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  • Published on: 21st September 2019
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Yemen is also known as the happy Yemen , it is an Arab country located in western Asia , occupying south Arabia , the southern end of the Arabian peninsula, Yemen is the  2nd  largest country in the peninsula occupying 527,970 km2.

The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km it is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the red sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea to the south, Oman to the east-northeast.

Yemen’s constitutionally stated capital  is the city of Sanaa ,due  to the  fact  the city  has  been under rebel control since February 2015  the capital city has  been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden  which  is on the  southern coast. Yemen’s territory includes more than 200 islands  and one of the largest  of these  islands is Socotra   which is  very well  known  for  its rare  trees and  animals  species  .

Talking  more  about  history  Yemen was the home  of the sabaeans ( which is biblically known Sheba) .it was  a  trading  state that flourished  over a  thousand years and probably  also  included parts of the modern-day Ethiopia & Eritrea .

In 275 AD, the shebian region came under the rule  of the  later  Jewish-influenced Himyarite, as we know the  Jewish religion 1st started  in Yemen and it  was the  1st religion that Yemeni’s have  believed  in , before  that Yemen’s  population used to worship fire .Christianity arrived in the 4th century ,whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established .Islam spread quickly in the 7th century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of  the early Islamic conquests.

Furthermore, the  administration of Yemen has historically  been notoriously difficult, several dynasties emerged from the 19th to 16th centuries ,the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous ,( the Rasulid  dynasty is  a Muslim dynasty that  ruled Yemen  from 1225-1454).Yemen was divided between the ottoman & the  British empires in the early twentieth century.

The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after the 1st world war in the north part of Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republican 1962. The southern Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until the 1967 when it became an independent ,later  on it became  a Marxist state. The two Yemen state united forming a modern republic of Yemen in 1990.

Yemen  is  a  developing country and it is the  poorest country in the middle  east which  was under the  rule  of  president  Ali Abdullah Saleh until 2011 .

Yemen has been a state of political crisis since 2011, starting with a street protest against poverty, unemployment, corruption and president Saleh’s plan to amend Yemen’s constitution and in order to eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life .president Salehh stepped down  and  the powers of the presidency were transferred to the vice president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected as president on the 21st of February 2012 in  a  one  man election .The transitional process was disrupted by conflicts between Houthis & al-islah , as well as al Qaeda insurgency .on September  2014, the Houthis took over  Sana’a , later declaring themselves in control of the government . Since Houthis took control over Sana’a the Saudi-led intervention has taken place, however it could not stop the civil war. The Saudi-led intervention has caused a massive damage to the Yemeni infrastructure and has resulted in the bombing if hospitals, funeral processions among other civilian targets.

   2-The Arab spring

The Arab spring is also known as the democracy spring , it was a  revolutionary wave  of both violent and non-violent demonstrations , protest, riots, coups and  civil  wars in  north Africa  and the middle east which  began on the 17th of December 2010 in  Tunisia  with  the Tunisian Revolution and spread to the countries  of the Arab league & its surroundings .

The Tunisian revolution effect spread strongly to five other countries : Libya ,Egypt, Yemen, Syria,& Iraq countries where either the  regime was toppled  or  major uprisings and  social violence occurred , including  civil wars or  insurgencies

The countries that had major insurgencies are  Syria, Libya and yemen  resulted along with civil uprising in Egypt & Bahrain following large Street demonstrations took place in Morocco,  Algeria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman& Sudan minor protests occurred in countries such as Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian territories, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and the Moroccan controlled Western Sahara. The major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world was إسقاط النظام الشعب يريد (The people want to bring down the regime)

The wave of the initial revolutions & protests faded by the mid of 2012, taking into consideration that many demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro government militias and counter demonstrators. Those attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. The large scale conflicts resulted: the Syrian civil war, the Iraqi insurgency so as the civil war, the Egyptian crisis and coup so as the Libyan and Yemen crisis.

A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power went up for grabs across the Arab world. Basically it came down to a contentious between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support of democracy in many Muslim majority states.

Early hopes were made that these popular moves would end up corruption, increase political participation and bring out greater economic equity, quickly collapsed in  the wake of counterrevolutionary moves of the deep state  on Egypt, regional  and  international  interventions in  Bahrain  &Yemen , the destructive war in  Syria &Libya .

