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The history on how the name of United Nation being create. On 1 January 1942, the name “United Nations” is coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

Then in 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. Those delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.

The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the representatives of the 50 countries. Poland, which was not represented at the Conference, signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States.

The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year to remember and always appreciate their contribution to our country in order to ensure the people live in peace and harmony.

1.2 INTRODUCTION

WHO NEVER HEARD OF THE WORD UNITED NATIONS ??? IT IS NOT ONLY ABOUT TWO WORDS BUT THE MEANING OF THE TWO WORDS ACTUALLY ARE ?? UNITED MEANS , JOIN TOGETHER AS A GROUP WHEREAS NATION MEANS A COUNTRY , ESPECIALLY WHEN THOUGHT OF AS A LARGE GROUP OF PEOPLE LIVING IN ONE AREA WITH THEIR OWN GOVERNMENT, LANGUAGE AND TRADITIONS. WHEN THIS TWO WORDS ARE COMBINED TOGETHER, IT BECOMES UNITED NATIONS, WHICH IS A POWERFUL ORGANIZATION.  

(United Nations, n.d.) The main organs of the United Nations are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the United Nations Secretariat .All were established in 1945 when the United Nations was founded.

United Nations peacekeeping and humanitarian have been heard by most of us. There are actually many other ways that United Nations affects all our lives. United Nations is the main global efforts to solve problems that challenge humanity. Throughout the day, morning till night, United Nations and its family of organizations work to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights and to be the center for harmonizing the actions of nations.  Other than that, standard for safe and efficient air travel, and help improve telecommunications and enhance consumer protection are define by United Nations agencies. International campaign against drug trafficking and terrorism was led by United Nations. The United Nations and its agencies assist refugees, set up programs to clear landmines, help expand food production and lead the fight against AIDS throughout the world.

(United Nations, n.d.) The Secretary-General of the United Nations is a symbol of the organization's ideals. The current Secretary-General of the United Nations, and the eighth occupant of the post, is Mr. Ban Ki-moon of the Republic of Korea, who took office on 1 January 2007. The United Nations Charter describes the Secretary-General as "chief administrative officer" of the Organization.

As a Secretary General of United Nations, it is not an easy work to ensure the peace in the country. He need to work the hardest he can to ensure everything going on smoothly and as being planned.  United Nations have faced a lot of challenges since 1945 until now. We are here today to discuss on how the multiple and pressing challenges that faced by United Nations and the role of the Secretary General as top international public servant to face and solve the problem diligently. Three most challenges faced by United Nations are long established peace and security , working with and for women and young people and also humans rights.

Secretary-General Ban (right) receives an honorary doctorate from the University of Cambridge for his humanitarian work, support for women’s rights and achievements in pursuit of global peace and security. UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe

Photo 1.1 – The role of Secretary General, United Nations

2.1 CONTENTS

2.1.1

Each of us want to live in a country that are peace and harmony. In order to have this kind of country, the people have to work together and support each other to eliminate all the war that occur in the country. The first challenge faced by United Nation is the failure of long-established peace and security.  The three key changes that are going to be used by the Secretary General are, an urgent emphasis on conflict prevention and mediation, steps to improve the speed and agility of United Nation peacekeeping and political missions and deeper partnerships with regional organizations.  The Secretary General have been urging in addressing all the challenges they face. This is a human society.  They are the one who always produce the problems and will be the one to solve it.  Therefore, when they show solidarity and work with the unity of purpose, “ there is nothing which cannot be overcome, which cannot be resolved” , said the Secretary General. Failing in Syria is one of the good example.It has been five years, such a tragic situation in Syria has created unexpectedly much more problems, there are a lot to be mention such as destruction, killing and humanitarian crisis.

 Acting urgently and collectively  is already essential. The Secretary General of United Nation, Mr. Ban Ki Moon is moving ahead with what can be done under his own executive authority. Most of it will be depends on the General Assembly and the Security Council, and the Security General urge Member States to give this effort their full support. United Nation peace operations also depends on concerted action to rid United Nation peace operations of sexual exploitation and abuse. It is shameful when United Nations and other personnel sent to protect people but they are also suffering and become part of the problem. As a Secretary General, “ I have set out a number of new measures, and doing everything within my authority to stamp out of this unacceptable behavior.” The need for their cooperation and leadership have been stressed out to all of his special representatives. Member States must also do more to train their personnel and hold them accountable. The problem faced in Syria, we feel sad and tragic, it's really heartbreaking. As the Secretary-General, “sometimes I have been thinking on how and what can I do to address this issue?” The people in Syria are getting lesser day by day due to the problem. They have seen many divisions among the parties, Syrian people are also divided among themselves. The United Nations, particularly the Security Council, is not able to find unity, particularly among members.  The regional powers, they are also divided, depending upon the countries.  This situation will be unsolvable if this kind of behavior kept being practice among the nations. We should be together not being separated.  That, the Secretary General deeply regret, why they have not been able to find such solidarity and compassionate leadership and unity of purpose.  When the Security Council showed solidarity and unity, United Nations were able to deliver very expeditiously.  A good example is investigation on the allegation of chemical weapons use.  United Nations were able to take immediate action and they delivered.  The second time, United Nations are now going to deliver. They are going to organize this investigation team.  The Secretary General sincerely hope that this kind of solidarity should be shown again. “I'm going to urge them again.”say Secretary General.  It's been almost five years.  The number of people killed, more than 200,000 to 250,000 people, and we are not going to make the number increase again. The number of people who are refugees more than 4 million.  And number of people, half of the population, they need urgent humanitarian assistance at this time.  We have seen such terrible scenes on the media.  The whole complete disruption.  This country has been completely destroyed now.  They do not know how long they will have to take to recover, reconstruct this one.  So the Secretary General think even though they have spent almost five years now, they have to take action now to make sure that Syria get back their peace and harmony country and the people in Syria will increase back.   

