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III. The Protestant Reformation is where a lot of changes took place in 16th century Europe where religion, politics, intelligence, and culture would be redefined by Martin Luther. He was a rebel against the Catholic Church where he was trying to reveal the pope and its officials as the robbers and the most hypocritical people of all. Just the idea of hell was used against the good people in exchange for monetary goods such as money and goods. He had much influence over the Germans by being able to translate the bible and teach them that this is not the way and that God was a forgiving father. He was very influential in starting a civil where he had influenced Germans to not believe in what the Italian papacy was feeding them. Luther was going to change a lot of things in the religious perspective. He took a lot of power away from the pope, exposing a lot of corruption, but also opening the eyes of countries that were in complete belief of what was offered to them. The Protestant Reformation happened during the years of 1517 to 1648 at the University of Wittenburg where Martin Luther taught and then spread throughout the country of Germany with making its way to Switzerland many parts of Western Europe.

King Henry VIII, second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, reigned during a large portion of the Reclamation. The severing of religious connections with the pope was almost strictly political due to the Pope’s rejection of annulling his marriage with Catherine. He chose a different archbishop who then granted the annulment, allowing him to marry Anne. Still no boy was born to give heir to the throne. This caused anger and frustration leading to the beheading of Anne.

IV.

A.  Christopher Columbus sailed several times across the Atlantic from Spain to American, in 1492, 1493, 1498, and 1502. He initially wanted to figure out how to get from Europe to Asia, but that was not the case at this point. This lead to him reaching America. There was an “Age of Discovery” where Portugal was of the first to propose expeditions that would allow explorers to find and discover new lands that would lead to great wealth and fame. Christopher believed that you could sail through the Atlantic to essentially reach Asia much faster and being able to bypass having to go around the horn of Africa. His math led him to believe this was possible but was obviously incorrect as he was able to find America. The whole purpose of being able to get to Asia by water was to avoid the arduous and dangerous trip on foot. Two monarchs, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, believed in Christopher, in regard to his theory. The monarchs had the main goal of using Christopher to deliver Catholicism to the West, but with the obvious goals of fortune and fame. He essentially failed every time he went across the Atlantic with a new task. Anywhere from the broken Hispaniola settlement to the loss of men at Panama. He was an explorer at best, but fundamentally failed at all of the intended tasks.

B. Native American Indians, mainly in the Northeast, lived anywhere from the Atlantic coast of North Carolina to the River valley of Mississippi. They had small farms and villages that specialized in fishing that lived on the Atlantic coast. The Iroquois and Algonquians ended up fighting each other due to white settlement pressure from their unexpected arrival and their push to the west. The Central/South American Indians had a lot fertile lands in Northeast Mexico which wallowed for a lot variety with crops. It seems like it was a lot more difficult to navigate and control in comparison to the north due to there being over 200,000 inhabitants with a lot of city grounds to cover. It was a complete disaster for the conquistadors, but it seems that small pox disease and supporting anti-Aztec Indians caused the Aztecs to surrender.

Religion was getting pushed in Mexico by the Spaniards due to priests and officials getting placed within the country. The Columbian Exchange was followed after Christopher’s voyage, which brought upon a lot of transferring of ideas, technology, cultures, plants, from the Americas to Europe and back. A lot of viruses were passed such as, smallpox, chickenpox, malaria, measles, and many more diseases. Many cultures were destroyed due to these diseases and the many deaths that resulted after.

C. The English settlers dealt with many problems that included poor leadership, government, hostile Indians, and starvation. The settlers were attacked within only 3 days of attempting to settle in Jamestown. Many died due to starvation and disease. Also, the land didn’t help at all due it being marshy and with having a huge lack of “safe” drinking water. Captain John Smith lead Jamestown from being a complete failure. He stated the rule that if you did not work, you did not eat. He directed in getting shelters and fences build to defend from the reoccurring attacks from the Algonquian Indians. They ended up making nice with the Indians after the confederation lead by Chief Powhatan. There was a period where the Indians did not want to trade, but the colonists learned how to cultivate tobacco, which led to monetary success. This caused the idea of indentured servants to be pursued and supported in order to maximize profits from cheap labor.

