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Annotated Bibliography and Outline

Christy M. Taylor

Grand Canyon University:  PSY-802

August 8, 2018

Axelrod, S. D. (2012). “Self-awareness”: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340-357. doi: 10.1080/07351690.2011.609364

The primary topic of interest that Axelrod presented in his research was focused on executive consultation and how it is typically and primarily used by firms and employees who hold leadership roles.  Axelrod presented accurate information in the form of a qualitative method.  Axelrod’s research identified the notion that utilizing executive level consultants will provide a firm or leading employee the opportunity for self-reflection which will ultimately allow the firm or individual to achieve self-awareness.  In scenarios such as these, a consultant would allow the individual to examine their own strength and weaknesses when analyzing relationships that are interpersonal.  Relationships such as these, especially at the executive level are significant because should there be any form of negativity in the relationship, that negativity could significantly impact the organization.  The purpose of the consultant allows for the opportunity to mend relationships, improve interpersonal relationship, stronger leadership and more to happen.  Transference and resistance exist in these relationships.  Resistance, in this case, was found when subordinates, colleagues, etc.… were asked to complete a survey on the firm or employees in leadership positions.  The leaders of the firms will likely see their weaknesses identified and are fearful of change.  In general, Axelrod’s research suggested interpersonal relationships are significantly more important when looking at them at the executive leadership level.  Retaining a consultant only allow for the opportunity to improve interpersonal relationships when evaluating self-reflection along with self-awareness.  Lastly, it is inevitable for resistance and transference to occur when utilizing the services of an executive consultant.

Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Social psychological theories: Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan. (pp. 114-156). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.  doi:10.1037/10910-004

In their research, Hall and Lindzey suggested social psychologist are the framework of the psychology field.  Adler, Fromm, Horney and Sullivan are noteworthy social psychologists that were identified in their research.  In respect to Adler’s work, his interest depicted the social capability of an individual regarding their development.  Additionally, Adler’s research explained the theory along with the interest of the individual as being primarily consumed by society’s social aspects. Additionally, Adler hypothesized each of us maintains a ‘self’ that is trying to be fulfilled and that everyone is unique and makes attempts to allow that uniqueness to shine in social settings.  His theory is developed upon the relationship that an individual has established with society.  His research further expressed how interpersonal relationships will make an impact on an individual’s well-being psychologically.  The research presented the significance of developing a strong level of comprehension in the world of social psychology, the theories surrounding social psychology and their authors.

Scaturo, D. J. (2005). Transference, countertransference, and resistance: Unconscious determinants of dilemmas. Clinical dilemmas in psychotherapy: A transtheoretical approach to psychotherapy integration (pp. 127-142). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/11110-008

Scaturo’s research centered around the theories of transference and countertransference, along with resistance.  His main idea focused on increasing knowledge and insight regarding transference and resistance.  Scaturo’s research exhibited the importance of transference in the relationship of patient and therapist.  The primary purpose of transference is explained as just that, the relationship between a therapist and his patient.  This relationship is comparable to role of a caregiver; however, the dynamic of the relationship is an unconscious state that exists amongst the therapist and the patient.  Scaturo’s research further explained how countertransference existed between the therapist and the patient, when emotions are transferred.  Scaturo stated that when emotions felt about others are transferred, those emotions are directed at the therapist.  His research demonstrated how resistance is identified when someone is apprehensive or fearful of change.  Resistance exists when unconscious events surface that an individual would like to change, but that change is difficult.  Scaturo described in his research the methods of overcoming resistance; however, achieving those methods has proven to be difficult.  His research portrayed a clear and concise framework that working together will provide the opportunity for results.

Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life -- A time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis: Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 20(1), 69-78. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=8e6e4162-7608-476d-a911-69467f01f8b8%40pdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=37585685&db=a9h

In his research, Weaver demonstrated the mid-life crisis.  The ideas presented were associated with neo-Freudianism.  Weaver’s research analyzed Freud’s hypothesis of the origin of a mid-life crisis.  Freud concluded that a mid-life crisis likely resulted from a conflict stemming from childhood experience.  Jung encountered a different methodology as his researched demonstrated individuation, most commonly known as the inner self.  This approach discovered an overpowering role of the mid-life crisis as the person identifies disdain within oneself.    Jung’s research identified a theory that discussed the need for individuals to evaluate themselves and find acceptance; particularly in the younger years.  His researched realized that if an individual in their younger years can identify with accepting themselves, then the likelihood of a mid-life crisis decreases.  Weaver also research the various views of additional existentialist such as Frankl, Yalom and Rogers.  Weaver concluded that Frankl’s research articulated a theory surrounding the equilibrium; meeting gratification and satisfaction.  He discovered Yalom’s theory on the meaning of life and how it needed to be fulfilling or a mid-life crisis would occur.  Lastly, he determined that Roger’s research defined questions surrounding uncertainty that the individual may ask themselves and the result can be led to a mid-life crisis.  This research did conclude that culture is a contributing factor when analyzing and going through the mid-life crises as people should be satisfied; however, at times people can feel that we either want to be more or do more.  Ultimately, Weaver’s research demonstrated various ideas and theories as to why a mid-life crisis would occur.

Outline

Research has shown that Freud’s theories are founded upon the development of transference and countertransference, resistance, interpretation and repression.  In any case, there will always be two side to every story.  In the case of the theories demonstrated, two opposing sides exist and each side retains its own theory.  Axelrod expressed in his analysis that Skinner found Freud to be a contributor in the Western thought.  He also found him to be a positive and sound contributor to the field of psychology.  Many theorists who would compare to Freud maintain a separate voice and perspective and find that their theories are usually based upon social psychology as well as cultural psychology.  Social psychologists would be referred to as Neo-Freudians and we find that their approach differs from Freud’s.  Their theories are broader than Freud’s.  The principle of this research is to compare and contrast, along with synthesize the Neo-Freudians to Freud himself.

1) Freud

a) Transference

b) Countertransference

2) Conscious vs. Unconscious

a) What does it mean?

3) Therapist/Patient Relationship

a) What is the meaning according to interpretation?

b) What is transference interpretation?

4) Executive Consultant Relationship

a) Define Resistance

b) Fearful of change - Cause

c) Resistance to Change - Cause

5) Unconscious Events

a) What are they?

b) How and what do they affect?

Conclusion

Freud maintained positive theories that promoted critical thinking regarding their conclusions.  Neo-Freudians expand those theories and insert their own perspectives and interpretation of those theories as their theories are founded upon social and cultural psychology.  All theorists studied would suggest that society emphasizes an impact on an individual’s personality and how that individual progresses through each stage: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital, much like Freud.  Each theorist studied displayed their own perspective as to how an individual would be impacted at various ages through cultural and societal psychology.  Freud developed theories that are the foundation of what Neo-Freudians have theorized.  Scaturo referenced in his research that psychologists will often influence one another.  An affirming example of this would be the dynamic between Freud and Skinner and their influence on one another.  This could also be argued for Freud’s influence on the Neo-Freudians. 

Reference

Axelrod, S. D. (2012). “Self-awareness”: At the interface of executive development and psychoanalytic therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 32(4), 340-357. doi: 10.1080/07351690.2011.609364

Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1957). Social psychological theories: Adler, Fromm, Horney, and Sullivan. (pp. 114-156). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc.  doi:10.1037/10910-004

Scaturo, D. J. (2005). Transference, countertransference, and resistance: Unconscious determinants of dilemmas. Clinical dilemmas in psychotherapy: A transtheoretical approach to psychotherapy integration (pp. 127-142). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/11110-008

Weaver, Y. (2009). Mid-life -- A time of crisis or new possibilities? Existential Analysis: Journal of the Society for Existential Analysis, 20(1), 69-78. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=8e6e4162-7608-476d-a911-69467f01f8b8%40pdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=37585685&db=a9h

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