LINCOLN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE
Thesis TITLE OF THE PROJECT PAPER:
IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
SUBMITED BY: AHMED IBRAHIM OSMAN
SUPERVISORED BY: PROF.ALI YASIN
1.1 BACKGROUND TO STUDY
An outline of the study into the topic of leadership finds that the collected works of leadership and organizational performance can be broadly classified into number of significant phases. Early scholarships on leadership (regularly classified as trait studies on leadership) focused on recognizing the personality traits which considered successful leader (‘Mahoney, 1960’), trait theory adopt that successful leader are born and that they have assured native qualities which distinguish them from non-leaders (‘See stodgill, 1948’). However, the dif. trouble in classifying and certifying these features led to widespread criticism of this trait approach, signaling the appearance of ‘Style’ and ‘behavioral’ methods to leadership.(‘stodgily, 1948’). Style and behavioral theorists moved the importance away from appearances of the leader to the behavioral and style leader adopted (‘Hemphill and coons, 1957; Likert 1961’) the code end studies seems to be that leaders who adopt democratic or participative styles are more successful (‘see, for example ‘, Bowers and Seashore, 1966’) in this wisdom, these initial studies are focused on recognizing the one best way of leading.
Similarly to ‘trait theories’ the main weakness of style behavioral theories is that they ignore the significant part which situational features play in determining the value of individual leaders (“Mullins , 1999”), it is this drawback that gives increase to the (“ situational”) and (‘contingency’) theories of leadership (for example, ‘Fielder ,1967’;House, 1971; ‘Vroom and yetton, 1974’) which move the importance away from the one best way to lead to context- sensitive leadership. While each study highlights the important of different factors the universal rule of situational and contingency perceptions is that leadership efficiency is dependent on the leader’s analysis and understanding situational aspects, followed by adoption of the suitable style to deal with each condition. However , in an apparent return to the one best way leadership , recent studies on leadership have contrasted ‘ transactional’ leadership with ‘transformational’ leadership , transactional leader are said be ‘instrumental’ and regularly focus on altercation relationship with their subordinates (“Bass and Avolio 1993”) , In contrast , transformational leaders are debated to be visionary and enthusiastic, with an inherent capacity to encourage subordinates (“ Bycio et al., 1995; Howell and avolio, 1993”). While the momentary summary above specifies that research into leadership has gone through periods of skepticism recent interest has focused on the importance of the leadership role to the success of organizations. (“Fielder,1996”) , one of the most prized researchers on leadership , has provided a recent treatise on the significant of leadership by arguing that the effectiveness of a leader is a major factor of the success of the failure of a group, organization or even and entire country. Really, it has being debated that one method in which organizations have sought to handle with the increasing instability and confusion of the external environment is by teaching and developing leaders and kitting them with the skills to cope (“Darcy and Kleiner, 1991; saari et al . 1998”) . The claims are based on hypothesis of direct link between leadership and organizational performance, this hypothesis needs critical review.
In Somalia, according to my awareness there are lack of literature shows organizational performance and the relationship between leadership specially in developing countries such Somalia, thus in the framework of study the researcher will look for the leadership in terms of ‘laisses faire’ leadership ,’transactional ‘ leadership ,’transformational ‘ leadership and organizational performance .
The huge, regularly turbulent change that characterized business organizations in the 1970s and 1980s led to has been defined as the ‘ new paradigm’ with its underline on being charismatic (“House 1977”), visionary (“sashkin, 1988”), and transformational (“Bass ,1985”). These were seen as enlightening a conception of the leader as some who , by describing and organization’s mission and the values which will support it, states organizational genuineness .thus ,in the “New leadership “ approach , leaders are seen as managers sense , rather than in term of simply an effect process. However, over the last few years –debatably powered by increasing fanaticism, the rapid changes in the universal world such as rapidly- relating technologies , and political and social influence have also called for the progress of effective leadership skills (“Cacioppe , 1998”) therefore , leadership growth plans have become an increasing significance for government organizations. The idea of leadership has produced lively interest, discussion and sporadic muddle as management thought has evolved. Even today, it is not easy to describe leadership, and assumed the density of the subject, there is no universal agreement about restriction of the field of analysis. According to (“Bass 1999)”, meaning of leadership is related to the purpose associated with the endeavor to define it, and so presents a varied range of possibilities. Leadership can be seen as a group process, an attribute of personality, the art of inducing complaisance, an exercise of influence, a particular type of action or behavior, a form of persuasion, a power relationship, an instrument to achieve goals, the result of an interaction, a differentiated role or initiation of a structure (Bass, 2000).
