Yemen is also known as the happy Yemen , it is an Arab country located in western Asia , occupying south Arabia , the southern end of the Arabian peninsula, Yemen is the 2nd largest country in the peninsula occupying 527,970 km2.
The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km it is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the red sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea to the south, Oman to the east-northeast.
Yemen’s constitutionally stated capital is the city of Sanaa ,due to the fact the city has been under rebel control since February 2015 the capital city has been temporarily relocated to the port city of Aden which is on the southern coast. Yemen’s territory includes more than 200 islands and one of the largest of these islands is Socotra which is very well known for its rare trees and animals species .
Talking more about history Yemen was the home of the sabaeans ( which is biblically known Sheba) .it was a trading state that flourished over a thousand years and probably also included parts of the modern-day Ethiopia & Eritrea .
In 275 AD, the shebian region came under the rule of the later Jewish-influenced Himyarite, as we know the Jewish religion 1st started in Yemen and it was the 1st religion that Yemeni’s have believed in , before that Yemen’s population used to worship fire .Christianity arrived in the 4th century ,whereas Judaism and local paganism were already established .Islam spread quickly in the 7th century and Yemenite troops were crucial in the expansion of the early Islamic conquests.
Furthermore, the administration of Yemen has historically been notoriously difficult, several dynasties emerged from the 19th to 16th centuries ,the Rasulid dynasty being the strongest and most prosperous ,( the Rasulid dynasty is a Muslim dynasty that ruled Yemen from 1225-1454).Yemen was divided between the ottoman & the British empires in the early twentieth century.
The Zaydi Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen was established after the 1st world war in the north part of Yemen before the creation of the Yemen Arab Republican 1962. The southern Yemen remained a British protectorate known as the Aden Protectorate until the 1967 when it became an independent ,later on it became a Marxist state. The two Yemen state united forming a modern republic of Yemen in 1990.
Yemen is a developing country and it is the poorest country in the middle east which was under the rule of president Ali Abdullah Saleh until 2011 .
Yemen has been a state of political crisis since 2011, starting with a street protest against poverty, unemployment, corruption and president Saleh’s plan to amend Yemen’s constitution and in order to eliminate the presidential term limit, in effect making him president for life .president Salehh stepped down and the powers of the presidency were transferred to the vice president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, who was formally elected as president on the 21st of February 2012 in a one man election .The transitional process was disrupted by conflicts between Houthis & al-islah , as well as al Qaeda insurgency .on September 2014, the Houthis took over Sana’a , later declaring themselves in control of the government . Since Houthis took control over Sana’a the Saudi-led intervention has taken place, however it could not stop the civil war. The Saudi-led intervention has caused a massive damage to the Yemeni infrastructure and has resulted in the bombing if hospitals, funeral processions among other civilian targets.
2-The Arab spring
The Arab spring is also known as the democracy spring , it was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations , protest, riots, coups and civil wars in north Africa and the middle east which began on the 17th of December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution and spread to the countries of the Arab league & its surroundings .
The Tunisian revolution effect spread strongly to five other countries : Libya ,Egypt, Yemen, Syria,& Iraq countries where either the regime was toppled or major uprisings and social violence occurred , including civil wars or insurgencies
The countries that had major insurgencies are Syria, Libya and yemen resulted along with civil uprising in Egypt & Bahrain following large Street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Algeria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman& Sudan minor protests occurred in countries such as Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian territories, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and the Moroccan controlled Western Sahara. The major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world was إسقاط النظام الشعب يريد (The people want to bring down the regime)
The wave of the initial revolutions & protests faded by the mid of 2012, taking into consideration that many demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro government militias and counter demonstrators. Those attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. The large scale conflicts resulted: the Syrian civil war, the Iraqi insurgency so as the civil war, the Egyptian crisis and coup so as the Libyan and Yemen crisis.
A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power went up for grabs across the Arab world. Basically it came down to a contentious between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support of democracy in many Muslim majority states.
Early hopes were made that these popular moves would end up corruption, increase political participation and bring out greater economic equity, quickly collapsed in the wake of counterrevolutionary moves of the deep state on Egypt, regional and international interventions in Bahrain &Yemen , the destructive war in Syria &Libya .
