Sports as a subject is known for including mostly physical activities aiming to improve the physical abilities or skills of an individual or a group of people by using the biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology (Wikipedia, 2017). As sport is developing, a new science was exposed to help in the process of improving the performance of the athletes called sport psychology. This science aims to assist athletes and coaching in acknowledging various fields that study the effect of psychology on the performance and participation in sports as well as effecting the psychological and physical factors of participation.
Nowadays, psychology is involving in every field. One of the fields that psychology was mainly involved is sports. Sport psychology is a proficiency to use the science and skill of psychology to address flawless and well-being athletes to associate with sports settings and organizations using developmental and social aspects of sports participation. But on the other hand, people with physical challenges needs more psychological and mental support to help them to overcome their challenges and achieve more in their special competitions and in their non-athlete life as they need special treatment from experts and non-tempered coaches and psychologists in order to be able to understand their needs and to be more aware of the consequences of every move they take when it comes to treating them.
1.3 Research problem/gap:
Many studies have been involved in the topic of sport psychology. But it didn’t link it to the concept of how to let disabled children reach their highest peak of performance using the methods of sport psychology or how should coaches use the sport psychology methods to reach that peak. Likewise, investigations carried out about those variables relation to sport psychology were all done based on studies done in European countries not in African countries especially Egypt. The observation and data collection method intended for the study will be in performed on a sample of disabled Egyptian swimmers.
1.4 Variables and keywords:
Sport psychology is a skill that uses psychological knowledge and skills in order to reach optimal performance of athletes including its developmental and social aspects of sports participation and organizations. (American Psychological Association, 2017).
Sport performance is a perplexing blend of biomechanical work, passionate factors, and preparing methods. Execution in an athletic setting has a well-known meaning of speaking to the quest for magnificence, where a competitor measures his or her execution as a movement toward brilliance or accomplishment (Gale, 2007).
Children with disabilities are a standout amongst the most minimized and barred gatherings in the public eye. Confronting every day segregation as negative states of mind, absence of satisfactory approaches and enactment, they are adequately banished from understanding their rights to human services, instruction, and even survival (UNICEF, 2017).
1.5 Aim of the study:
The examination looks to offer more data on styles and practices in training authority. The outcomes could give mentors who are most certainly not working with competitors with physical inabilities. Further, this data will offer experiences into how seen initiative style considers competitors' fulfillment, prompting more compelling training practices. It aims to give the children more influence to achieve their goals in being champions as well as being successful in their sport life and academic life. They would need the influence of their coaches in order to let them know how to deal with them in the ways of talking, reacting and train.
2 Literature Review
First of all, the study “Coach’s Leadership Behavior as a Predictor of Satisfaction with Leadership: Perceptions of Athletes with Physical Disabilities”, Hatamleh, Abu Al-Ruz, and Hindawi attempt to examine the perception of physically disabled children to their coaches’ actions. 63 disabled Jordanian male athletes participating in five different national sports were involved in the data collection process. Various types of analysis were used in analyzing data to answer the study questions. The results showed a moderate-to-high satisfaction among disabled athletes with their coaches’ leadership across all actions and subsequences.
To support the previous study, this study discusses the desire to participate and enjoy physical activities inside and outside the school with children with physical disabilities. It includes activities they are participating. How often, with whom, where, and how enjoyable they find these activities. The data are based on interviews with 149 children who were subjected to three weeks of rehabilitation at Beitostølen Healthsports Centre in Norway. The scale of participation for activities was determined at the start of the rehabilitation period. The study shows a high level of activity, participation and enjoyment during the three weeks period. It also showed that they wanted to be more active that what they already are.
In addition to the support, this study aims to investigate the outcome of feedback on the freestyle swimming learning and performance. Sixty first year male students were randomly conducted to four groups: self-modeling, expert-modeling, verbal, and control group. The research program lasted for seven weeks. Participants were evaluated by a 25m freestyle swim through three tests: a pre-test, a post-test and a retention test. The results showed that the self-modeling group was the most effective in comparison with the other groups. It also showed that there are no differences between the groups when it comes to the speed performance of a 25m freestyle swimming. Overall, the study provides the evidence needed for the effects of self-modeling on their performance and encourages research to further explore such effects between different types of feedback in real training conditions.
Likewise, Bantjesa, Swartz, Conchara, Dermanc (2015) are promoting how young athletes with disabilities in countries that are developing and have a limited access to sport opportunities and comparing it to their living experience. The interviews were set to 15 youngsters with cerebral palsy living in South Africa. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The research suggested that sporting directors should allow participants with physical disabilities to involve in sporting programs.
Moreover, Gaskin, Andersen, Morris (2009) used a life experience of the life of a 25 years old woman with a cerebral palsy. They interviewed her and mother about her life involvement in sports and physical activity. The interview was recorded and transcribed. For her, engagement in physical activity she became more physically active in her adultery than her childhood. She had been using a psychodynamic theory. It helped her raise her self-esteem.
By the same token, Pontifex, Fine, Da Cruz, Parks, Smith, physical activity can be an effective approach for children mental disorder development. It also indicated that physical activity improves mental health and class performance with ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. The review identifies the challenges to the promote physical activity clinical practice and educational police.
After what is previously mentioned, this leads us to conclude that sport psychology is widely studied. But it wasn’t studied well in a country like Egypt where disabled children don’t
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