Furthermore this was  not the  end  of the  Arab  spring  some countries  still  suffer until today  from  the  Arab spring  not  only  in the level  of  war but also  in the economic  level  countries such  as  Yemen  and Syria  have a high  rate  of  refugees  so  as  a  high  rate of  unemployment  due  to  the  fact that  everything  has been attacked and work  force  has  approximately  been  a  dream ,  Yemen  declared  famine  this  year  due to the fact that  the airports  and all  ports   have been closed, small  cities such  as  AL Hodeida  , Taiz, Aden… etc.  are  suffering   from  a   high  level of famine  taking  into consideration  that  nothing  is left  for  them  to  live .

3-prespective of Yemen:

- Research method (  a  case  study  which shows  the  statistics  of Yemen  since  the  beginning  of the  Arab  spring  until the present moment and what  would be  the circumstances )

- Content:


The Anger And Bitterness Of Southerners Were A Steady Topic And Feature Since The 1994 Defeat Of The Secessionist Motion. This Was Aggravated By Using Several Actions At The A Part Of The Regime Which Southerners Interpreted As Knowingly Meant With An Intention  To Worsen The State Of Affairs, Including The Illegal Assumption  International Idea 17  Which Was Yemen’s ‘Peaceful’ Transition Of Land And Other Property, And The Appointment Of Competitive Northerners To Important Safety And Other Positions. All This Got Here Similarly To The General Deterioration In Dwelling Standards And The Worsening Poverty Expert By The Population Of The South.

1st There Was A Widespread Desire For It  Throughout Yemen ,  For The Population ,Unification Reflected Their  Hopes And Ambitions Therefore For  Politicians It Was Perceived As A Solution To  The Different Problems Which  Where Affecting  The Two Former States . Therefore  The  Discovery Of  Oil Near  The Borders Between Yemen  And  Saudi Arabia Raised The Risk Of  Armed Conflicts In  Drive To Control Access To The Resources , A Conflict  Would  Have  Led Saudi Arabia On  Controlling The Oil  And Both Yemeni  States Losing Control Upon  The  Oil But  Not Only Moreover They Reduced  Support  To  The  People’s Democratic Republic  Of Yemen From States Of  The  Social Bloc  After  1986, When The Perestroika Started  And  Their  Financial Needs  Contracted Matched With A  Crisis Within  The  people’s Democratic Republic  Of Yemen Which  Wasn’t  Welcome Anymore In An  International Level  Than It Was Internally ,At  That Time Both  The people’s Democratic Republic  Of Yemen & The  Yemen Arab Republic Suffered  From A Profound Economic Crises As  Well As The  Crisis Of  Legitimacy For Both  Regimes In  The Case  Of people’s Democratic Republic  Of Yemen As A Result That It Got  From 1986 Bloodletting Between  The  Yemeni Socialist Party Factions , In The Yemen  Arab Republic Due To The Widely Perceived Gap Between Democratic Rhetoric And Actual Dictatorship , During The  1st Years  Of Unification  Was Marked With A  Great Broadening Of Freedom, Including The Emergence Of New  Political Parties And The Flourishing Of  New Media That Aired A Wide Range Of Views .But  This Didn’t Last  Well Before 1994 Civil War ,  During  The  Rule  Of Ali Abdullah Saleh  His Regime Started To Tighten The Noose And  Narrow The Possibilities , There Were Also Associations , Campaigns Which Targeted Seniors Or  Important Figures In The Yemen socialist party . Before The Decade's Over, The Local Government Law (1999) And The Non-Legislative Association Law (2001) Were Firm Pointers That The Saleh Administration Would Not Endure The Development And Operation Of Establishments That May Look To Be Autonomous Of Its Support And Debasement Components. Strikingly, Nearby Races Held In 2001 And 2006 Were Set Apart By More Savagery And Constraint Than Either National Parliamentary (1993, 2003) Or Presidential (1999, 2006) Surveys. The 1999 Presidential Race Was Minimal More Than A Joke, As The Opponent Hopeful Expressly Expressed That He Was Not Looking To Be Chosen And That He Upheld Saleh. In Reality, The 2006 Presidential Decision Was The First In Which There Was Some Genuine Similarity Of Resistance, With The Joint Meeting Gatherings (Jmp) Concurring On A Solitary Hopeful, Who Was A Genuine Contender And A Very Regarded Autonomous. The Actuality 16 Universal Thought Yemen, S ‘Serene, Move That, In Spite Of Controls, He Won 23 for Every Penny of the Vote Was A First Sign That Saleh’s Administration May Be Setting Out Toward Inconvenience. The Delay Of The Parliamentary Decisions From 2009 To 2011 (And Now To An Inaccessible Future) Was To A Great Extent Because Of Saleh's Mindfulness That Triumph Was Not Guaranteed, Paying Little Respect To The Controls At The Enrolment Organize (I.E. Sometime Before Global Onlookers Turn Up), In Spite Of The Fact That The Jmp Was Additionally Wanting To Build Its Bolster On Account Of This Postponement.  During The First Decade   Of This Century It Was Characterized By A Number Of Factors And Events Which Led  To Most Witnesses As  Well  As Many Yemeni’s In Order To  Anticipate The End  Of Saleh’s  Regime  The Level Of Oil Production And Exports Were Decreased ., This Probably Was  The Main Principal Factor In The Governments Decline Furthermore  A  High Level Of The Income Was Used In Order To  Finance Saleh’s Support System , Therefore  He Managed To Control Over Most Social Groups  And The Population  At Large ,His Visits  Around The Country Were Greatly Predicted And Welcomed , As He  Normally Travelled With A Large  Sum Of Money , Which  He  Distributed To Local Leaders And  Used  To Finance  A  Variety Of Projects ( Some More Useful Than Others .