According to (“Kotter 1990”), without leadership, the possibility of errors happening rises and the opportunities for victory become more and more reduced. For these same authors, and in this context, leadership allows cooperation, reduces conflicts, contributes to creativity and has an mixing role, as it keeps people unified even when not physically so. In this way, leadership, organized with stimulants and motivations, promotes people’s motivation towards achieving common goals, having a appropriate role in the processes of forming, transferring and altering organizational culture (“Senge, 1990”).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally notable cases of a direct leadership–performance linkage may be found in several subjective accounts of enhancements of company performance recognized to variations in leadership (see, for example, “Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997”).
However, empirical studies into the relations between leadership and performance have been missing. One notable exclusion is the detailed study of the “impact of leadership on performance in the somewhat amazing framework of Icelandic fishing ships”. (“Thorlindsson 1987”) suggests that differences in the performance of different fishing ships, under identical situations, can be accounted for by the leadership skills of captains. Over a three-year period, (“Thorlindsson, 1987”) discovered that the leadership talents of the ship captains accounted for (35 to 49 per cent) of difference in the catch of diverse crews. Other studies which observes the relations between leadership and performance coincide with the recurrence of the ‘one best way to lead’ discussion. Of particular significance is the resurgence of interest into charismatic leadership, which is regularly stated to as transformational leadership (“Bass and Avolio, 1993”). A number of investigators theorize that transformational leadership is related to organizational performance (see, for example, ‘Bycio et al., 1995; Howell and Avolio, 1993’). Theoretically, it is debated that the visionary and inspirational aids of transformational leaders encourage followers to transport superior performance (“Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992”).
In summary, much of the above suggestion presented as subsidiary the claim of a leadership–performance relation is subjective and often over-concentrates on the ‘transformational’ role of leaders in corporate victories (“for example, Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997; Taffinder, 1995”). It would seem that few studies have replied to the observation of (“Porter and Mckibbin 1988”) that much of the study described as supporting this claim is either inadequate or empirically suspect. The limited or questionable character of exploration findings in this area proposes the need to examine Additional the nature of the relationship between leadership and performance.
In the framework of Somalia some commercial banking the kind of leadership style they operate is not appropriate for a given commercial banking to enhance sound managerial decisions. This caused that part of organizations encounter problems about their existence. So this study investigates “impacts of leadership style on organizational performance” with particular interest on commercial banking in Banadir Region?
1.3 SIGNIFACANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this research will be supportive to the commercial banking in Benadir Region. For making available insights about the influence of leadership on organizational performance.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study investigated the main impacts of leadership styles on organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region.
The research aims to attain and accomplish the following objectives:
1. To investigate the link between laissez-faire leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region
2. To identify the link between transactional leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region
3. To explore the link between transformational leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION OF THE STUDY
Built on the research objectives stated above, this study addresses three research questions
1. What is the link between laissez-faire leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?
2. Identify the link between transactional leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?
3. What is the link between transformational leadership style and organizational performance at commercial banking in Benadir Region?
1.6 THEORETICAL AND ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
There are as several dissimilar opinions of leadership as there are distinctive that separate leaders from non-leaders. Though most study today has moved from old-style trait or personality-based theories to a situation theory, which dictates that the situation in which leadership is exercised is strong-minded by the leadership skills and attributes of the leader (‘Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009’), all contemporary theories can fall under one of the following three viewpoints: leadership as a development or link, leadership as a mixture of traits or personality characteristics, or leadership as convinced behaviors or, as they are more generally mentioned to, leadership skills. In the more leading theories of leadership, there exists the concept that, at least to some grade, leadership is a process that involves effect with a group of people toward the recognition of goals.(‘Wolinski, 2010’).
