The United Nations is a special intergovernmental organization of independent countries that have corporate together for a peaceful world and progress in social welfare. The main four main purposes of United Nation are to keep peace throughout the world, promoting a friendly relationship among nations, to work together to help poor people live better lives, to strike hunger, illiteracy ,diseases and supporting respect for people’s rights and freedoms and be a Centre for helping nations achieve these goals. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member countries. In this research, we will find out the three vital challenges faced by United Nation recently such as issues about climate change, terrorism and refugees. Climate change had been the hot topics around the world as humans being are experiencing the greenhouse effect, global warming and inclement weathers. Thus, United Nation had been undertake action to overcome the issue, for example, the Kyoto protocol carried out. Besides, menace about terrorisms is also happening in global and worried by the people in the world such as the Islamic State which is threatening the global peace. United Nation work hard to solve this issue by the cooperating of the membership’s countries .Other than that, protection of refugees are also the responsibility of United Nation need to handle wisely. United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is formed for engaging in the issues of refugees. Secretary- General of United Nation play an important role in addressing the issues confronting the human being in the world. The successor of United Nation must contain the leadership consists of performing bold and noble vision for the international community, establishing standards and benchmark of achievement ,besides conduct for states and individuals, explaining the reasons those they are care and matter, inspiring every person to adopt the valid benchmarks as their own targets. United Nation plays a consequential role in maintaining a peaceful world and security, enhance respectfulness in attaining a well development of global economic and social.
INTRODUCTION OF UNITED NATION
The United Nations is a special intergovernmental organization of independent countries that have corporate together for a peaceful world and progress in social welfare. United Nation was established on 24 October 1945, together with 51 countries along with membership of 193 countries to improve the cooperation of different countries. It replaced the League of Nations and the organization was created following two to prevent another interference. United Nations can take prominent action on the problems confronting humanity in the 21th century such as climate changes, human rights, terrorisms, gender equality and fairness and other else.
The name “United Nations” was suggested by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The 26 countries present at the San Francisco Conference agreed to adopt the name “United Nations” in year 1942.Membership of United Nation is open to all peace-loving countries and accept and affordable to carry out the rules and obligations embed in the United Nations Charter.Year 2015 marked the 70th anniversary of the United Nation. The United Nation’s Chief Administrative Officer is Secretary-General. Todays, Ban Ki-moon is the eighth Secretary-General.
The main four main purposes of United Nation are to keep peace throughout the world, to develop friendly relationship among nations, work hand in hand to favor poor people live better lives, to overcome hunger, to resolve disease and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for every people’s rights and freedoms and be a Centre for helping nations achieve these goals.The headquarters of United nation is located at Manhattan, New York city. United Nation won
The Nobel Prize in year 2001 indicated that United Nation plays a vital role in disseminating peace and human development in the global. English, Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish are the official languages for United Nation while the working languages at the United Nation Secretariat are English and French.
CHALLENGES FACED BY UNITED NATION
2.1 Climate Change
Nowadays, issues about climate change, for instance global warming and the unpredictable climate change are suffering by the citizens in the world. An awareness began to dawn that accumulated carbon dioxide in the Mother Earth’s atmosphere could create a “greenhouse effect” and increase the temperature of Mother Earth. At the 20th century, human being irresponsible actions had extremely increased the emission of greenhouse gases and effect of global warming to be anxious. Research had revealed that the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere has increased dramatically since the beginning of the industrial era.
Climate change may be the most intense global environmental issue, bringing with it a host of challenges for rivers and dams. Rivers are the significant key to ensure the overall function of the planet’s ecosystems and the life that relies on them. A side of the coin is the risk to these investments from more inclement weather such as droughts and floods, which would lead to large dams uneconomic and more harmful to humans being in the face of a new global dam boom.
On record, most of the weather and climate which are the hottest have occurred during the past two decades. In India, temperatures reached 48.1 degrees Centigrade as nearly 119 degrees Fahrenheit. In the country, Europe, the heat wave in the summer of year 2003 lead to about over 30,000 deaths. The ferocity of Hurricane Katrina in the United States was attributed in bigger part to the raise in water temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico for about two years later. In year 2011 the world population reached 7 billion. It is expected to raise to 9 billion by year 2043, giving a high demanding on the planet’s resources. One of many terrain changing developments, 160 square miles of territory were broke away from Antarctic coast in year 2008.
