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  • Subject area(s): Business
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  • Published on: 21st September 2019
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  • Number of pages: 2

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It is opined that the essence of every government is to realize the political, social and economic interests of its people; Modern governments have made one of their fundamental goals, the advancement or pursuit for the welfare and well- being of their people. For this reason, policies and programs are initiated and executed.

Development along these lines is a multifaceted phenomenon and man focused. It is the procedure of enabling people to augment their potentials, and add to the knowledge capacity to exploit nature to meet day by day human needs (Rodney, 1972; Nnoli, 1981; Ake, 2001).

Socio-economic development is a process that seeks to identify both the social and the economic needs within a community, and tries to make strategies that will address those needs in ways that are practical and to the greatest advantage of the community as time goes on. The ideas is to discover ways to enhance the standard of living within the region while likewise ensuring the nearby economy is sound and equipped for supporting the population present in the region. Socio-economic development happens in neighborhoods in metropolitan regions, areas of smaller urban communities and towns, and even in rural settings. (Wise GEEK, 2014).

Socio economic development is the primary goal of every well-meaning government, and it is essentially dependent on the level of economic activities in a country; thus the level of economic activities is in turn enhanced by peaceful co-existence by people.

It is well known that socio-economic development of a nation is evaluated on the basis of the enduring security, peace and stability. In the absence of security, socio-economic development cannot be sustained as it destroys economic, human and social capital. One of the security challenges facing the world today is Terrorism.

Terrorism is a global phenomenon and it is ravaging the whole world. It has been defined by Sampson and Onuoha (2011). Dealing with increasing threats from terrorism has become a major challenge faced both by developed and developing countries.

Africa is no more immune to the threats from terrorism than any other continent. Terrorism and other forms of violent which pose security threat has become one of Africans challenges. Some of these domestic ideologically-inspired violent groups are responsible for periodic bouts of murderous mayhem. Some of these, like the Pseudo Christian Lord’s Resistance Army in Northern Uganda, Al-Shabaab in Somalia, al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb in North Africa, Boko Haram in North East Nigeria, the Radical Islamic Maitatsine etc. have attracted ample media attention. Others clearly have a more international agenda, for instance, the Al-Qaeda cells along the east coast of Africa and probably the North Africans and Sudanese who have come back to their home countries from training and participating in the revolt in Iraq.

Moreover, it is proposed that an assortment of socio-economic and political conditions in Africa produce grievances that have been used by militant groups to justify their response to violent actions. Nature has demonstrated that people who are subjected to vile treatment respond brutally, although sometimes the targets of the aggression are misplaced.


The present challenge of terrorism to physical security is threatening the Nigeria society on all fronts. Some foreign observers have connected terrorism in Nigeria to various elements which include, political conflict, unequal advancement that includes even disparities, religious/ethnic doubt, poor governance connected to leadership failure, and high level corruption. (Kufour, 2012; Oluwarotimi, 2012). In the world today democracy affords nations the opportunity to rule by democratic principles and standard that ensures a peaceful co-existence.

Evidence abound that Nigeria has been enmeshed in a firebox of insecurity leading to scores of deaths of innocent civilians, foreigners, some members of the nation’s security personnel, elected officials and many government workers. The insecurity challenge has assumed formidable dimensions leading to loss of lives, properties and investments. The number of violent crimes, for example, kidnappings, custom killings, carjacking's, suicide bombings, religious killings, politically-roused slaughtering and violence, ethnic conflicts, furnished banditry and others has progressively turned into the standard mark that portrays life in Nigeria since 2009. (Imhonopi & Urim, 2012)

Against this backdrop, this research will review the socio-economic conditions that has precipitated or otherwise have implication on the proliferation of ethnic militias and terrorist group in Africa with Nigeria as special focus a handful of important themes related to political violence and terrorism in Africa, including domestic and international trends, and the ways in which politically violent and terrorist groups finance themselves, organize and operate, and communicate (both internally as well as externally).


The goal of this study is to examine the implications of socio-economic development conditions and the proliferation of ethnic militia /terrorists group in Africa with particular interest in Nigeria. This goal will be pursued through the following objectives:

  • To examine the post- colonial socio-economic policies of the Nigerian Government.

  • To examine the fundamental causes of political violence and their economic impact.

  • To make a comparative analysis of social impact of government policy during military and civilian rule.

  • To make useful recommendation for better socio-economic policies.


    This section which will be fully discussed in chapter two examines the conceptual and theoretical basis of this study. The conceptual/theoretical framework simply describes the corpus knowledge, which governs and provides the link between the problem under investigation and the wider dimension of the study

    Here the study proposed to adopt the social cleavage theory relying on the Marxist political economy approach. The choice of this approach is influenced by the fact that it scientifically considers the society as a whole while pondering over the interconnection of the social relations, class struggle and the natural relationship between the substructure (the economy) and the superstructure (governmental issues).


    In this study both primary and secondary data sources will be employed. The secondary data which relate to the implication of socio-economic condition of Nigeria will be sought first before the primary data which requires field data collection, and analysis.  The intention is to purposely explore by applying evaluation procedures in the study so as to draw conclusion about socio-economic development and the rising ethnic militias/terrorists group in Nigeria

    The method that will be employed for data collections include: visit to relevant agencies, key interviews which will include formal and informal, internet surfing, observation and group discussions. Some of this will be achieved through the design of both closed and open-ended questionnaires. The questionnaires will be design to capture data relating to the perception of people on rising revolt in the country. Secondary data will be sought from reports and publications of ministries and financial agencies, Newspaper and online media publication administration. In addition thesis, online and electronic base data from relevant organization and agencies will be used.


    The study intends to apply charts, tables, figures, pictorial presentations to give visual/graphical additional explanation to the findings.

    To address issues raised in this study, the paper will be divided into sections. The sections will include, conceptual and theoretical issues central to the study, analyzed the nature and causes of proliferation of revolt in the polity, discussed the interface between socio-economic policy and development and efforts being made to address them and recommendations on how to mitigate revolt to promote sustainable politico-social and economic development in Nigeria in particular and Africa in general.

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