2.1.2

(United Nations, n.d.) A long time ago, a marriage couple would love to have a son rather than a daughter . It happen during our Prophet times, family who have daughters need to bury them out . So the next challenged faced by United Nations is working with and for women and young people . Violence against women is an obstacle to the achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace. Violence against women both violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of their human rights and fundamental freedoms.Therefore, our Secretary General would have taken an action on  deepen the United Nations campaign to end violence against women by enhancing support for countries to adopt legislation that criminalizes violence against women and provides reparations and remedies to victims, provide women with access to justice and pursue and prosecute perpetrators of violence against women. ( United Nations , 2014)

 Next , Secretary General promote women’s political participation worldwide by encouraging countries to adopt measures that guarantee women’s equal access to political leadership, managing elections to promote women’s engagement and building the capacity of women to be effective leaders. Place a special focus on the Secretary-General’s seven-point action plan on women’s participation in peacebuilding. Nowadays, women and men are all same ready. Moreover, in University the amount of boy student is only a quarter from the whole student. The amount of women in the world also 3: 1 compare to men. Women can also lead the country and can even do better than men.

Other than that, the Secretary General also develop an action agenda for ensuring the full participation of women in social and economic recovery through a multi-stakeholder partnership with government, the private sector and civil society. This should include recommendations on inheritance laws, wages, childcare, work-sharing and taxes. Before this, mostly any agenda will only be join by men, however now everything have change. Women and girls are also being invited to join any agenda that being held.

Apart from that, the needs of the largest generation of young people in the world has ever known being addressed by Secretary General.  By deepening the youth focus of existing programs on employment, entrepreneurship, political inclusion, citizenship and protection of rights, and education, including on reproductive health. To help advance this agenda, the United Nations system will develop and implement an action plan, create a youth volunteer programme under the umbrella of the United Nations Volunteers and appoint a new Special Adviser for Youth. Young people will lead the nation in the future using their new technology. Young people always have new brilliant idea to be shared and apply in their country. Therefore, the participation of young people is really important nowadays since they are in Generation Y.

People nowadays looking for women leadership as woman did her work wisely compared to man. The question being asked to Ban Ki Moon, how long will he be the Secretary General. Then he replied by saying “ while I recognize that there are many qualified, experienced, and committed women leaders, it's entirely up to Member States of the United Nations to decide who should be the best person who will lead this organization.  As far as I concerned, I will continue to exert all my efforts to do the job as the Secretary-General, until last day of my mandate, to leave this United Nations in the best conditions.”

2.1.3

The next challenge faced by United Nations is  the people do not understand or know what are their rights . And they keep doing thing that are illegal . As example when the United Nations tell that State, “do not build settlement”, they don’t listen and they build the settlement. Next when United Nation tell, “do not build separation wall”. They do not listen and they continue building the separation wall that will only increase our problems with other country . The State always stands out above the law, this is because the fundamental principle is that all the Member States of the United Nations, they have obligation to abide by all the resolutions and decisions of the Member States, and there is no country above the law.  That is a fundamental principle, like human rights.  Every human being is equal.  All the Member States are equal.  We have seen some countries who have been late or who have not been implementing or abiding by the resolutions.  The Security Council has been acting on this, trying to take some punitive measures through the imposition of sanctions and some other issues. There are some countries who have not been faithfully implementing all these resolutions.  That is why it's important that we help all the Israelis and all Palestinians so that they can sit down together.  Again, on the margins of this General Assembly, we are going to have Quartet principals’ meeting, together with some key Arab countries, and I'm... we are going to discuss this matter very, very seriously.

What are actually means by human rights ? Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion , language ,or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. Human being actually are the one who rules the world. The people have law to prove that they are right. Therefore, people actually need to know what are their rights, so that they would not make mistake in the future and they will be able to lead a peace and harmony country.