Supposing “the essence of leadership is effect”, leadership could mostly be defined as “the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for mutual aspirations” (Kouzes & Posner, 1995). Though, it could be reasoned this “effect, mobilization and struggle” is of tiny value in an organizational framework unless it finally yields a result in line with the “shared ambition” for leadership to be considered successful. Peter Drucker (‘quoted in Ulrich, Zenger& Smallwood, 1999’) captures this idea by simply declaring: “Leadership is all about results”. Creating results in today‟s ever changing and increasingly competitive world requires a very dissimilar kind of leadership from what was studied in the past. While leaders in the past accomplished possibly complex organizations, this was in a world of relation constancy and predictability. In today’s globalized world, with organizations managing with quickly changing environments, leaders face a new certainty. Working in flexible frameworks and linked by actual-time electronic communication, increasingly mobile workers have themselves become the serious resource of their organizations (Reger, 2001). What is currently desired are leaders who concurrently can be agents of change and centers of gravity, retain interior focus and allow people and organization to adapt and be successful, while at the same time never allowing go of the customer focus and external viewpoint (‘Alimo Metcalfe, 1998). Furnham (2002’) state that the suitable dimension result from leadership quality is effectiveness (‘reflecting the leader’s efficacy in achieving organizational outcomes, objectives, goals and subordinates‟ needs in their job’). Thus, the degree of organizational performance in the present research represents the point to which a company achieves its business purposes. The research model is illustrated below:
Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The idea of leadership is defined, according to (“Hersey and Blanchard 1979”), “as the process of effecting the actions of an individual or a group in efforts toward goal accomplishment”. For (“Senge, 1990”), leadership is related with stimulants and motivations that motivate people to reach common aims. (“Hersey et al. 2001”), states that the core of leadership involves realizing aims with and through people. Leadership is one of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth (Burns, 1978).
An avoidant leader may either not intervene in the work affairs of subordinates or may completely avoid responsibility as a superior and is unlikely to put in effort to build a relationship with them. Laisses-faire style associated with dissatisfaction unproductiveness and ineffectiveness (‘Deluga, 1992).
1.7.3 Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s 1978 publication in which he analyzed the ability of some leaders, across many types of organizations, to engage with staff in ways that inspired them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (Burns, 1978).
1.7.4 Transactional Leadership
Transactional leadership involves an exchange process that results in follower compliance with leader request but not likely to generate enthusiasm and commitment to task objective. The leader focuses on having internal actors perform the tasks required for the organization to reach its desired goals (Boehnke et al, 2003). The objective of the transactional leader is to ensure that the path to goal attainment is clearly understood by the internal actors, to remove potential barrier within the system, and to motivate the actors to achieve the predetermined goals (House and Aditya, 1997).
1.7.5 Organizational Performance
Organizational performance refers to ability of an enterprise to achieve such objectives as high profit, quality product, large market share, good financial results, and survival (Koontz and Donnell, 1993).
Performance is a set of financial and nonfinancial gauges which bid information on the degree of attainment of objective and outcomes .(Lebans, 2006)(‘Lebans & Euske 2006 after Kaplan & Nortan , 1992’)
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work will be based on the impact and relationship between leadership styles and organizational performance of commercial banking in Benadir Region. Some of the constraints encountered in carrying out this research work are;
Finance; the study is one that requires money to enable the researcher to browse more information and also to carry out the research work effectively but due to this financial constraint, the researcher could not get everything required for this project thereby hampering the best work on the study.
Time; this study is one that required longer time to enable the researcher get the necessary and quality data for effective work but since it is a project research of student which takes only three months that is a semester work as required by the school, the researcher is less of valid information to use.
The review of literature, the researcher will demonstrate ‘the impact of leadership on organizational performance’, In the first section, the researcher explains in depth the leadership with precise and detailed consideration on the previous studies about concept and definition of leadership and its dimensions(‘ transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership’), Concept and definition of organizational performance and also will explain link between leadership and organizational performance, in the last section will be the summary and conclusion of the chapter.