There is a vital tipping points, leading to irreversible changes in main ecosystems and the Mother Earth climate system, could already have been passed or reached. Mountain glaciers are in the vigilant retreat and the downstream influence of decreased in water supply in the hottest months will have effects that transcend generations. Ecosystems as diverse and severe due to the Arctic tundra and the Amazon rainforest, could be approaching thresholds of sudden change through drying and warming.
The inclement climate and the undefined changes of weather are the main issues and challenges faced by United Nation. To ensure the beauty of nature of Earth, actions of preservation and conservation are being taking by United Nation and the NGO to protect our Mother Earth from endangered.
Nowadays, the terrorists’ threat is magnified by their acquiring aerial capability, and the real prospects of them acquiring Weapons of Mass Destruction in seek after their endeavours. The terrorism flourishes in the environments of hopeless, humiliation, political oppression, poverty, extremism and abuse of human rights, it also flourishes in contexts of regional conflict and foreign occupation. Al-Qaida is the first exampple but not last of an armed non-State network with global reach and sophisticated capacity. The attacks against more than 10 Member States on four continents in the past five years have indicated that Al-Qaida pose a global menace to the membership of the United Nations and the United Nations itself. Throughout the Panel’s regional consultations, it showed the concerns from Governments and society organizations that the current “war on terrorism” has in some examples corroded the values that terrorist’s target: human rights and the rule of law. The fears that near to terror focusing primarily on military and intelligence measures risk undermining efforts to enhance good governance and human rights, drive a wedge between large parts of the world’s population and weaken the potential for collective action against terrorism. The important need, in relation to the States in the regions from which terrorists formed is to overcome not only their capacity but their determination to fight against terror. States getting support rather than opposition from their own publics to develop the will which need a broader-based approach. Several United Nations anti-terrorist conventions have laid vital normative foundations. However, far too many States stay outside the conventions and not all countries ratifying the conventions proceed to adopt internal enforcement measures. Besides, attempts to address the problem of terrorist financing are not enough. When the three months after 11 September 2001, $112 million in assert terrorist funds were frozen, with only $24 million frozen in the next two years. While several States have inadequate antimony-laundering laws and technical capacity, the escape of techniques of terrorists are highly developed and many terrorist funds have a legal origin and are difficult to regulate. Security Council resolution 1373 year 2001 carry out the uniform, mandatory counter-terrorist obligations on all States and established a Counter-Terrorism Committee to monitor compliance and to assist the provision of technical assistance to States.
In contrast, the Security Council must proceed with awareness and caution. The ways entities or individuals are added to the terrorist list maintained by the Council and the absence of review or appeal for those listed raise critical accountability issues and possibly violate fundamental human rights norms. The Taliban Sanctions Committee and Al-Qaida should institute a process for reviewing the cases of individuals and institutions claiming to have been wrongly placed or retained on its watch lists. Because of United Nations-facilitated assistance is limited to technical support, States searching for operation support for counter-terrorism activities have no alternative but to search bilateral help. A United Nations capacity to assist this assistance would in some instances ease domestic political menaces, this can be attained by providing for the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate to act as a clearing house for State-to-State provision of military and border control assistance for the development of local counter-terrorism capacities. After the consultation with affected States, the Security Council should extend the authority of the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate to implement this function. If confronted by States that have the capacity to undertake their obligations but duplicate fail to do so, the Security Council may need to take extra approaches to ensure compliance and devise a schedule of predetermined sanctions for State non-compliance.
The meaning of a "refugee" is comprised in the year 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its year 1967 Protocol, which define a refugee as an individual who: "owing to a well-founded fear of the persecution for factors of race, nationality, religion membership of a particular social group and political thinking way, locate outside the country of his nationality, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country."