(Your Humans Right, n.d.) All human rights are indivisible, whether they are civil and political rights, such as the right to live, and freedom of expression; economic, social and cultural rights, such as the rights to work, social security and education , or collective rights, such as the rights to development and self-determination, are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. The improvement of one right facilitates advancement of the others. Likewise, the deprivation of one right adversely affects the others. No one can stop us from working especially the women. A long time ago, women normally be the house wife, but nowadays women are more powerful then men. The principle applies to everyone in relation to all human rights and freedoms and it prohibits discrimination on the basis of a list of non-exhaustive categories such as sex, race, colour and so on. The principle of non-discrimination is complemented by the principle of equality, as stated in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” People should not choose friends based on their look. As example, white people only friends with white people and vice versa. This should not be happened, as looks did not give anything in return.(Your Human Rights, 2016 )

Photo 2- Humans Rights

1.3.4

(Unite Nations, n.d.) Now we are going to look at the qualities, discipline and achievements of the successive Secretary-Generals.  Kofi A. Annan was the 7th Secretary-General of the United Nations and is the founder and chair of the Kofi Annan Foundation. In 2001, he and the United Nations were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace. Kofi Annan was praised for being preeminent in bringing new life to the organization.

Kofi Annan is famous with his leadership. He is a very strategic leader. Strategic leadership deals with the major purposes of an organization and is the process of providing the direction and inspiration necessary to create, provide direction to, or sustain an organisation. There are various components of strategic leadership including creating a vision, revolutionary thinking, anticipating and creating a future, gathering multiple inputs and higher-level cognitive activity. Grand in nature and has a big task resting on his shoulders in the fulfillment of his visions for world peace, aids, peacekeeping. . A planet where India and Pakistan would be dignified enough not to blow up each other, where the indignities of chemical weapons would be a thing of the past and where the world’s rich would be, yes, dignified enough to worry about the millions of Africans who will die of AIDS in the next two decades. This is the kind of world Annan imagines. It is the sort of world his very presence serene, quiet, intent-suggests. These are the very high ethical morals and values typical of a charismatic leader. ( Unknown ,2012 )

Kofi Annan also has a charismatic communication style. He is able to communicate in an open, colourful, imaginative and expressive manner, whilst creating a comfortable communication climate . His speeches are often a call to action and eloquently delivered to achieve moving the audience in such a way. An example of the charismatic nature of Kofi Annan’s speeches is this extract from his speech at the World Economic Forum in Switzerland in 1999. The speech centres around globalisation and how the worlds corporate leaders can make a choice to operate in a manner that takes into consideration the world at large. Annan is able to communicate with many different people on different levels and can choose the right level of language for his every audience . On occasion when he is visiting a country Annan has taken the time out of his overbooked schedule to sit, without moving and listen to ordinary people recount their story and what is happening to them. (Unknown ,2012)

(United Nations, n.d.) Kofi Annan is a very unique and amazing man to be able to handle such a role at the same time as working on something as major as world peace.

There are not much difference between Kofi Annan and Ban Ki Moon . They are both stressed on the indissoluble links uniting security, development and human rights as the three pillars of the United Nations without any one of it, world peace will not be achieved. Kofi Annan said that  in a time of sweeping change and great challenge, the United Nations had remoulded and reoriented itself.  It had become more transparent, accountable and responsive.  It had begun to better address the needs of individuals worldwide.  Despite many difficulties and some setbacks, they have achieved much that they are proud of,” said Kofi Annan. But yet our work is far from complete indeed, and it never will be said Kofi Annan. Mr. Ban Ki Moon  pledged to be a bridge-builder and do everything in his power to ensure that the United Nations lived up to its name and was truly united so that they can live up to the hopes that so many people around the world place in this institution, which is unique in that annals of human history”. ( United Nations, 2014 )

1.4 CONCLUSION

Finally , we have see how Secretary General solve the problem faced by United Nations. I am not saying that all the problems faced by United Nations have been solved, but most of it have been taken action by Secretary General, showing that being he has a good responsibility attitude. The Secretary General have to take care of the whole United Nations, actually it is not an easy work to be done, he need the corporation from all of us as the people who lives in the country to work out together and therefore, we will be able to face any types of problem. The Secretary General need to be have full information about the problem or anything happened in United Nations, as he is the one who will be answered all the question asking by the people and the King of United Nations. He also have a good thinking as , he need to know if something like this happened what he need to do, if other things happened what he should do. Most of the problems and challenges faced by United Nations would be fully investigate by the Secretary General, as the he need to know what have cause that to occur and what is the solution for it.

The three challenges faced by United Nations that I have been mentioned above are the failure of long-established peace and security ,  working with and for women and young people and human rights.

Next, the qualities, discipline and achievements of the successive Secretary-Generals. Former Secretary General who is Kofi Annan show his leadership on how to manage United Nations diligently. His leadership and communication style cannot be found on others. He was the first to emerge from the ranks of United Nations staff. His qualities and discipline had brought United Nations in the level where they are now. Hopefully, Mr Ban Ki Moon will be able to maintain the peace in the world as done by Mr. Kofi Annan, and will be able to make better than him in the future.

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