Furthermore this was not the end of the Arab spring some countries still suffer until today from the Arab spring not only in the level of war but also in the economic level countries such as Yemen and Syria have a high rate of refugees so as a high rate of unemployment due to the fact that everything has been attacked and work force has approximately been a dream , Yemen declared famine this year due to the fact that the airports and all ports have been closed, small cities such as AL Hodeida , Taiz, Aden… etc. are suffering from a high level of famine taking into consideration that nothing is left for them to live .
3-prespective of Yemen:
- Research method ( a case study which shows the statistics of Yemen since the beginning of the Arab spring until the present moment and what would be the circumstances )
CHAPTER 1: YEMEN BEFORE THE ARAB SPRING
The Anger And Bitterness Of Southerners Were A Steady Topic And Feature Since The 1994 Defeat Of The Secessionist Motion. This Was Aggravated By Using Several Actions At The A Part Of The Regime Which Southerners Interpreted As Knowingly Meant With An Intention To Worsen The State Of Affairs, Including The Illegal Assumption International Idea 17 Which Was Yemen’s ‘Peaceful’ Transition Of Land And Other Property, And The Appointment Of Competitive Northerners To Important Safety And Other Positions. All This Got Here Similarly To The General Deterioration In Dwelling Standards And The Worsening Poverty Expert By The Population Of The South.
1st There Was A Widespread Desire For It Throughout Yemen , For The Population ,Unification Reflected Their Hopes And Ambitions Therefore For Politicians It Was Perceived As A Solution To The Different Problems Which Where Affecting The Two Former States . Therefore The Discovery Of Oil Near The Borders Between Yemen And Saudi Arabia Raised The Risk Of Armed Conflicts In Drive To Control Access To The Resources , A Conflict Would Have Led Saudi Arabia On Controlling The Oil And Both Yemeni States Losing Control Upon The Oil But Not Only Moreover They Reduced Support To The People’s Democratic Republic Of Yemen From States Of The Social Bloc After 1986, When The Perestroika Started And Their Financial Needs Contracted Matched With A Crisis Within The people’s Democratic Republic Of Yemen Which Wasn’t Welcome Anymore In An International Level Than It Was Internally ,At That Time Both The people’s Democratic Republic Of Yemen & The Yemen Arab Republic Suffered From A Profound Economic Crises As Well As The Crisis Of Legitimacy For Both Regimes In The Case Of people’s Democratic Republic Of Yemen As A Result That It Got From 1986 Bloodletting Between The Yemeni Socialist Party Factions , In The Yemen Arab Republic Due To The Widely Perceived Gap Between Democratic Rhetoric And Actual Dictatorship , During The 1st Years Of Unification Was Marked With A Great Broadening Of Freedom, Including The Emergence Of New Political Parties And The Flourishing Of New Media That Aired A Wide Range Of Views .But This Didn’t Last Well Before 1994 Civil War , During The Rule Of Ali Abdullah Saleh His Regime Started To Tighten The Noose And Narrow The Possibilities , There Were Also Associations , Campaigns Which Targeted Seniors Or Important Figures In The Yemen socialist party . Before The Decade's Over, The Local Government Law (1999) And The Non-Legislative Association Law (2001) Were Firm Pointers That The Saleh Administration Would Not Endure The Development And Operation Of Establishments That May Look To Be Autonomous Of Its Support And Debasement Components. Strikingly, Nearby Races Held In 2001 And 2006 Were Set Apart By More Savagery And Constraint Than Either National Parliamentary (1993, 2003) Or Presidential (1999, 2006) Surveys. The 1999 Presidential Race Was Minimal More Than A Joke, As The Opponent Hopeful Expressly Expressed That He Was Not Looking To Be Chosen And That He Upheld Saleh. In Reality, The 2006 Presidential Decision Was The First In Which There Was Some Genuine Similarity Of Resistance, With The Joint Meeting Gatherings (Jmp) Concurring On A Solitary Hopeful, Who Was A Genuine Contender And A Very Regarded Autonomous. The Actuality 16 Universal Thought Yemen, S ‘Serene, Move That, In Spite Of Controls, He Won 23 for Every Penny of the Vote Was A First Sign That Saleh’s Administration May Be Setting Out Toward Inconvenience. The Delay Of The Parliamentary Decisions From 2009 To 2011 (And Now To An Inaccessible Future) Was To A Great Extent Because Of Saleh's Mindfulness That Triumph Was Not Guaranteed, Paying Little Respect To The Controls At The Enrolment Organize (I.E. Sometime Before Global Onlookers Turn Up), In Spite Of The Fact That The Jmp Was Additionally Wanting To Build Its Bolster On Account Of This Postponement. During The First Decade Of This Century It Was Characterized By A Number Of Factors And Events Which Led To Most Witnesses As Well As Many Yemeni’s In Order To Anticipate The End Of Saleh’s Regime The Level Of Oil Production And Exports Were Decreased ., This Probably Was The Main Principal Factor In The Governments Decline Furthermore A High Level Of The Income Was Used In Order To Finance Saleh’s Support System , Therefore He Managed To Control Over Most Social Groups And The Population At Large ,His Visits Around The Country Were Greatly Predicted And Welcomed , As He Normally Travelled With A Large Sum Of Money , Which He Distributed To Local Leaders And Used To Finance A Variety Of Projects ( Some More Useful Than Others .