Furthermore, Due To The Reduced Income It Also Resulted In A Violent War Between The Main Businesses Kleptocrats Whether From Saleh’s Party (The General People Congress) And From The Islah Which Is (The Main Opposition Party) Or Non-Party-Affiliated Big Businesses All Of The Parties Involved In This Field Were Affected With A Decrease In Income Due To The Decline Of The Oil & Gas.

The  Huthi  Wars  Which  Started In  2004 Were  Six And  Went On  Until 2010,Were Also Very Damaging . An Explanation To Why Saleh Continued In Waging Them Is That The Objective He Had Was To Weaken His Competitors Than To Defeat The Huthi’s, Especially The Military Forces Which Were Led By Ali Mohsen Who By Then Was Saleh’s Competitor, For Saleh His Loss (Or Better Said Death) Would Have Been Welcomed, Such As Ali Mohsen And His Partners Had A Powerful Military & Skills Which Opposed To Saleh’s Plan Which Was To Ensure That His Son Would Run To The Presidency.

The Situation In Yemen Which  Began In  2011 Were Not  An Accident ,The  Former President  Ali Abdullah Saleh Has Ruled Yemen  Since 1978  He  1stly Ruled  The Yemen Arab Republic  After That In 1990  He Started  Ruling The Republic  Of Yemen Which Was Given This Name Due  To  The  Unification  Between   The  Two Parts  United And Yemen Became One Country ,Furthermore  The  Two States  Had  Two  Different Political  Systems The  Unification Was  An Initial Peaceful Transformation  Which  Brought   A Number Of Factors.

The Water Crisis Wasn’t Limited Only To Rural Areas and It Became A Daily Feature for Urban Life In Most Of The Cities.

There was a formal government, which control over the situation was limits’ and was the basic subject to orders from the dominant orders from the ruling party. This  government  was the point of communication for the ‘international community’ in  a more particular  way for  the Bretton woods institutions &other external financing activities which pressed it ( largely in  an unsuccessful way ) in order  to follow their instructions for  development and governance

There Was And Still Is A Getting Worse Water Crisis, In The Country Side Due To The Pumping Of Deep Holes By The Wealthier Because Of The Large Landowners It Resulted In Drying Up Of Shallow Water Levels Used By Smallholders, Who Were Further Needy.

Throughout the country but particularly in rural areas, poverty became growing hastily (irrespective of the world  bank’s announcement to the opposite in its series of poverty assessments and updates), as the population grew, outward migration turned into limited by way of the vacation spot international locations and agriculture stagnated (while there have been few other employment possibilities). Even metropolis dwellers experienced inequality and discovered the difference among the rich minority and all people else, they might witness on a daily foundation the ostentatious wealth of the few senior military officers and different associates of the president and his group. This at a time while the number of beggars in the streets changed into a high level, and when slums and ‘night structures’ have been rising round every capital.

An additional related factor was the rise of ‘Pro-democracy’ nongovernmental organizations (NGO’S) which are sponsored by the United States of America and other states. While the participants and the team were mostly educated lucky youth, this created a group of people with knowledge of popular organizations and loyalty to democratic ideas.

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