2.1 CONCEPT AND DEFFINITION LEADERSHSHIP
Leadership is identified as an important subject in the field of organizational behavior. Leadership has the most energetic properties during individual and organizational collaboration. In other words, capacity of management to implement ‘’collaborated efforts” depends on leadership ability. (Chuang, 2009), describe that the brilliant leader not only motivates subordinates potential to improve productivity but also encounters their desires in the method of achieving organizational aims.(‘ Stogdill 1957’), defined leadership as the individual conduct to monitor a group to attain the common aim. (‘Fry, 2003) enlightens leadership as use of leading strategy to offer motivating aim and to improve the staff’s latent for growth and progress. A number of reasons specify that there should be a link between leadership style and organizational performance. The first is that today’s concentrated and energetic markets feature innovation-based competition, price/performance rivalry, decreasing returns, and the motivated destruction of existing abilities (‘Santora et al.,1999; Venkataraman,1997’). Studies have recommended that actual leadership behaviors can simplify the enhancement of performance when organizations face new challenges (‘McGrath and MacMillan, 2000; Teece, Pisano and Shuen, 1997’).
Style of leadership is the relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader (‘DuBrin, 2001’). Leadership regarding performance was considered by scholars and investigators, but philosophical and scientific foundation of leadership style is yet disseminated. Just, numerous investigators have studied the dominion of leadership styles, transactional and transformational leadership is the most perceptible (‘Dvir et al., 2002; Ehrhart, 2004; Whetstone, 2002; Avolio & Bass, 2004’). Transactional and transformational leadership are not considered as opposing styles of leadership (‘Lowe et al. 1996’). Leaders might be both transactional and transformational. Whole, transactional leadership is less effective than transformational leadership (‘Gardner & Stough 2002’). There is some indication supporting the hypothesis that transformational leadership is higher than transactional leadership (‘Bass et al., 2003; Dvir et al., 2002’). Transactional leadership also is less connected with higher performance and output than transformational leadership (‘Bass et al., 2003; Dvir et al., 2002’).
Moreover, transformational leadership has influence on the whole thinking and behavior of followers, launching a unified understanding to succeed in learning. Transformational leadership invites knowledgeable consideration to impending problems. It inspires revolution and learning thus enlightening the whole performance (‘Argyris & Scho¨n, 1996; Glynn, 1996; Hurley & Hult, 1998’). While transactional leadership is linked to penalty behavior and reliant reward which is regarded as the source of operative management, transformational mechanism is seen as enriching that source for better leader efficiency (‘Waldman, Bass, Yammarino, 1990’). The difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership is the deliberation of leader. Both styles of leadership importance on the followers where transactional leaders provide feedback about performance, while transformational leaders attempt to encompass followers with goal attainment (‘Kelman 1958’). Also, transformational leaders in struggle of transactional leaders inspire followers through identification and internalization process instead of influential compliance. Therefore, although most transactional leaders offer response regarding performance, exceptional leaders participate in transformational leadership behavior as well. Therefore, the transformational behaviors recover the leader’s efficiency furthermore to what he/she could gain only through transactional leadership. General, scholarships on transactional leadership did not reflect leader behaviors as much as the variance in performance and other standard parameters.
2.2 DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHSHIP
2.2.1 Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership is the talent to inspire and to encourage intellectual inspiration through motivation (‘Avolio, 2004; Dvir, 2002’). (‘McColl-Kennedy, & Anderson, 2005’) further defined transformational leadership style as guidance through individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Transformational leaders basically change the values, goals, and aims of followers who adopt the leader’s values and, in the end, accomplish their work because it is dependable with their standards and not because they believe to be rewarded (‘Kuhnert & Lewis, 1987; MacKenzie et al., 2001’).
Transformational leadership which inspires autonomy and challenging work became increasingly significant to followers’ job satisfaction. The idea of job security and loyalty to the firm for one’s entire career was disappearing. Steady pay, secure profits, and lifetime employment were no longer assured for commendable performance. At the same time, transactional leadership alone could not offer job satisfaction (‘Bass, 1999’).
Transformational leadership has its origins in James McGregor Burns’s 1978 publication in which he investigated the capacity of some leaders, across many types of organizations, to involve with staff in ways that motivated them to new levels of energy, commitment, and moral purpose (‘Burns, 1978’).
