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The Secretary-General play an absolutely essential role in United Nations. In the eyes of the world, the sign of ideal for United Nations and the spokesperson for the interest of the world’s people was Secretary-General. But, in fact, the secretary-general of United Nations is not only act as an ideals character, but he also the leader of United Nations Secretariat. Besides, the secretary-general will assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide.

        Normally, a Secretary-General will serve for 5 year terms, but the appointment can be open to renewal at the end of the period for the further 5 year term. Besides, there being no agreement on the subject in the Charter. Because of a Secretary-General is an intimate friend of many governments, it is more acceptance that no member should be offer to him at any rate immediately on retirement, any governmental put in which his private information might be a source of obstruction to members, and should be avoid from accepting any position.

         For the election of Secretary-General of United Nations, the Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly according to the suggestion of the Security Council. From the some provision, it is much more clear that for the process of nomination of the secretary general by the Security Council, an open votes of 7 members, including the 5 permanent member. Then, for his appointment by General Assembly, a majority of the members of that body present and ballot is sufficient, unless the General Assembly decides that a two-third majority is needed. Then, for the renewal of an appointment, it will be the same like the first or original appointment. It would be fit for the Security Council to hold out only one candidate for the General Assembly’s consideration, and for debate on the nomination to be avoided. Both of the nomination and appointment are classified as private meeting and a vote in either the Security Council or the General Assembly, if taken, should be by secret voting.

        At the last, the candidate selection for the next Secretary-General cannot be expected until the year is coming.


The United Nations Charter said that the Secretary-General as ‘the chief administrative officer’ of the organisation, who carried out the responsibility to perform ‘such other functions as are entrusted’ to him or her by some organs of the United Nations. Sometimes, the Secretary-General would fail if he did not concerns for the Member States, but he must also maintain the values and moral authority of the United Nations, and act  for the peaceful of the world every time, of challenging or disagreeing with those same Member States.



Normally, most of the Secretary-General of United Nations’ duties are always be assigned and arrange to his or her office staff, but all of these duties must be under his or her supervision and control to make sure the job are work properly.

        The main proper role for Secretary-General is to organise parliamentary business under the leadership. Moreover. He or she also need to ensure and make sure that the entire session can be running successfully and help the President and Vice-Presidents during part-sessions if needed in which the Secretary-General also will be assisted by the Deputy Secretary-General in promote and make sure that the necessary cooperation and conformity amongst Directorates-General in relation to whole business and legislative planning, connected with the secretariats of the political groups, coordinate inter-institutional relations at official and technical level in the field of legal planning, and ensure commitment with all the rule from the Rules of Procedure.

In addition, Secretary-General should be responsible to draft the proposals for the decisions which is to be taken by the Bureau members. Then, prepares the report on the basis of which the Bureau draws up Parliament's preliminary draft budget estimates also the job for him or her. To respect for certain meeting, the Secretary- General was requested to appoint officials to make the necessary arrangements. For example, the General Assembly requested the Secretary-General to appoint a Secretary-General for the international Conference on Drug Abuse and illicit Trafficking. Then, the Secretary-General continued to receive instruction from the General Assembly to organize or convene pledging conferences.


The Secretary-General recommend the first International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking and launched a high level meeting between deputy of Iran and Iraq under his or her portent. Sometimes, the Secretary-General stated his intention to keep an interregional meeting of heads of national drug law enforcement agencies. By the resolution, the General Assembly endorsed the Secretary-General’s proposal and the Interregional Meeting of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies was held at the Vienna International Centre from 28 July to 1 August 1986. Moreover, after the consultation with interest Government, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, the Secretary- General established a group of high level advisors to identify concrete ways of improving the financial situation of African countries.

           Furthermore, the secretary-general always received the numerous request from the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council to convene or make arrangement for conferences, conventions, sessions and meeting. For example, he or she are request to organize and prepare a global consultation on the coordination of international activities to combat racism and racial discrimination.