The five of the challenges those would face by Filippo Grandi, who is the head of the UN’s refugee agency conclude that the first challenge is providing protection and support to more than 60 million forcibly displaced people, figure done by researcher show that year 2015 was another record-breaking year for forced displacement, about five million citizens newly displaced between January and June. Figures for the second half of the year have unavailable, instead number of refugees, asylum seekers, and stateless and internally displaced people who fall under UNHCR’s mandate is expected to over 60 million. Just over 20 million are refugees, the highest number since year 1992.Second,dealing with protracted displacement which the rate at which refugees are able to back home is at its lowest level more than three decades. UNHCR assist one million people return home. In year 2014, only 124,000 citizen had the ability to do so. Due to the conflicts and displacement become raising protracted, Grandi and his partners are faced with the responsibility of continuing to support and help refugee populations beyond the emergency phase. To a large extent, this will mean favor refugees find methods to sustain themselves through livelihood support programmes and advocacy with host governments disagree to extend refugees the right to having job or live outside camps. Third, doing more with less, “The impact of the Syrian crisis” comprising for the demographics, economy, political instability, and security, continues to deepen across Lebanon. More than 1.3 million of refugees expected by the beginning of 2015, Lebanon's exceptional hospitality will be extremely stretched. As the global refugee population continues to rise, one of Grandi’s focus tasks will be to persuade donors to fund the assisting cost of supporting them. UNHCR’s programmes are almost entirely dependent on voluntary contributions from governments and private donors. The agency’s budget has more than doubled over the past five years, peaking at $7.2 billion in 2015. 53 percent of the 2015 budget had not been funded by the end of the year. For a proposed budget of $6.5 billion for 2016, Grandi have to search creative ways to overcome the growing funding gap as health, education, livelihoods support, and even primary assistance programmes had cuts.Grandi is searching for private sector and other non-traditional donors to become one method of enhancing the agency’s current reliance on governments for the majority of contributions. Fourth, threats to refugee protection posed by growing security concerns – Grandi is taking the helm at UNHCR at a time when attitudes towards refugees have never been politicised. This is the partly result of one million asylum seekers going to Europe in year 2015, making feeling of fears among domestic populations that job markets and public services would be swamped. But those fears have been compounded by security concerns, particularly in the wake of the November terror attacks in Paris and news that at least one of the terrorist entered Europe through Greece by posing as Syrian refugee. A number of member states, including Sweden, France, Germany, and Denmark have imposed border controls that make it more intractable for asylum seekers to arrive Europe. These increasingly xenophobic and hostile climate, Grandi will need to give a response that preserves asylum seekers’ right to international protection in the context of increased border controls and security checks. UNHCR gives a number of recommendations and ways as how this could be done in a paper last month. The fifth is addressing root causes of displacement – The only way to reverse the current trend of ever-growing levels of global refugees are to trace the major drivers. Grandi set out the method to the role in a lengthy response to queries from ICVA, a global network of NGOs.
"We must work towards instilling peace in troubled regions, the outcome of talks and current peace processes on Syria, Libya, and Yemen will have a major bearing on the progression of displacement in 2016,” said Guterres at his final press conference.
Proper Roles of Secretary-General, United Nation in Addressing the Issues
3.1 Climate Change
Secretary-General of United Nation, Ban Ki-moon made the world climate change as one of his top priority and corporate with different countries to achieve an agreement on ways to overcome the climate change’s issues. The United Nation is putting incredible effort to overcome the issues of climate change. United Nation will led the global negotiations and scientific assessment. An implementation agreement of the Framework Convention was adopted in year 1997. 170 countries committed developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by 5 to 7 percent from 1990 levels by 2012 through an agreement in the Kyoto Protocol. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the world’s greenhouse gas emissions are continuing to boost, global temperature rise will exceed two degrees Celsius that countries have agreed upon to avoid the most dangerous impacts of climate change.
196 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted the Paris Agreement on 12 December 2015 at the UN Climate Change Conference in France to overcome the negative effect. The agreement will be signed in New York on 22 April at UN Headquarters. Members agree to take prominent action to keep global temperature increase to below 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. International negotiators have pledged to reach a new global agreement on climate change at a conference in December 2015 in Paris. Countries, states, cities, and companies strive to have low-carbon economy as concern about climate change and their own economic interest. United Nation help to accelerate the pace of technological adoption and change, toward the day when the cleanest energy sources are the cheapest and become dominant. Most vitally, the global climate will be prevented from going off the rails The United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program in 1988 to review and assess published scientific, technical, and socio-economic reports on climate change, its potential impact, and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC is the world’s most authoritative scientific effort to understand and address changes in the Earth’s climate. “Earth Summit” introduced by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a first step in tackling the problem in year 1992. In year 1998, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to supply an objective source of scientific information. The UN Foundation inculcate about climate change globally. It supports action on a range of global energy issues, especially Sustainable Energy for All, the alternative launched by United Nation Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and co-led by World Bank President Jim Kim. Sustainable Energy for all countries seek to double the rate of improvement in energy efficiency globally and the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix to enhance sustainable development. On February 2013, United Nation’s Secretary General, Ban Ki- Moon remarked at the Council on Foreign Relation ,he said that global temperature must limited to only two degrees, however if human being continue their irresponsible action toward Earth, temperature might increase to 6 degree Celsius. Thus, human being and leaders of countries must move beyond spending larger sum to overcome the damage and the investments that will repay them many times over.
