BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1. Waste management refers to the collection, transportation, processing, recycling and disposal of waste materials. These waste materials are solid, liquid, gaseous and even radioactive substances. Managing these human generated wastes requires reducing their effect on health and the environment as well as recovering resources from it. There are existing waste management methods that include disposal methods, recycling methods and avoidance and reduction methods.
2. The waste handling and transport system vary from region to region, country to country. There are waste management concepts that are universally accepted and implemented under the area of waste hierarchies that included 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle). This is further elaborate under extended procedure responsibility (EPR) and the polluter pay principle. Consolidating this matter directed on the implementation of a solid waste management program in every region in every country. Solid waste management programs are particular designed to better management of solid wastes for the purpose of protecting environment where the world can practiced Green Environment.
3. At present, decreasing the availability of space and places to disposal their waste and it is predicted that problem will be worse in future. Infrastructures, equipment and other resources for waste collection and disposal are lacking in most parts of the country, so uncontrolled dispersal and dumping of garbage is widespread. There are no proper places and facilities for final disposal most of the solid waste produced by households and manufacturing fields. Waste that are improperly dumped can hinder water flow of drainage channels, and provides breeding places for disease vectors such as rats and mosquitoes. More over if dumped wastes in proper convention lay by internationally, after long time it will affect the condition of ground water any how due to the component variety and long term reaction. Open dumping sites in natural areas cause pollution of ground and surface water. Open burning of waste at low temperatures is also widespread and it leads to increased atmospheric pollution and many cause serious health problems too. The significance of this research is that we can find the lapses in present situation and make use of this opportunity to utilize waste material in a productive manner, with the intention of minimizing the environmental pollution.
4. Education is considered to be one powerful tool in making the people aware of the importance of resources management, sustainability in the main aim of education program. Teaching to people regarding the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation and how they can and are going to contribute to enhancing the environment’s present condition. Waste management in Sri Lanka is a linear system of collection and disposal and developing Sri Lanka is facing a massive waste disposal problem today.
5. Present development projects are not consists with 100% solid waste management system. The solid waste management has become an uncontrollable problem in some areas of Sri Lanka at present scenario. As a result of these development projects and improper implications of solid waste management the country is now facing lot of aftermath such as floods during rainy season, environmental pollution, water pollution, air pollution and syndromes of disease.
6. It is obvious when flooded as well as open collecting sites in ground cause pollution of ground surface and water. Furthermore it leads to pollute the air of atmosphere and spread of disease like Dengue. As far as concern of development will the government is able to address this issue with the help of existing rule and convention laid to waste management. Moreover amid of continues development of the country it is required to give more emphasize on how to manage the discharge of wastes to overcome the future risks.
7. Discharge of wastes is major issue for the world as we are experiencing at present. After end of humanitarian war the country is continuing number of ongoing development projects with the combination of foreign investment. These mass development projects are taking place mostly in urban areas and some of these projects do not carry proper waste management system to answer the aftermath issues.
8. Why country cannot overcome or reduced up to expected level these issues? Is it because of the scarcity of legislation, objectionable or unawareness practices of the human been and unnecessary political involvement and interference? What are the actions to be taken to overcome these issues?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
9. Overall objective of this study is to identify the key processes which will help to develop sustainable waste management system for key urban areas in Sri Lanka. Specific objectives are:
a. Identify prevailing practices and negative impacts of waste disposal (Socio, Economic and Environment).
b. Barriers to sustainable urban waste management practices in Sri Lanka (Policy/ Institutional, Technical, Financial).
c. Identify key elements of sustainable waste management in urban areas.
d. Derive the most suitable Waste Management system for Colombo district and country.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
10. After completion of humanitarians war Sri Lanka is on possesses of developing the infrastructure facilities for future development of the country. Comparing with early stage, government is now controlling the whole island. Comparing with most of the developed countries, Sri Lanka is consisting with sufficient land space, and also is not that much populated though population of motherland is on process of increasing island wide. After the war some root causes influence the come up more industries/buildings, moreover infrastructures developing projects in urban cities as well as in countryside areas taking place very active manner.
11. Solid waste management is a growing environmental and social problem to Western province comparing to other areas of country and in that Colombo district is holding number one place. Western province was unable to manage the total growing capacity of solid waste produced in their area of responsibility. This inability and mismanagement of solid waste within the Colombo area will create enormous environmental and social shock to the environment. Therefore, as the world practises proper applications are to be applied to address this issue.
12. Solid wastes comprise all wastes resulting from human and animal activities, that are normally solid and that are discarded as useless or unwanted. Solid waste is commonly called trash, garbage or refuse. Industrial and municipal solid wastes are often viewed as pollution but their increases become resources if we learn to make use of proper procedures of the materials found in the waste stream.
13. The working title of the study is initially drafted as effective solid waste management, role of environment education program. In particular, the research will focus on how environmental education program could effectively leads to effective solid waste management. The topic solid waste management is the polite term for garbage management, a system of handling the amount of garbage generated by human. In this research proposal, the background and problem of the study and literature survey are presented. The objective of the study are formulated here vital concepts, questions and assumptions are stated; finally the methodology to be used is discussed.
14. The importance of analysis about waste management in the current international context is recognized with the increasing of global population, extreme economic and cultural globalization and development of manufacturing. This is not the problem within the cities or countries but the around the world. The United Nation Environment programmed has partnered with many countries to find out the much more appropriate answer for address this issue.
LIMITATIONS/CONSTRAINS OF THE STUDY
15. Untrustworthiness of information collects from responsible organizations: Even though interviews and discussion are the basic methods of gathering information, there are also number of drawbacks interconnected when use those details. Firstly it can identify that information is often to some extent subjective and not always completely accountable. It is well known fact that in the world one individual cannot know everything, and may provide incomplete or even erroneous information. In addition to the above problem sometimes people often don’t submit comprehensive or additional information unless otherwise specifically asked from them.
16. Research is only an individual effort: The research is needed to carry out only by an individual where it is reduced the accessibility and the wider coverage of the relevant field. Further this will lead to tunnel view effort of the findings.
SCPOE OF THE STUDY
17. The scope of this research is to find the lapses and failures to derive effective solution to get rid of the issues of solid waste management. It will focus on the requirement of studying legislation relevant to the control of solid waste and attempt to foreseen the institutions responsibilities to implement counter measures. Moreover it illustrates the different types of waste and how it should manage in Colombo municipal council. Further identify the possibilities and introduces some recommended solutions to overcome this issues. As well as give special consideration on the quality of surface and ground water resources where manufacturing fields’ discharges their waste and poor sanitation are major concerns especially where cities are immensely developing. At last produce a solution to overcome the issues with the available limited resources where we can exercise green environment by reducing facts will leads to increasing risk of pollution.
HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
18. The research paper will analyze according to following hypotheses.
a. With the development of country, Department of Waste Management will be able to address the most successful waste management system to Colombo Municipal Council?
b. Sri Lankan government authorities and privet sectors are not practicing most successful wastes management system for Colombo Municipal Council as well as the country.
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