Other than that, the Secretary-General also has the responsibility to provide staff, experts, and services to United Nations organs and make all the administrative arrangements necessary for the meetings of those bodies. Let me show an example, the General Assembly establish a Group of High-Level Intergovernmental Experts to Review the Efficiency of the Administrative and Financial Functioning of the United Nations and requested the Secretary-General to provide the Group with the necessary staff and services. Then, the Secretary-General also requested to provide services to bodies other than the United Nations organs, such as the committees, conferences, and working groups. For example, the Secretary-General was requested to ensure adequate servicing for the effective functioning of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women as a treaty body of the United Nations.

      In addition, the secretary-general also provide the appropriate staff and facilities for the Committee against Torture and to ensure the effective performance of the functions entrusted to the Committee under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.


As a Secretary-General, the role was take the initiative to communicate with the country of United Nations or with the other organs. He or she must be endeavour within the scope of his function to integrate the activity of the whole complex of United Nations organs an see that the machine runs smoothly and efficiently. He or she also be responsibility, moreover for the preparation of the work of the various organs and for the execution of their decisions, in co-operation with the members.

       The secretary-general was requested under numerous resolution to transmit communication. This king of communication varied widely, including the proposal and recommendations from Member States, report, draft conventions, the views of States on security matters, resolutions and official records of the General Assembly, the final documents relating to an international conference, studies, resolutions or decision of the Economic and Social Council, a list of political prisoners and declarations.



As the previous year, the Director General for Development and International Economic Cooperation under the authority of the Secretary-General, continued to assist the Secretary-General in carrying out his chief responsibilities as an administrative officer by ensuring the coherence, coordination and efficient management of all activities in the economic and social fields financed by the regular budget or by extra budgetary resources.

      Other than that, the General Assembly also request the Secretary-General to ensure the full cooperation by the Department of Public Information of the Secretariat and all organizations against Apartheid and the Centre against. Sometimes, the Secretary-General also be request to improve the relevant administrative arrangement to enable the Human Rights Committee and the Economic and Social Council to carry out their respective functions under the International Covenants on Human Rights more effectively.



From the establishment of United Nations that was 24 October 1945 until today, there are 8 Secretary-General of the United Nations, not including the Act Secretary- General. The table below show the Secretary-General over the years:

Table 3.1: The history of the Secretary-General of United Nations


- Gladwyn Jebb 24 October 1945 –

1 February 1946 United Kingdom

Western European & Others Acting Secretary-General

1 Trygve Lie

2 February 1946 –

10 November 1952


Western European & Others



Dag Hammarskjöld

10 April 1953 –

18 September 1961


Western European & Others Died in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia when carried out a peacekeeping mission to the Congo.

3 U Thant

30 November 1961 –

31 December 1971


Asia-Pacific Declined to stand for a third election.

4 Kurt Waldheim

1 January 1972 –

31 December 1981


Western European & Others China vetoed his third term.

5 Javier Perez de Cuellar

1 January 1982 –

31 December 1991

Peru Latin American & Caribbean Did not stand for a third term.

6 Boutros Boutros-Ghali

1 January 1992 –

31 December 1996




Arab The United States refuse his second term.

7 Kofi Annan

1 January 1997 –

31 December 2006


African Retired after

 2 terms.

8 Ban Ki-moon

1 January 2007 –

present Republic of Korea



According to all of these Secretary-General of United Nations, there are some of them carried out and appointed for two term as the Secretary-General, such as Dag Hammarskjold, U Thant, Kurt Waldheim, Javier Perez de Cuellar, Kofi Annan and also Ban Ki-moon. Because of some reason, there are able to appoint by General Assembly to continue his responsibility as a Secretary-General.



After the resignation of the first Secretary-General of United Nations, it had been carry out the vote campaign for to elected the next Secretary-General. After a series of candidates were vetoed and rejected, Hammarskjold emerged as an option that was acceptance to the Security Council. So, he success to become the second Secretary-General of United Nations, who was appointed from the 10 April 1953 until he passed away in plane when carried out the peacekeeping mission to the Congo.