Citizens of the world always are reminded that terrorism continues to inflict pain and suffering on them. Countering this scourge is in the main interest of all nations and matter of terrorisms has been on the agenda of the United Nations for decades. United Nation had mobilized a system instantly to take efficient and prominent action against terrorism. Security Council, which had unreservedly condemned the 9/11 attacks immediately, in resolution 1368 year 2001.The Security Council under the enforcement provisions of the United Nation Charter, to avoid the financing of terrorism, immediately frozen the terrorist’s financial assets and criminalize the collection of funds for such objectives. It is also established a Counter-Terrorism Committee to oversee the resolution’s implementation.
The resolution imposes general obligations on all Member States like the criminalisation of both terrorism and its financing and recommends a wide series of measures in terms of international work together to overcome issues of terrorism, such as collaboration between polices and intelligence services to that between judiciaries, and asking for signing and ratification of the international instruments against terrorism that have been approved by the General Assembly. In the legal sphere, the United Nation and its related bodies, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have developed a network of international agreements that constitute the basic legal instruments against terrorism. United Nation launched the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy in September 2006. The Strategy outlines a range of reasonable measures to overcome terrorism in all its aspects, at the national, regional and international levels. The Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) was established by Security Council resolution 1373 year (2001), which was adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001 in the wake of the 11 September terrorist attacks in the United States. The Committee, comprising all fifteen Security Council members, was tasked with monitoring implementation of resolution 1373 year 2001, which requested countries to carry out several ways and ideas intended to enhance their legal and institutional ability to counter terrorist activities around the world. The actions are comprising criminalize the financing of terrorism, freeze without delay the funds related to persons involved in acts of terrorism , suppress the provision of safe haven , share ways and information with other countries’ governments on any groups practicing or planning terrorist acts in law, work hand in hand with other governments in the justification, detection, extradition and prosecution of those involved in such acts and criminalize active and passive assistance for terrorism in local law and let violators to justice. The General Assembly concluded the following five conventions: the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages, the Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel; the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings; the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism; and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism to strive hard to overcome the issues of terrorisms. The U.N. Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution with the goal at disrupting income that the Islamic State extremist group gets from oil and antiquities sales, ransom payments and other criminal activities to counter the Islamic State group.
World leaders understand that we must mobilize a stronger global response to counter terrorism – that is the mission of the UN Counter-Terrorism Centre
By Ban Ki-Moon, 7 November 2014
United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) are the global agencies to safeguard the rights of the world’s fifteen million refugees, took the responsibility for favouring the 27.5 million internally displaced is now divided among several United Nations bodies. A cluster approach began taking shape in year 2005 under a program of UN humanitarian reform had a target at providing more frequently and consistent help to the internally displaced and other people affected in emergencies and disasters, mainly in the situations where the government is unable or unwilling to carry out the tasks. This method comprises assigning coordination responsibility for specific functions to individual international agencies with professional in those particular sectors, for instance shelter, water, health, food, sanitation, management of camps, protection and others.
UNHCR is taking responsibility of the protection cluster leading the international response for the protection of refugees. In humanitarian terms, “protection” could include a broad array of activities goal at ensuring the respectfulness for the rights of the population, stand by international human rights law and refugee law. Thus, protection is unlimited to survival and physical security, but cover civil and political rights, for instance, right to freedom of movement, the right to political participation, social and economic and cultural rights, involving the rights to health and education. For instance, protection in displacement situations could include taking ways to decrease the incidence of sexual abuse in camps, promoting economic self-reliance, guarantee the fairness and equitable distribution of humanitarian aid and educational opportunities, decreasing child mortality or stressing to all ways in a conflict , and the need to respect and emphasize human rights and humanitarian principles.
