Further the need for institutional mechanism for the implementation of the national strategy also elaborate in detail.
39. Environmental Norms- Board of Investment (BOI) Sri Lanka 2007 these guide lines provide details about limitations of various tolerance levels and environmental licensing procedures for industries established under BOI.
40. Integrated solid wastes management.1993. This book organized in to six parts, to understand the facets of solid waste management. The historical development and current perspective, composition of solid waste, disposal problems, basic engineering principles, functional elements, landfills, thermal destruction, and operation, and operations of integrated solid waste management are briefly explained in this book.
41. World is implementing various types of methods to organized and disposal of waste but still for all they are not on a position to implement tremendous way to continue this process. Latest method they identified as polluter pay policy which is implementing most of the countries in the world.
42. The framework of implemented strategy is as followed.
43. Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) takes an overall approach to creating sustainable systems that are economically affordable, socially acceptable and environmentally effective. An integrated solid waste management system involves the use of a range of different treatment methods, and key to the functioning of such a system is the collection and sorting of the waste. It is important to note that no one single treatment method can manage all the waste materials in an environmentally effective way. Thus all of the available treatment and disposal options must be evaluated equally and the best combination of the available options suited to the particular community chosen. Effective management schemes therefore need to operate in ways which best meet current social, economic, and environmental conditions of the municipality.
44. The legalization of solid waste is very importance consider with present scenario. According to the present waste disposal concept and types of waste released to environment, world has introduced international standards for classification of SW. Considering the quantity, quantum and type of waste released to environment in Sri Lanka, Solid Waste is classified into three groups by National Solid Waste Management Support Centre are SW (NSWMSC Report- 2007) as follows:
a. Municipal Solid Waste.
b. Health Care Waste.
c. Hazardous Waste.
45. Further NSWMSC report classified those SW are as follows:
a. Health Care Waste is further categorised into following:
(1) Non risk health care waste (Consider as municipal solid waste).
(2) Hazardous health care waste.
(3) Highly hazardous health care waste.
b. Hazardous waste is further categorised into following:
(1) Hazardous health care waste and highly hazardous health care waste.
(2) Industrial hazardous waste.
(3) Domestic hazardous waste.
WASTE MINIMIZATION EMERGENCE OF NE CONCEPT
46. The concept of waste minimization differs radically from the ‘end of pipe’ approach to waste treatment (Modak Prasad-Waste minimization II Environmental Development series. page-1). Organizationally, there are no dividing lines here between who generates the waste (Production Personnel) and who treats the waste (Environmental Engineer). It is a team approach which attempts to simultaneously conserve the input resources by increasing the conversion efficiencies of production while meeting environmental expectations. Waste minimization is an integrated approach and is not ‘adding on’ as in the waste treatment approach.
47. Waste minimization can be done by auditing the manufacturing process with respect to optimal use (and reuse) of resources, improved housekeeping, more optimum process operation, etc. In some cases, even the basic manufacturing process may be examined in order to identify possibilities of substitution of raw material, equipment redesign, or even entirely new or different manufacturing process.
48. In this preventive approach, the costs of waste treatment system get substantially reduced, and in some cases, even eliminated. Beside, since wasters are inherently reduced in this approach, the overall resources utilisation factors improves, leading to improved profitability and competitiveness. In view of rising costs and procurement or and in some cases even overshadow the benefits of the saving on waste treatment costs.
49. In the broad concept of waste minimization, the waste management system can also be viewed as a manufacturing process. Here the raw materials are the wasters from processes and products, which are seen as reusable, recoverable or recyclable fractions of the waste. In any of its forms, waste minimization requires management with a vision, and a willingness to look for win-win situation, or at least a break even situation.
50. Waste minimization is often hierarchical, in the sense that it need to begin at the top, and involves a strong interface between human and technological factors. The human factor consists of the commitment of the top management, dedication of the senior production and environment staff, and willingness to change on the part of the shop floor workers. Changes are generally gradual and being with marginal measures requiring little or no investment, slowly going on to more options requiring larger investment and a careful review and assessment of the costs and benefits.
51. A combination of ever more efficient resources use and tightening environmental regulation has significantly reduced waste generation in a variety of industrial sectors worldwide. The following review of international experience shows what has already been achieved elsewhere and provides the context for a detailed discussion of our own experience.
52. In West Germany, the chemical industry managed to cut emissions of heavy metals by 60-90% between 1970 and 1987 while boosting output by 50%. These improvements have been matched on an individual company level, as growing numbers of companies are regularly raising their ‘environmental efficiency’; the ratio of resource input and waste outputs to final products. At Nippon Steel Corporation, Japan, producing a metric ton of steel in 1987 emitted 75% less Sulphur Oxides and 90% less than in 1970. Since 1960, Dow Chemical, USA, has cut the production of hazardous waste from 1Kg per kilogram of salable product to 1Kg per 1000Kgs. The 3M Companies in the USA has pioneered pollution prevention since 1973 with its Pollution Prevention Pays programme (3P). (S. Schmidheiny -Changing Course 1992).
53. While the approach to waste minimization will be discussed in detail, it may be useful at this stage to briefly indicate the main components of a typical approach to waste minimization. The typical approach to waste minimization is shown in figure 1.