     During his terms as Secretary-General, Mr. Hammarskjöld carried much more responsibilities for the United Nations in the course of its efforts to prevent war and serve the other objectives. For example, he established his own secretariat of almost 4000 administrators and also set up the rules and regulation that defined their role and responsibility clearly. Then, Mr. Hammarskjold was also engaged actively in the small project which is related to the United Nations environment of working, such as he has planned each detail for the creation of the ‘meditation room’ at United Nations headquarters, in which it is a place where the people can withdraw to themselves, regardless of their religion. It is also why he had carried out and appointment second term to become the Secretary-General.

Besides, he also try to carry put the action to smooth the relationship between the nations. Let me show an example, the diplomatic activity had been continued by him in order to support the Armistice Agreements between Israel and the Arab States and also help to boost the progress toward better and more peaceful position in the area, organization of UNEF in the year 1956 and its management, establishment of an office of the special representative of the Secretary-General in Jordan in the year1958 and so forth.

          Furthermore, there are some highlights about the achievement for this Secretary-General such as he had negotiated release of the 11 captured United States pilots who had served in the Korean War when he visited to the China. In the year 1956, he also established the United Nations Emergency Force and his intervention in the 1956 Suez Crisis. So, finally, he is given affirmed by the historians for allowing participation of the Holy See within the United Nations.

 Other than that, Mr. Hammarskjöld has gave fully support to Congo’s appeal and made four trip to Congo when the newly independent Congo asked for United Nations in helping defuse the crisis of Congo which was because of the arrival of Belgian’s army and the impending secession of Katanga. He focused on find the political and best solution, but he and his assistance were confirmed that western interests and mercenaries in Katanga were preventing a settlement, and authorised a United Nations military attack at there, codenamed Operation Morthor. The action met much stiffer resistance than the United Nations forces anticipated.


After the dead of the second Secretary-General, the Security Council searched for a new Secretary-General hurriedly to replace the Dag Hammarskjold, but it had been stuck in a deadlock in which the United States and the Soviet Union unable to achieve a common agreement on any candidate who are proposed by other members. This kind of problem will happened because most of the superpowers back down when representatives from the small nations until no candidate is suitable to carry out this appointment. So, finally, the Non-Aligned Movement proposed U Thant to fill in position of Dag Hammarskjold until expired term. But, he only unanimously appointed as Acting Secretary-General of United Nations by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council because the objection and disagreement from the French and Arabs.

        During the first term of his appointment, there was a critical challenge were faced by U Thant that was to defuse the Cuban Missile Crisis. Based on this crises, U Thant has mentioned that US should make non-incursion guarantees in exchange for missile withdrawal from the Soviet Union for avoid a naval antagonism and the United States also agree his purpose and agreed to suspend missile shipments while they still negotiating. Unfortunately, U-2 plane was shot down over Cuba during the year 1962. At this moment, Kennedy hope that Thant can play the role of mediator to solve the problem. Finally, The U.S agreed to remove missiles in Turkey and guaranteed never to irrupt Cuba in exchange for removal of Soviet missiles in Cuba. But the problem happened when he flew to Cuba and discussed with Fidel Castro allowing UN missile inspectors and the return of the body U-2 pilot. Castro, furious and angry that the Soviets had promised to remove missiles without get him know it, categorically rejected any censor, although he did return the pilot's body. US reconnaissance aircraft and warships have done by the inspection at sea. Finally, this crisis had been solved and the war between the superpower was avoid.

  For his role in solve the Cuban crisis and carried out other peacekeeping efforts, U Thant had be awarded the 1965 Nobel Peace prize. So, he had be appointed to continue his second term as Secretary-General of United Nations. In his second appointment, he also oversee the new entry of new Asian and African states into the United Nations, which was a firm rival of apartheid in South Africa. Besides, he also established many of the United Nation's development agencies, funds and programmes, including the UN University, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the UNDP, UNITAR, and the UN Environmental Programme.


During the fourth term of the selection for the Secretary-General, Kurt Waldheim have been elected despite in the beginning of the appointment was disagree by China and United Kingdom in the third round. As the evidence, China have initially blocked the re-election of Waldheim in the year 1976, but it had relented on the second round of ballot. In the year 1981, his selection for the third term was blocked again by China, which vetoed his selection through 15 rounds. But, finally, Waldheim launched a discreet and effective campaign, so he successful to become the Secretary-General.