2.2.2 Transactional Leadership
This leadership style starts with the knowledge that team memberships agree to follow their leader when they accept a job. The transaction usually comprises the organization giving team memberships in return for their struggle and compliance. The leader has a right to penalize team members if their work doesn't encounter a suitable standard. The minimalistic working relations that outcome (‘between staff and managers or leaders’) are based on this transaction (struggle for pay). Transactional leader’s emphasis generally on the physical and the security needs of dependents. The link that develops between the leader and the follower is based on negotiating exchange or reward systems (‘Bass, 1985; Bass and Avolio, 1993’). Transactional leadership. “Using a carrot or a stick, transactional leadership is regularly considered as instrumental in followers‟ goal achievement” (‘Bass, 1997’). There are three components in transactional leadership – Contingent reward, whereby subordinates‟ performance is related with contingent rewards or exchange relationship; Active Management by exclusion, whereby leaders monitor followers‟ performance and take corrective action if deviations happen to guarantee results attained; Passive Management by exclusion, whereby leaders fail to intervene until problems become serious (‘Bass, 1997’).
2.2.3 Laissez-faire Leadership
An avoidant leader may either not interfere in the work matters of dependents or may totally escape duties as a superior and is unlikely to put in struggle to build a link with them. Laissez-faire style is related with disappointment, unproductiveness and incompetence (‘Deluga, 1992’).
Laissez-faire leadership may be the best or the worst of leadership styles (‘Goodnight, 2011’). Laisses-faire, this French phrase for “let it be,” when applied to leadership defines leaders who permit people to work on their own. Laissez-faire leaders abdicate responsibilities and avoid making decisions, they may give team’s complete freedom to do their work and set their own limits. Laissez-faire leaders usually permit their subordinate the power to make results about their work (‘Chaudhry & Javed, 2012’). They offer teams with properties and advice, if desired, but else do not get complicated. This leadership style can be actual if the leader monitors performance and gives response to team members commonly. The main advantage of laissez-faire leadership is that permitting team members so much independence can lead to high job satisfaction and enlarged productivity. It can be harmful if team members do not accomplish their time well or do not have the familiarity, skills, or inspiration to do their work successfully. This type of leadership can also arise when managers do not have enough control over their staff (Ololube, 2013).
2.3 CONCEPT AND DEFFINITION ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
Organizations have a significant role in our daily lives and therefore, successful organizations represent a key ingredient for developing nations. Therefore, many economists reflect organizations and institutions like to an engine in defining the economic, social and political progress. Precisely for this reason, in the last twenty two years, there were six Nobel prizes rewarded to investigators who have concentrated on the exploration of organizations and institutions. Continuous performance is the focus of any organization because only through performance organizations are able to grow and development. Thus, organizational performance is one of the most significant variables in the management investigation and debatably the most significant indicator of the organizational performance. Though the idea of organizational performance is very common in the academic literature, its description is difficult because of its many meanings. For this reason, there isn’t a generally recognized description of this idea. In the 50th organizational performance was defined as the extent to which organizations, observed as a social system fulfilled their aims (Georgopoulos & Tannenbaum, 1957).
