Firstly, to be considered effective, a leader must deliver outcomes that meet the needs of the overall group. The leader must care about the entire group and not just about himself. Some argue that it is impossible to please everybody. However, effective leaders will make decisions based on the group’s most urgent needs. In the “Lord of the Flies”, Ralph says: “The fire's the most important thing. Without the fire we can't be rescued. I'd like to put on war-paint and be a savage. But we must keep the fire burning. . .” (Golding, 142) Ralph understands that the top priority for the group is to be rescued, even if that means sacrificing his opportunity to have fun. Ralph demonstrates effective leadership by focusing on the needs of the society, such as maintaining the rescue signal, establishing rules for the assemblies, building shelters and creating more sanitary conditions on the island. On the other hand, Jack only cares about his own desire to have fun and hunt. He says: “Listen all of you. Me and my hunters, we're living along the beach by a flat rock. We hunt and feast and have fun . . .” (Golding, 127) Jack's ineffectiveness as a leader is shown when the group misses their chance to be rescued because he chooses to go hunting rather than keep the rescue fire burning. Moral leaders that care about their groups are more effective at creating societies that have a higher standard of living. Immoral leaders try to build wealth through corruption, or keep food and other resources for themselves. This results in the population suffering. According to ABC news, during his reign as dictator in Iraq, Saddam Hussein had over $2 billion, even though the country's poverty rate was over 50%. Due to his immorality, Hussein was ineffective at leading his people, which was clearly shown when he was executed for crimes against humanity in 2006. Immoral Leaders like Hussein are not effective because they do not make decisions that are for the greater good.
Secondly, to be an effective leader, one needs the moral character necessary to gain the trust and support of the population. People are more confident and accepting of the vision and decisions of leaders who are honest and treat everyone equally and with respect. On the other hand, dictators who use fear, threats and lies to manipulate people into accepting their decisions are often unable to maintain their power. According to the Forbes Leadership Forum, trust is the most important attribute in leaders: “. . . if people don’t trust you, you will never get the results you want.” In the “Lord of the Flies”, after Roger kills Piggy, Jack says: "See? See? That's what you'll get! I meant that! There isn't a tribe for you anymore!" (Golding, 181 ) This is a warning not just to Ralph, but to the rest of his tribe on what will happen if they disobey him. Throughout the book, Jack creates an atmosphere of fear over the presence of a beast so that the other boys feel the need to be protected by him. Jack also physically abuses the boys to maintain control. However, when Ralph is leader, he communicates his ideas clearly and is concerned about the well-being of the other boys. Jack declares himself as chief of his tribe, whereas at the beginning of the book, Ralph respects the rights of the boys to vote for their chief. One can argue that at the end of the book, Jack has most of the boys on his side. However, it is likely that if they had not been rescued, Jack would have have been betrayed or replaced as chief. A lack of trust in a leader usually results in that person being removed from power. History has shown that most dictators are removed after only a short period in power. The average reign of the past 220 dictators is only 12,5 years. One of these dictators, Idi Amin, was overthrown by his own troops after 8 years. Many other immoral dictators such as Hitler, Mussolini and Gaddafi were either executed or committed suicide. Immoral leaders may grab power through manipulation, but they usually lack the support to keep it for long.
Thirdly, an effective leader seeks advice from the group. Leaders must consider suggestions and not feel as though only their opinions matter. A study by Stanford University indicates that people work harder and take ownership of their responsibilities if they feel included, heard and valued. In the “Lord of the flies”, Ralph is an inclusive leader. He establishes rules that ensure that everyone has an opportunity to voice their opinions. He states: "And another thing. We can't have everybody talking at once. We'll have to have 'Hands up' like at school." Ralph understands that using ideas from the whole group is required to achieve the best possible outcome. For example, Ralph accepts Piggy’s suggestion to build shelters and Jack’s suggestion to hunt for food and use the specs to start the fire. In contrast, Jack is constantly telling Piggy to “shut up” and repeatedly prevents the other boys from talking. He says: “It's time some people knew they've got to keep quiet and leave deciding things to the rest of us.” He does not accept that others can have worthwhile ideas. As an inclusive leader, Ralph shows concern for the morale of the group. he is constantly reassuring everyone that they are getting rescued and that there is no beast on the island. Some leaders may think that asking for opinions shows a lack of confidence; however, including others in the decision making process is a strong motivator. Data has shown that a sense of belonging motivates a team. In a survey of more than 1,500 employees from 6 countries, 42% of the employees reported that inclusiveness contributes to the generation of ideas, while 46% responded that it helps accomplish team objectives. Effective leaders consider everyone's ideas before making decisions.
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