    During his first term, Mr. Waldheim visit all of the area and place which is the concern of the United Nations. Then, he also went to South Africa and Namibia in seaching of a work which is given him by the Security Council in order to help to find out a suitable solution for the problem of Namibia. The Secretary-General went to Cyprus for discussions with leaders of the government and to examine the United Nations Peace-keeping Force. Then, Mr. Waldheim arranged for talks to begin between Acting President Glafcos Clerides and Rauf Denktash.

The Secretary-General also made some trips to the Middle East for find out the way to maintain peaceful. In the year 1973, he went to the Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt and Jordan; in June 1974 he met with the Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Jordan and Egypt's leader ; and in November 1974 he also visited Syria, Israel and Egypt in connection with the extend of the demand of UNDOF. Based on all of these, he also examine the United Nations peace-keeping operations in the area - the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO), the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) and UNDOF.

In February 1973, during an official trip to the subcontinent, the Secretary-General talked with the India, Pakistan and Bangladesh's government about the problems happened by the war between India and Pakistan and also the method to overcome and solve this. He also examine the United Nations Relief Operation in Bangladesh which is the wide remission operation ever undertaken under United Nations omen. In addition, he also undertaken a major relief operation to help the victims of a prolonged drought.


In the year January 1982, Javier Perez de Cuellar who served as the fifth secretary-general of the United Nations and as prime minister of Peru and was re-elected for his second term in the year 1986 of Octorber.      During his two terms, he had paid attention in some peaceful negotiations, such as the negotiation between the United Kingdom and Argentina during the Falklands war. During the Iraq-Iraq war, the Security Council requested him to send United Nations military observers to oversee this problem. he smooth the relation between Britain and Argentina in the consequence of the Falklands War and promoted the efforts of the Contadora Group to maintain the peaceful and durability to Central America. He also mediated in the conference for the independence of Namibia, the contradiction in Western Sahara between Morocco and the Polisario Front, and also Cyprus issue.

 He also become the chairman in an international arbitration committee that ruled on the Rainbow Warrior incident between New Zealand and France in the year 1986 before his ended of the appointment of Secretary-General.

 During Javier Perez de Cuellar’s appointment, the United Nations had a major changes as the end of the Cold War and the Berlin wall fell down. So, the Security Council came out of its impasse and started to play active role. In addition, the global issues, such as AIDS, drug trafficking and environment challenges are demand more assistance and cooperation between nations.


The seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations was recommended by the Security Council that was appointed by Kofi Annan after Dr, Boutros Boutros-Ghali have been carried out this responsibility in the year 1997 until year 2006 for his first term and second term the first emerge from the ranks of United Nations staff.

When his appointment, he has been carried out the recommendation for United Nations reform. The key proposals of this recommendation included the introduction of strategy management to purpose of union, the form of the position of Deputy Secretary-General, 10-percent reduction in posts, a decrease in administrative costs, the merger of the United Nations at the level of the country, and reach to the society of civitizen and the private sector as partners. So, in the year 2006, he presented to General Assembly his proposal to reform the United Nations aim to create a stronger organization worldwide. Besides, he also appointed to Panel on United Nations Peace Operation to assess the shortcoming of the existing system and make a suitable changes. After that, the Panel further noted that in order to be more effective compared to the previous year, it need to renewed political commitment on the part of Member States, institutional change significantly, raised financial support. In addition, the United Nations peacekeeping operations must be properly resourced and equipped, and operate under the clear and credible mandates which can be achieve.

