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  • Subject area(s): Business
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  • Published on: 21st September 2019
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       ASIA TALK SDN BHD is a leading-edge IT Solutions ,Training & Consultancy founded to address the increasingly complex issues concerning the security of information assets. They provide customer-focused services by leveraging on our real-world experience and expertise in best of breed technologies and this has been resulted in an excellent consulting track record in government, financial institution and telecommunication sectors.

        They act as a trusted advisor to their enterprise clients, helping them plan, implement and review security management strategies focused on people, process and technology resources. These strategies help reduce the cost and complexity in ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and availability of mission critical information systems.

        ASIA TALK SDN BHD have been conducting numerous training program for government bodies through tenders and programs to educate and empower young Malaysian achieve their dreams in ICT industry. They focus on all ICT related training and consultancy jobs. They have successfully conducted MDeC’s IT Out Sourcing Job Camp in the year 2009 followed by Train & Place program for Ministry of Human Resource in year 2010.

       They have also trained over 140 students under MSC Job Camp in year 2009 under IT Out Sourcing initiative for MDeC. They have trained 540 students under Train & Place program for Ministry of Human Resource all around the country for MCSE ,PHP, CompTIa and CCNA. They have also trained another 40 participants under Train of Traines program for Jabatan Tenaga Kerja,Ministry of Human Resources. Additionaly, they have also trained 140 youths for Perbadanan Tabung Pembangunan Kemahiran under the Skim Latihan Dual Nasional. Recently, they are running Return to Work Program for Perkeso.

       Their project management experience in managing the above program have given them huge enlightenment in anticipating any challenge arises in undertaking similar task. All their staff have also gained useful experience throughout the program they run above.

DEFINITON AND EXPLANATION OF MANAGEMENT AND MANAGER.

       A new workplace have been born since the 21st century, one in which everyone must adapt to a rapidly changing society with constantly shifting demands and opportunities. In addition to that, the economy has become global and is driven by innovations and technology thus pushing the organization to transform themselves to serve new customer expectations. Nowadays economy presents challenging task as well as a lot of dramatic uncertainty. The new economy has become knowledge based and is driven by performance. The themes in the present context area ‘respect’, participation, empowerment,self management and teamwork. In the light of the above challenges all those coming under an organization have to understand what management is? Without having a depth in the aspects of management we would never know what management is. Now before we go deep into what is management lets not be confused between professionals and managers. Accountant,engineers,doctors,lawyers are a very classic example of a professional. For an example, a lawyer solves a case with his or her own ability and expertise. He or she does not direct other people to perform their job task on behalf of them.

       Professionals and managers are very different from each other. The managers, in a nutshell directs other people to perform a certain task efficiently and effectively.  So what is management? Management means making sure that a job is going on well until the completion. Means a manager does not necessarily know how to perform  a specific type of job, all he or she have to do is act as a co- ordinator to make sure that a task is carried out smoothly. As an example, manager of a car manufacturing factory does not necessarily have to know the specific details of car making but he or she needs to ensure that all resources allocated to him functions satisfactorily and the main objective of the organization is  achieved. Moreover, the manager also shoulders the responsibility of achieving the objective set efficiently and effectively.

What is the definition of management?

It is the process of overseeing and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in line with the goals of an organization or in other word is getting a work done by working with others or through others.

         A organizational process that includes setting objectives, deploying the human and financial assets, planning strategically, managing resources needed to achieve a certain objectives and measuring result is called Management. The term management also stands for recording and storing data for later use or for others within the organization. The functions of management are not limited to managers and supervisors. Every member in an organization has some reporting and management functions as part of their job.

         Part Carrigan a former elementary school principle who became a manager at General Motors’ car parts plant says, “I’ve never made a car part in my life and I don’t have any plans to make one. That’s not on my job list. My job is to create an environment where people who do make the parts makes it right, makes it at a competitive cost and do so with some sense of  pride and responsibility in what they are doing. I don’t have to know how to make a part to do any of this things”.  His description of managerial responsibility shows that managers have to be concerned about the efficiency and effectiveness of the work process.

          The word efficiently in the definition of management means working on a job using minimal effort, cost and wastage or can be briefly said as “doing the right thing”. Besides that, effectiveness means the achievement of goals which make is on line with the objective of an organization or to simply put it as “doing things right”. The final result of both the efficiency and effectivity is what defines the success of an organization. Thus, it cannot be removed from the management definition as both of these are essential in defining management.

        Talking about management,not all managerial job are the same. The demand and requirement placed on the CEO of Apple are outmostly different from those placed on the manager of local McDonald restaurants. So who are managers?

An individual who is directly responsible in ensuring that a task given are performed well by employee or people in an organization is called a manager.