The ways helped millions of internally displaced people in different environments caused by conflict such as natural disasters, comprising in Somalia, Pakistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yemen and Colombia. When their homelessness due to conflict, United Nations peacekeepers will protect the camps in which they must live. If they are left without access to the basic necessities as food, sanitation and water, their health is endangered, the United Nation system will protect them.
Much of this support are provided through the United Nations humanitarian action machinery. Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), through the “cluster approach”, brings together all vital humanitarian agencies, both inside and outside the United Nation system, for the coordinated action. The lead agency, UNHCR is with respect to the protection of refugees and the internally displaced. With (IOM) International Organization for Migration it is the lead agency for camp coordination and management. Apart from that, it shares the lead with respect to emergency shelter and menaces with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
United Nation bodies actively involved in this cluster approach include the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA); the World Food Programme (WFP); the World Health Organization (WHO); the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).
The Required Quality to Become the Successor Of United Nation
Secretary- General of United Nation play an important role in addressing the issues confronting the human being in the world. To be the next Secretary- General, first the person must get support from a UN member state. Ban Ki-moon’s second term as United Nation secretary general will ends in year 2016. Ban Ki-moon did a great job on the structural constraints such as promoting more women for having more opportunity for senior positions, climate change, the responsibility and the development agenda to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Secretary General combines the responsibility and tasks of diplomat, politician and public sector’s Chief of Executive Officer. The secretary general should perform integrity and independence and has the ability to set the collective interest of the United Nations above the partisan interests of member states. Besides, the successor of Secretary-General must possess the managerial ability and negotiating skill when establishing rapport with a global audience. The authority and position of the secretary general are derived mainly from the clauses of the U.N. Charter, however depend also on the skills and personality of the incumbent and the state of major-power relations.
The successors must know when to carry out the initiative and responsibility to force a menace, when reticence and silence is welcome, when discretion is advised, when courage is required and when commitment to the United Nation’s vision must be balanced by a sense of proportion and humour and balance the expectations of the organization against the limits of the possible.
As the voice of world conscience of the international interest, with the capacity to affect the issues instead of controlling them, secretary general must have get the support of all governments. The most consequential challenge and constraint for the secretary general is to enhance leadership, ability to make others connect emotionally and intellectually to a larger cause that over their self-interest.
Leadership consists of performing bold and noble vision for the international population, set up standards of goals and conduct for states and individuals, explaining the reasons those they are care and matter, inspiring every person to adopt the valid benchmarks as their own targets.
The more vital agenda should be to reform the criteria of choosing the secretary general and the term of office, because this is almost unrealistic and impossible to carry out in the actual year of election.
The present process puts a premium on the least offensive, forceful and effective. The U.N. Charter contains just one brief sentence on the secretary general’s selection: “The secretary general shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.” In a resolution adopted on 24 January 1946, the General Assembly make the agreement that the secretary general would carry the responsibility and tasks for five year terms and will renewable once. The Security Council forwards only one nomination to the General Assembly based on the votes of 9 of the 15 members, including the concurring votes of the P5. A simple majority of those present and voting by secret ballot is needed in the General Assembly.
The General Assembly has never offset the Security Council-recommended candidate. The General Assembly scarify an appointing power whose consequential grew considerably in the following decades in requiring only one candidate instead of a slate.
The General Assembly can and should make right equal role by repealing the year 1946 resolution and there must have minimum of three and a maximum of five candidates. Another long-standing reform method has called for a single seven-year term to reduce a temptation and to provide stability of the secretary general’s decisions or actions being affected by calculations of a second term. The two key changes which including a slate of several candidates and a single but longer term of office could be affected by the General Assembly without Charter amendment.
General Assembly comprise the gender equality to regional rotation as a consideration in choosing the secretary general in year 2006.The most powerful candidates in year 2016 should be Central and Eastern European women regarded on a combination of these two criteria due to no woman and no Eastern European has been chosen to date .
Solidarity, integrity, decency, empathy, moral compass, intellect define a well and effective secretary general, who speaks as the conscience of common humanity amidst the great power diplomacy. Many U.N. observers rate Dag Hammarskjold (1953-61) and Annan (1997-2006) as the best secretary generals. The challenge with which both had to contend, with mixed success, is way to combine the U.N.’s international authority and legitimacy with the global reach and power of a superpower .In year 2016 we need to nominate the successor of United Nation, this leads to a sobering conclusion: The best skills and character needed for the world’s top diplomatic office will encourage the best candidates are nominated.
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