       Other than that, Annan has published a report which is entitled “We the peoples: the role of the United Nations in the 21st century". This report said that the major geopolitical evolutions and increased globalization experienced over the previous 50 years required the United Nations to access and change the way and method it operates. The main idea for this report was called for member states to "put people at the centre of everything we do. After that, Anna employed the searching of earlier work by United Nations. The World Bank, the IMF and OECD and identified prio areas on which the United Nations need to be focus in order to ‘free our fellow men and women from the despicable and deprive poverty in which more than 1 billion of them are currently confined" These served as the basis for the subsequent Millennium Development Goals, which were developed with extra input from the Millennium Forum, a group comprised 1,000 non-governmental and civil society organizations from more than 100 countries.


At the 1st January of the year 2007, Ban Ki Moon elected to be the Eighth Secretary General of United Nations, he also become the first East Nation Secretary-General. Besides, during the end of his responsibility to become Secretary-General of United Nations, he was unanimously elected to become the second term by the General Assembly on 21 June 2011, so he started his second term on 1 January 2012 and present until 31 December 2016 when his second term ends.

     During his first term of appointment, he has been to launch world leader around a set of new global challenges in which are started from the climate change and economic upheaval to pandemics and increase pressure involving food, energy and water.

     There are some of the achievement and accomplishment of Ban Ki Moon when he carried the position of Secretary-General of United Nations. One of the main challenge faced by United Nations was inequality of gender especially for women and children. So, based on this issues, Ban Ki Moon had pressed successfully for the establishment of UN Women which is the United Nations’ organization is the United Nations organization dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women in United Nations. His advocacy for women’s right and gender equality has also included the "Unite to End Violence against Women" programme, the "Stop Rape Now" initiative, the new existence of a "Network of Men Leaders" and the establishment of a new Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict. In United Nations, the Secretary-General has increased the number of women in senior management positions by more than 40 per cent, reach to the highest level in the United Nations’ history.

      In addition, he has sought to strengthen the United Nations peaceful through the New Horizons active maintenance of a truce between nations or communities initiative, the Global Field Support Strategy and the Civilian Capacity Review. He has been introduce the new method or strategy aimed to make the United Nations much more easier to perceive and successful. These include necessary heightened financial disclosure condition, compacts with senior managers, business practice competency and conditions of service and so forth.


As the Secretary-General of United Nations, there are some essential qualities and characteristics that we should pay attention when select the next Secretary-General. First, he or she should be a good manager and charismatic leader. Most of the people will say that the Secretary-General ought to be pay attention on politician than a manager. But in fact, management skill are always critical for each of the top job, no matter how much is delegated. Sometimes, the Secretary-General needs to be encompass himself with the right people and his chief lieutenants must believe that the boss is looking, that he knows  ineptitude, idleness, and duplicity.

       Besides, a charismatic leader can be more easily to coordinate and lead the division in both of the United Nations’ General Assembly and United Nations Security Council, so it mean that only someone with charming, persuasive power, and forcefulness will be able to make a headway.

             To become a Secretary-General of United Nations, he or she should be have the quality of moral courage. Based on the research of Wikipedia, Moral courage is the courage to take action for moral reasons despite the risk of adverse consequences. In the short words, moral courage means doing the right thing in the face of your fear. Let me show an example, when the personal support become most important or what is saying or doing also become the right thing absolutely, because it is the right thing, then you need to know that you will generate a firestorm in the process. Moral courage require that we can rise above the apathy, hatred and fear-mongering in our political system, socioeconomic divisions and cultural of religious differences.

      For the real and powerful Secretary-General are already prepared to put themselves in the risk to damage and affect their image seriously. In the respect of moral authority, it doesn’t come from preaching bland nostrums that will offend no one, but take the real risks from it. For example, the seventh Secretary-General, Kofi Annan had gave some example of the moral courage like in his speech for the year 1999, he said the challenge is not only the whole international community to face some common challenges, such as the deliberate of people among the ethnic, human right violation and atrocity crime, but also the developing countries in particular to recognize that their sovereignty was not absolute in this respect.

     In the year 2003, the United States military offensive of Iraq was illegal as a matter of international law and then he be determinate to open up the issue and challenge of the Security Council permanent membership, although he knew that the chances of change were slight and this could not the way or absolutely no way to get the affection of any member of the permanent members. In addition, moral courage on the high-ground issues, but there is adequate scope for courage on more common peaceful and security problem. Despite Thomas Franck’s encouragement, there may not be the full hopefully for a Secretary-General say that an outright “no” when member states seem determined to follow some unpalatable or undeliverable course, but there is certainly area for push-back, better than lack of confident reflect the reluctant acceptance; the best Secretaries-General have always been willing and able to do that.