D.  The Massachusetts Bay Colony was intended to be a holy Protestant commonwealth. This is where Congregationalists wanted to purify the church from within instead of separating from it. The self-governing membership was very limited into who was able to represent the church with major respect to being able to demonstrate proof of God’s gift. There supposed to be a concept of “a city upon a hill” as far as freedom of religion was supposed to go, but the Puritans tolerated no other religions, which caused them to make clear of them in their area. This idea of freedom religion is compared in a way where our country was built in legislation to allow freedom of speech and religion, but in this case, there wasn’t much actual “freedom” as intended. The Great Awakening was considered a to be an impactful, religious revival that was supposed to create a movement during 1730s to 1740s. Secular rationalism was being pushed during this time with challenges being created for religion. During these times Christian religions have maintained a level of resiliency in regard to maintaining their core values. The Great Awakening had a huge impact with getting the people to rededicate themselves to their religion. This also had a huge impact on culture. George Whitefield was the most popular promoter during the Great Awakening. Johnathan Edwards also caused spiritual transformation during these times in major regards towards revivalism during the 1730s.

E. The Mercantile System was a system used in 18th century Europe to increase the wealth of the nation by the regulation of commercial interest through the help of the government. Being that mercantilism was the main operative part of Europe’s economic system, it was controlled by the government in a way that involved their engagement through mercantilism by promoting exporting more than importing, but also increasing their supply of high value metals. This was especially accomplished through the use of tariffs. Their premise was to increase their wealth by manipulating the trade system. The colonies played an important role in this instance because they were the ones to produce the raw materials but were only allowed to trade with the motherland (England). Furthermore, due to their forced trade with England, this allowed for industrial development and jobs in England. It was not successful because the colonials started to trade directly with the western Indians and Danish countries rather than England. This is what lead to their decrease in wealth. It was a step by step beneficial manner of being able to trade commodities for other commodities in systematic steps before returning back to home. The first leg involved British ships traveling to West Africa where items like guns, clothing, and rum was exchanged for slaves, which then the second leg brought them (the slaves) to American ports where the raw materials (timber and commodities) were brought back to Britain (Europe).

F. The French and Indian War came out of the Seven Years’ War. This involved the colonial powers, but the biggest fighting portion was in between the two countries of Great Britain and France. The supposed winner, would have “control” of N. America. There was a big competition between the two countries for the ancestral Indian lands. They were located in the Ohio Valley. Having this control would have the key to the major gain of the entire continent. The whole war was between 1754-1763, but it specifically started during the Spring of 1754. What started the war was when the Virginians ambushed the French scouting party, killing ten soldiers. There was a small team of Virginians and British soldiers in western Pennsylvania. Washington had a terrible loss of 300 men while the French and their Indian allies lost only a couple men. This all caused a “world war.” William Pit became the new British leader in 1757. He paid Prussia to fight in Europe. He then paid back the colonies for the troops in N. America. He borrowed a lot financially for the victory. It was referred to as the “world war” due to the war involving, Hanover, Prussia, Britain, Sweden, Russia, Austria, France, North America, India, the Caribbean, and even the Philippines.

V. Lost Colony – It was the late attempts in 1500s of where the English first settled in North America on Roanoke Island. This is where 120 English settlers disappeared mysteriously with no explanation. The second colony also disappeared, but the was no clear understanding if they had been killed by the Wanchese tribe or joined the Croatoan Natives.

Indentured servitude – This concept was common in British North America where it was way for poor people from Europe to move to the colonies but signed an agreement to cover for the costs.

Bacon’s Rebellion – Involves a rebellion that was against the rule of Governor William Berkeley. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon in 1676. This was important because it was the first rebellion, but also was developed because of unfair taxes and the selling of tobacco at low prices.

Treaty of Paris – Occurred in 1763 and involved the controlling of French colonies by the British. This included the high profiting “sugar island” colonies, North American possessions that were in the East of the Mississippi, Canada, and even Spanish Florida, and colonies in India. This was the highest point for Great Britain during the “world war.”

Carolina Rice – During Colonial Period, 1685, involved coastal South Carolina, which became the biggest producer of rice. It was a dominating commodity that lasted until the finishing of the Civil War.

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