       To be a successful manager a manager have some specific function he or she have to perform. There are 4 management task a manager should perform; planning, organizing, leading, and also controlling.

          The role of a manager is also as important as the functions of the management stated above. There are many ways in finding a manager. A manager acts as a figurehead, liaison officer, leader spokesperson, negotiator or initiator. He or she have to carry out ceremonial duties, function as a leader, conveys information to individuals outside an organization acts as a spokesperson and always be there with a solution whenever there is as issue.   

             Nowadays most of the organizations have three level of management. First-line, middle-level and line managers. The first-line manager responsibility is to supervise day-today work done by non-managerial employees, meanwhile the middle managers are having the responsibility in utilizing and developing organizational resources effectively and efficiently, and the managers on the top have to cross departmental responsibly. When an organization hires a manager they usually select individuals with technical, conceptual and interpersonal skills. Organizations divide their managers into departments according to their skills and job responsibilities because of the need to build and develop technical skills. To put it laconically,  a “top manager must set up appropriate goals for the entire organization and verify that managers in all department are utilizing resources that are given to achieve goals that are set.” (George,2009,p.31).

The Evolution of Management Theory

              The management theory has evolved over the last century because of the constantly changing role of leaders in all organization. Management has become one of the important fields of study in this evolutionary world and economy. We might wonder why it is that important to have knowledge of historical development of management. Studying them enables us to avoid the mistakes made in the past. It also enables us to study about the past successful organization and to emulate them. There are four important perceptive that we need to understand in the evolution of management theory :

                 

       1890                       1930                    1950               1970                           1990                               2000

      First of all, let’s know about the classical perspective. This perspective existed from 19th till the early 20th century. The main focus of this perceptive is the scientific and logical  approach to the study of management and on discovering efficient ways of running an organization.

     Frederick Taylor(1856-1915) is the main reason the famous “rule of thumb” was taken off and 5 scientific principle was opened up. There were 5 principles that were given importance to boost production efficiency. To not anymore rely on the famous rule of thumb and use scientific approach to determine the best practice in a task. The next was selecting the best employee for a job. By best on that time means physically and mentally. The next important principle is to make sure the employee hired got the needed training and developing thru the task period according to the procedure. The last two steps are by giving financial incentive and give the employee supervision. Classical perspective towards management has given a basic set of efficient map on hiring a person for a job and gaining their support. Bureaucratic management and administrative management also were given importance as the scientific and logical approach.

         After some years in the 19th century human perspective became an important management factor. Mary Parker Follet and Chester Barnard were the main founders of human perspective which stress on the importance of understanding a man’s behavior, employees need and the way employees behave in a working environment. Human relations movement, social science approach and human resource approach one some of the important categories of human approach.

  • Human Relation Movement  This approach is actually based on the undertaking that successful control comes when there is a single employee rather than soldier type control by a certain organization. A certain pack of employees works efficiently and effectively when physically situation is not constant and better.

  • Human Resource Approach  This approach stress that a person working on an organization works effectively when the basic set of requirement set by him or her is met. It like making sure the chicken is happy so it lays more egg.

  • Social Science Approach  The most seen approach in companies. It emphasis on how important interaction is in an organization. The management approach changed more towards motivating, communicating and leadership kind.

       

             This shows us how important human approach have been in the 19th century by making  management more efficient and giving effective production.

             During the World War Two period where quantitative method  were being used in handling the ships, guns and bombs born three main concepts on the management side which is the management of science, operations and information systems. The relevance of this approach have contributed to managerial decision making mostly on planning and controlling a certain task. The availability of new technology sector created technical computer software made the use of these quantitative techniques more easy to use for the managers.

          As we were moving towards the end of 19th century a more contemplating approach was seen on the management side. This approach is basically a complex and dynamic one. This brought up two main theories during the era which are contingent and system theories. During the 1960’s researchers began to analyze that a system is where an input found from the external environment is made as the output. There are two basic types of system which are the closed and open. In an open system interaction happens in the environment while in the close environment it doesn’t. This system helped us in recognizing that organization are not independent its more dependent and affected by the external environment or factors. In this approach the manager coordinates the set of duty of each part of the organization realizing that each decision and action taken in each part of the organization is going to affect the other areas too. In addition, there is this contingency approach which found out that different sets of organization require different ways of managing. Thus the classic management style was perceived as the main observation. The manager have to case study a specific problem before making an action by combining universal and case observation thus making an appropriate decision.   All the other types of approach are still being used till nowadays. The human approach is the most highlighted one but with latest technologies and more civilized era there have been some progressing changes. The modern management can said have rapidly transformed  with the Industrial Evolution in Europe.

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