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  • Subject area(s): Business
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  • Published on: 21st September 2019
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Power point slide 2: Elton Mayo

Elton Mayo believed that intrinsic motivation such as human relations through communication and encouragement was a better way of motivating workers rather than extrinsically through offering them money in exchange for effort, to prove this Elton Mayo preformed the Hawthorne study experiment to prove that people are important for productivity and not just machines.

Human relations school is a good way to motivating workers because it focuses on individual attention, recognition and having a good relationship with the employees, which through the Hawthorne study proved is the most influencing factor towards work productivity.

Through his experiment and research Elton Mayo came up with the conclusion that to motivate workers efficiently “Individual employees must be seen as members of a group, Salary and good working conditions are less important for employees and a sense of belonging to a group, Informal groups in the workplace have a strong influence on the behaviour of employees in said group, Managers must take social needs, such as belonging to an (informal) group, seriously.” (Muler, 2017)

Power point slide 3: Fredrick Taylor

Classical management theory came into mainstream after the industrial revelation; this was made possible through the work of Fredrick Taylor.  Fredrick Taylor noticed the lack of standard tools and techniques, no match between skill and job and the lack of motivation for managers. The aim of classical management was to improve work productivity by providing workers with the necessary tools to maximize their efficiency and output.  This was very effective in motivation workers due to the fact that Fredrick Taylor introduced the piece rate system to extrinsically motivate people to work harder and faster, which meant the harder and faster an individual worked the more money they earned. Thanks to Fredrick Taylor’s management theory workers were individually trained to perform specific tasks and operate certain machinery which gave them a sense of belonging and also made them feel valued which in turn boosted the production and employees were intrinsically motivated to perform better, work hard and faster.

Classical management theory use Monetary Incentive, which has proven to be a very effective tool of motivation for the workers by giving them a little incentive to look forward to motivate them to work harder, this also makes the employees feel appreciated when they are rewarded for their hard work.

The disadvantage of Classical management theory is that “It is focused on specialization and repetition of jobs to increase the productivity which reduces innovation and creativity and promotes monotony” (course hero, 2017)

The development of management theory from Classical management to human relations school of thought came when Henry L Grantt an associate of F.W. Taylor improved Taylorism by giving bonuses in the form of extra wages for extra work, which was a more humanistic approach into managing staff.

Taylorism is “Production efficiency methodology that breaks every action, job, or task into small and simple segments which can be easily analyzed and taught. Introduced in the early 20th century, Taylorism (1) aims to achieve maximum job fragmentation to minimize skill requirements and job learning time, (2) separates execution of work from work-planning, (3) separates direct labour from indirect labour (4) replaces rule of thumb productivity estimates with precise measurements, (5) introduces time and motion study for optimum job performance, cost accounting, tool and work station design, and (6) makes possible payment-by-result method of wage determination.” (Business Dictionary, 2017)

“Henri Fayol (1841 – 1925) was a French coal-mine engineer, director of mines and modern management theoretician. His scientific management theory forms the base for business administration and business management. In the academic world, this is also known as Fayolism. Henri Fayol provided one of the most influential modern management concepts of his time. He is founder of the 14 Principles of management and the five functions of management.

Max Weber

“Max Weber, (born April 21, 1864, Erfurt, Prussia [Germany]—died June 14, 1920, Munich, Germany), German sociologist and political economist best known for his thesis of the “Protestant ethic,” relating Protestantism to capitalism, and for his ideas on bureaucracy. Weber’s profound influence on sociological theory stems from his demand for objectivity in scholarship and from his analysis of the motives behind human action.” (Mitzman, 2018)

Fred Fielder

Fred fielder is the father of the contingency theory; this theory shows the relationship (contingency) between leadership effectiveness and situational circumstances.

Geert Hofstede

Geert Hofstede conducted a research study on the effects of cultural different between people and how it affects the work place.

 Geert Hofstede has also written a lot of books such as:


  • Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Michael Minkov, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 2010

  • Geert Hofstede, Gert Jan Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 2005

  • Gert Jan Hofstede, Paul Pedersen, Geert Hofstede, Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures.Intercultural Press, 2002

  • Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. 2nd Edition, Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001

  • Geert Hofstede, Masculinity and Femininity: The Taboo Dimension of National Cultures. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 1998

  • Geert Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. 1st edition, McGraw-Hill USA, 1997

  • Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications, 1980” (HofstedeInsights, 2017)”

    Alfred Chandler

    “Almost single-handedly, Alfred Chandler (1918-2007) invented the study of business history. He was first and foremost a historian, and completed his PhD at Harvard University in 1952. Ten years later he published his classic business book, “Strategy and Structure”, in which he argued that all successful companies must have a structure that matches their strategy (and not, as many had assumed until then, the other way round).  He based his theory on an extensive study of large American corporations between the years 1850 and 1920—corporations such as Du Pont, General Motors and Sears, Roebuck.” (Alfred Chandler, 2009)

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