Commitment of the top management
Awareness of staff and operating personnel
Improved housekeeping and material handling
Assessment of the existing waste generation patterns
Rationalization and optimization of operation procedures
Establishment of management information system (MIS) involving workers
Related to waste generation
Assessment of modified waste generation patterns
Waste generation strategy for the purpose of reuse, recovery and recycling
Selection and techno-economic evaluation of enabling technologies
Possible changes in equipment, process and raw materials
Fig -1
Source ‘ Central population control board news letter January 1998 New Delhi
ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION – A RELATIIVELY NEW CONCEPT
54. Environmental Education (EE) is a relatively new concept that was legitimate in the international forum by the Belgrade charter of 1974. Since then its content, format, scope and legitimacy have been questioned and debated. This section aims to give an overview of what EE is, some of the main points of contention that have been debated, its relative success, how it has been implemented in different setting, and its relevance to the planned research.
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
55. The data will be collected to analyses the solid waste collected in Colombo Municipal council. The Colombo municipal council has been divided in to six districts which formed by the basis of Municipal districts. The maps of sub districts with names and the name list of areas are attached as Annex A and B respectively. With the identification of districts the random sampling units will draw and following areas will considered in each district.
a. Numbers of Houses available.
b. Numbers of Industries available.
c. Numbers of Migrant resident in area.
d. Socio-economic background.
e. Attitude of people for sound solid waste management.
56. This study will collect the primary and secondary data on Colombo Municipal council to derive sound solution for waste management. These two methods are the basis system of gathering data for research as well as world also practicing this method at present. Secondary data includes Research studies, publications, and journals. Primary data includes Questionnaires, surveys, focus group discussions, key informant discussions.
a. Primary Data collection. Micro level data will be collected from in-depth interviews and conversation. Following appointment holders are the professional in this subject and will be interview in order to gather extensive knowledge of the subject:
(1) Chairman-Lanka recycler’s Institute.
(2) Director-Sri Lanka Central Environment Authority.
(3) Assistant Directors-Sri Lanka Central Environment Authority.
(4) Municipal Commissioner-Colombo Municipal council.
(5) Assistant Municipal Commissioners-Colombo Municipal council.
(6) Director Engineer Solid Waste Management-Colombo Municipal council.
(7) A number of waste collectors and scavengers.
(8) A number of public Health Inspectors.
(9) A number of workers in recycling fields.
(10) A number of civilians.
b. Secondary Data Collection. Secondary data has been collected from the various publications available in Public Library of Colombo, library in of central Environment Authority and literature available Colombo Municipal council.
57. The research has design as follows:
58. This research paper is designed to conduct having several steps of studies on the present scenario. Those steps are considered as chapters and the paper is consists with five chapters. Those chapters are as follows:
a. Introduction.
b. Literature Review.
c. Techniques of Solid Waste Management.
d. Data Analysis and Discussions of Solid Waste Management.
e. Recommendations and Conclusion.
59. The first chapter is commencing with the background, significance and the objectives of the study. More over two hypotheses has been derived and study will focus to proven them. Apart from that methods of data collection and the limitation of the study also explained in brief.
60. The second chapter totally concern about the literature review that I developed through my study period. This also includes some arguments, important facts and policies pertaining to the subject.
61. In third chapter intends to illustrate the prevailing solid waste management in the city of Colombo by concentrating on the type of solid waste, existing disposal methods and the consequences of uncontrolled waste disposal.
62. The chapter four is dedicated to analysis the collected data and to discuss the outcome of analysis. The data will be analyzed to make easy understanding and produced sound results under following subject areas.
a. The quantity of waste collection and the intensity of the problem.
b. Consequences interruption of responsible organization.
c. Awareness of the political obstruction.
d. Attitude and contribution of community.
63. The chapter five which is the final chapter consists with recommendations for future improvement and implementation with conclusion. Further in this chapter illustrate the how we need to address this issue such as community awareness and instructions, responsibilities of organizations, waste reduction, reuse, recycle and final disposal with use of NGOs for fund allocating.
PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY
a. Tchobanoglous George. Theisen Hilary and vigil Samuel. Integrated solid waste management. Singapore, MacGraw-Hill Book Co, 1993
b. The National Environmental Act No. 47 of 1980 and Incorporating Amendment Act No. 56 of 1988 and Act No. 53 of 2000.
c. National Strategy for solid waste management, ministry of Forestry and Environment, 2000.
d. Elements of Integrated Solid Waste Management (source: http://viso.ei.jrc.it/iwmlca/)
e. Eurostat, 2012e, ‘Reference Metadata in Euro SDMX Metadata Structure (ESMS)’, (http://epp.eurostat. ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_SDDS/EN/env_wasmun_ esms.htm) accessed 21 January 2015.
f. EU, 2011, Commission Decision 2011/753/EU of 18 November 2011 establishing rules and calculation methods for verifying compliance with the targets set in Article 11(2) of Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (notified under document C(2011) 8165), OJ L 310, 25.11.2011, p. 11’16.EU, 1999, Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste, OJ L 182, 16.7.1999, p. 1’19.
g. EC, 2011, Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions ‘ Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe, COM(2011) 571 final, Brussels, 20.9.2011.
i. Modak. Prasad- Waste minimization II Environmental Development series.
j. National Solid Waste Management Support Centre (NSWMSC) Report- 2007.
k. European Union’s Second Environmental Action Programme (EUEAP II) 1977-1981.
l. S. Schmidheiny -Changing Course; Paper on ‘Global Business on Development and the Environment 1992.

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