Furthermore, Due To The Reduced Income It Also Resulted In A Violent War Between The Main Businesses Kleptocrats Whether From Saleh’s Party (The General People Congress) And From The Islah Which Is (The Main Opposition Party) Or Non-Party-Affiliated Big Businesses All Of The Parties Involved In This Field Were Affected With A Decrease In Income Due To The Decline Of The Oil & Gas.
The Huthi Wars Which Started In 2004 Were Six And Went On Until 2010,Were Also Very Damaging . An Explanation To Why Saleh Continued In Waging Them Is That The Objective He Had Was To Weaken His Competitors Than To Defeat The Huthi’s, Especially The Military Forces Which Were Led By Ali Mohsen Who By Then Was Saleh’s Competitor, For Saleh His Loss (Or Better Said Death) Would Have Been Welcomed, Such As Ali Mohsen And His Partners Had A Powerful Military & Skills Which Opposed To Saleh’s Plan Which Was To Ensure That His Son Would Run To The Presidency.
The Situation In Yemen Which Began In 2011 Were Not An Accident ,The Former President Ali Abdullah Saleh Has Ruled Yemen Since 1978 He 1stly Ruled The Yemen Arab Republic After That In 1990 He Started Ruling The Republic Of Yemen Which Was Given This Name Due To The Unification Between The Two Parts United And Yemen Became One Country ,Furthermore The Two States Had Two Different Political Systems The Unification Was An Initial Peaceful Transformation Which Brought A Number Of Factors.
The Water Crisis Wasn’t Limited Only To Rural Areas and It Became A Daily Feature for Urban Life In Most Of The Cities.
There was a formal government, which control over the situation was limits’ and was the basic subject to orders from the dominant orders from the ruling party. This government was the point of communication for the ‘international community’ in a more particular way for the Bretton woods institutions &other external financing activities which pressed it ( largely in an unsuccessful way ) in order to follow their instructions for development and governance
There Was And Still Is A Getting Worse Water Crisis, In The Country Side Due To The Pumping Of Deep Holes By The Wealthier Because Of The Large Landowners It Resulted In Drying Up Of Shallow Water Levels Used By Smallholders, Who Were Further Needy.
Throughout the country but particularly in rural areas, poverty became growing hastily (irrespective of the world bank’s announcement to the opposite in its series of poverty assessments and updates), as the population grew, outward migration turned into limited by way of the vacation spot international locations and agriculture stagnated (while there have been few other employment possibilities). Even metropolis dwellers experienced inequality and discovered the difference among the rich minority and all people else, they might witness on a daily foundation the ostentatious wealth of the few senior military officers and different associates of the president and his group. This at a time while the number of beggars in the streets changed into a high level, and when slums and ‘night structures’ have been rising round every capital.
An additional related factor was the rise of ‘Pro-democracy’ nongovernmental organizations (NGO’S) which are sponsored by the United States of America and other states. While the participants and the team were mostly educated lucky youth, this created a group of people with knowledge of popular organizations and loyalty to democratic ideas.
...(download the rest of the essay above)