     Furthermore, a Secretary-General should be have practical intelligence. Based on the dictionary, practical intelligence is the ability to find the best fit between yourself and the demands of your environment, use acquired knowledge and put problem in real world context. In order to be a successful Secretary-General of United Nations, it is not sufficient to simply possess this intelligence, but they must be applied it in a consistent manner and refined over the time. For example, he or she should be able to understand the pattern and shape of the organization’s information and data. At the same time, he should requires an ability to absorb, retain and organise mentally a huge amount of information across a very broad front. Besides, a Secretary-General don’t have to generate a good idea, but he or she must understand and able to recognize them. A secretary-general also have to understand the people’s foibles to get a chance of making the right personnel choices.

      Other than that, Secretary-General need to have the ability to process information which are collected from the society. The Secretary-General is the one who stay in the high office and faced with the million set of the information collected every day. He or she need to be press report, adviser’s reports and briefs, panel reports, governments’ blandishments, lobbyists’ appeal. Among all of the information, there are not all of these needed by the Secretary-General of United Nations, so the Secretary-General is more crucial in effective conflict prevention and resolution in which he or she is notoriously under-resourced in-house for the kind of really detailed analysis of the situation and possible strategies. For example, although there has been some catch-up, and maybe will be some more with the creation of the Peacebuilding Support Unit, the wel;-known sad history of the Brahimi Panel’s recommendation for the creation of an Information and Strategic Analysis Secretariat (EISAS).

      An effective and powerful Secretary-General has to be able to escape from the time to time for the comfortable insulation of his institutional environment and reach out for the kind of information that he or she really need it. He or she also need to be the one who like media attention, but not too much. The task for the next Secretary-General is rebuilding the organization’s global stature. A secretary-general who unable to get the understanding by the global media will bring the disadvantage to United Nations. For example, Mr. Annan’s lilting voice, pretty wife and nice for the Manhattan social scene helped to give the United Nations a bit of panache that made the organization seem slightly less depressing than it otherwise would have in its darkest hours. But the member of United Nations will strike back against a Secretary-General who they think is trying to steal too much limelight for accomplishments they see as their own.

      Besides, a Secretary-General of United Nation should be have the thinking time. Having only the adequate information and carried out the practical intelligence are not much useful to an organization if didn’t have a properly thinking time to think about the issues. For example, a responsibility Secretary-General should be set and limit an appointment or meeting to a few hours a day or can just apply the 15 minutes rule relentlessly to all of them. No doubt a good deal of time could also be saved in not spending hours listening to set a speech that can be read quickly if they are worth absorbing at all.

     But of course, if a Secretary-General of United Nations follow any of these prescription too enthusiastically would be to quickly acquire a bad impression from the society like Boutros-Ghali. During the formal public sessions and events, gossip and schmoozing are time-wasting.


Nowadays, the United Nations had been more than 70 years old which is now are under the appointment of the Secretary- General, Ban Ki-Moon until his end of 31 December 2016. The year after the year, the roles and functions of Secretary-General become more essential in reform and reinforce the organization to maintain its relevance and effectiveness in a changing global security environment in order to consider and solve the multiple challenges faced by United Nations today. At the last 70 years ago, the world has evolved rapidly but the United Nations has been unable to catch up. The reason is that behind its inability to tackle many of the contemporary issues which exceed beyond state boundaries. So, find the right and suitable person for the position of Secretary-General will be crucial to the future in our world. The world has changed dramatically since the position was created 70 years ago. The next Secretary-General will take on the job at a time when the organisation is struggling to cope with increasingly intractable conflicts, deteriorating security situations and humanitarian and environmental disasters. For solve all of the challenges and issues, the pressure that put on the Secretary-General of United Nations had been increasing absolutely.


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