Performance valuation through this time was focused on work, people and organizational structure. Later in the 60th and 70th, organizations have begun to discover new ways to assess their performance so performance was well-defined as an organization's capacity to exploit its environment for retrieving and using the incomplete resources (Yuchtman &Seashore, 1967). The years 80th and 90th were marked by the recognition that the identification of organizational aims is more complex than initially measured. Managers began to understand that an organization is successful if it accomplishes its goals ‘effectiveness’ using a minimum of resources ‘efficiency’. Thus, organizational theories that followed supported the indication of an organization that attains its performance aims based on the limitations imposed by the limited resources (Lusthaus and Adrien, 1998 after Campbell, 1970). In this framework, profit became one of the many indicators of performance. (Lebans and Euske , 2006), offer a set of definitions to explain the concept of organizational performance: Performance is a fixed of financial and nonfinancial pointers which offer information on the degree of attainment of aims and outcomes. Performance is dynamic, requiring judgment and interpretation. Performance may be illustrated by using a fundamental model that describes how current actions may affect future results. Performance may be assumed in a different way contingent on the person involved in the assessment of the organizational performance (e.g. performance can be understood inversely from a person within the organization linked to one from outside) to describe the concept of performance is necessary to know its elements characteristic to each area of responsibility. To report an organization's performance level, it is necessary to be able to compute the results. Outcomes (Lebans and Euske 2006 after Kaplan and Norton, 1992)
2.4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
This study examined ‘effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small and medium scale enterprise (SMES)’ in Nigeria by which its objective was to define the effects of leadership style on organizational performance in small and medium scale enterprise (SMES). The study followed a survey design and employed evaluative quantitative analysis method Data was collected from a population and sample of 70 staff of the organisations and examined with Friedman’s chi-square statistics using SPSS. The results show that transformational leadership style exert a positive but unimportant effect on employee performance while transactional leadership style has a positive important effect on employee performance. It is concluded that transactional leadership style is more suitable in making performance in small scale enterprises in Makaduri city than transformational leadership style. (Saasongu, 2015)
Another study which conducted relationship between transformational, transactional leadership styles and job performance of Academic Leaders, which its objective was approved out to classify the influence of styles of leadership on job performance. Its method was based on design methodology approach, the empirical research was directed through survey on ‘450’ randomly designated respondents from all the take part banks in the survey. And their result was that several performance efforts were unsuccessful as a finding of factors such as satisfactory leadership style of leaders. Leadership has positive influences on important organizational outcomes, including human resource results and performance (Peterson & Luthans, 2003; Luthans, 2005). Moreover, (‘Howell and Avolio, 1993) indicated that styles of leadership are main forecasters of human resources performance. (Maryam Mahdinezhad1, 2013)
Another Study examined Leadership styles and job satisfaction: empirical indication from Mogadishu universities. The aim of this study was to scan the link between leadership styles and job satisfaction between instructors working in three selected universities in Mogadishu-Somalia. The Method conducted via survey, data was gathering using questionnaire. The result of the research indicated that there’s a positive and significant relationship among transformational and transactional leadership and job satisfaction. In other words, there is a strong link between transformational leadership style and job satisfaction while there is weak link between job satisfaction and transactional leadership. That means the instructors prefer transformational leadership than transactional leadership. (Ali Yassin Sheikh Ali, 2013)
This research was explored the impact of leadership on student: An Investigation of the Variance Effects of Leadership Types. The aim of this research was to observe the relation influence of dissimilar types of leadership on students’ academic and non-academic outcomes. And it used the primary methodology inside which this research can be positioned is that of meta-analysis. Meta-analysis is an empirical, knowledge-building style that allows the results of quantitative researches of the relationship between two concepts to be united so that an estimate of the average measure of the influence of one on the other can be consequent (‘Glass, McGaw, & Smith, 1981; Hedges & Olkin, 1985; Lipsey & Wilson, 2001’). The maximum current review of the impact of instructional leadership on student outcomes determined as follows: “The size of the effects that principals indirectly contribute toward student learning, though statistically Significant is also quite small” (Hallinger, 2005, p. 229). This decision was reached as part of a literature review and debate of study on instructional leadership rather than as outcome of the calculation of the conclusion size statistic for each applicable study. (Rowe, 2008)
The research was showed the effect of leadership styles on organizational performance at State Corporations in Kenya. Its purpose was to investigate the main effects of leadership styles on organizational performance at state-owned corporations in Kenya. The method used was a descriptive survey research built on the views of middle and senior managers in thirty state-owned corporations built in Mombasa, Kenya was assumed. The result became that laisses- faire leadership style is not meaningfully correlated to organizational performance. (‘Namusong, 2012’)
Other Study explored a review of leadership Theories, Principles and Styles and Their Relevance to Educational Management, The objectives of this theoretical debate is to explore the broader context of leadership and its efficiency towards improving school management, the Method used was face-to-face discussions with staff. The outcomes of the effective educational leadership style applications are feasible for a number of objectives, which include advance administrative performance, team-building, and improved individual and school improvement in teaching and learning. (‘Rose Ngozi Amanchukwu1, 2015’)
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