What is an intervention?
“An intervention is a set of planned activities intended to help an organization improve its performance and effectiveness. Effective interventions are designed to fit the needs of the organization, are based on causal knowledge of intended outcome, and transfer competence to manage change to organization members.” (Cummings and Worley, 2009)
To fulfil these, four several organizational factors should be taken into consideration: readiness for change, change capability, cultural context and capabilities of the change agent (Cummings and Worley, 2009). These tools are called to life to fulfil change within the culture of an organisation and need to be implemented in every layer of the organisation (Boonstra, 2013). There are many different kind of interventions for MCH, such as human process interventions, human resource interventions and strategic interventions (Cummings and Worley, 2009).
Human process interventions
To create organisational development (OD) including improvement within group dynamics and relations between the employees, interventions are the most popular tool to use (Cummings and Worley, 2009) (Boonstra, 2013). Interventions are made to help members of groups to asses their working style and proceed to a more effective way of working (Cummings and Christopher G. Worley, 2009). Ways to fulfil this are process consultations, third party interventions and team building (Ibid). These ways help to get employees understand, diagnose and improve their working style (Ibid).
Consultations should help the employees to make full use of the companies resources, improve their communication within the company, maturity, leadership and authority to empower them to solve problems internally on their own, so interpersonal work related problems could be removed. (Cummings and Worley, 2009) A third party intervention only focuses on issues between employees, but is only used for special occasions if the employees are willing to have a direct confrontation (Ibid). Lastly team building is there to improve the personal satisfaction and team performance through activities (Ibid).
Human resource interventions
For Human resource interventions there are three types: goal setting, performance appraisal and reward system (Cummings and Worley, 2009). Through the goal setting interventions challenges are being made by setting difficult but feasible goals with measurements of performance by employee and management (Ibid). Performance appraisals are the link between goal setting and the reward system in this stage of interventions (Ibid). The goals are being checked and feedback on the performance is given to improve the work outcomes (Cummings and Worley, 2009). Reward system is made to maintain the desired performance and can be given to individuals or groups and will influence the employees’ performance positively (Ibid).
In the human resources interventions section there are also workforce diversity interventions (WDI) and employee stress and wellness interventions (ESWI) (Cummings and Worley, 2009). WDI are implemented to satisfy the staff in the more diverse getting working atmosphere at companies (Ibid). ESWI are implemented to keep a healthy working atmosphere for employees (Ibid).
These are interventions that help organizations transform themselves to chose the right strategy to change the company (Boonstra, 2013). Strategic interventions can occur on every level of the organisation but is mostly used to change the entire system of a company (Cummings and Worley, 2009). There are 3 different kind of strategic interventions: integrated strategic change (ISC), organization design and culture change (Ibid). ISC is a very extended OD intervention and can be used to change the organizational system and strategy to add value by deducing internal and external disruptions (Ibid). An organizational design intervention can be used to redesign the organizations’ structure (Cummings and Worley, 2009). At last the culture change intervention is used to develop or change the culture within the company with certain behaviour, values and norms to get every employee in the same direction (Ibid).
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