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  • Published on: 21st September 2019
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 In this report a critical and constructive response to the organization's manager in the form of short introduction to the discussion in which clarifying why Leading and Managing People is a relevant unit to study .

The definition of motivation is shown based on several serious theories with brief review of the importance of the new sense of motivation and  have been discussed in many academic reading and lectures and have been attached at the university's website in forms of several books and academic journals with simplified for some of the models that have been applied successfully in this area . This literature review emphasized the important of motivation theories to facilities manager with regards to working environments. Also provide frameworks enable facilities manager to manage their working environment. One of the challenge facing researchers into motivation, it cannot be seen.

Finally , the report summed up with a Summary of main findings from the discussion as final suggestions to the manager in order to get real changes in behavior among the employees towards excellent high performance .


Contents :

1- The importance of studying leading and management people

2- Motivation Theory Literature Review

3- Motivation Theory  - concepts  and contribution


4- Suggestion which have been approved in motivating

The importance of studying leading and management people :

This unit ( leading and management people ) provided us,  as an MBA students , with knowledge, skills and the understanding required leading and managing people effectively for sustained organizational economic performance beside many other issues as well .The unit deals with fundamental key issues around leadership and management of organizational change in the global context . After considering the social, cultural and economic factors currently encouraging organizational change in late modernity . The unit explores a number of key dimensions to learning organizations through learning network theory, critical theory and feminist theory, and asks questions about ethical and moral leadership. Finally, the unit considers what it means to manage within a learning organization in terms of managing change, managing people and managing accountability.

One of the extremely essential issue in this unit is ( motivation ) which consist a greatest utility and necessary for all managers at all levels and behavioral performance at work to make relevant conscious and motivate employees effectively in order to create the maximum efficiency and quality in high performance work .

Finally , We learned the strategies that organizational leaders and managers must deploy in order to raise levels of employee performance in different types of contemporary organizations

 In this paper I will review briefly the importance of the new sense of motivation and the most important theories that have been discussed in the Introduction and lectures that have been put forward to be accurate at the university's website in several books and academic journals with his ring simplified for some of the models that have been applied successfully in this area .

Motivation Theory Literature Review

Motivational techniques are useful to leaders, employers, and almost anyone. The key is in understanding that you are not motivating someone else. Instead, you are simply providing a circumstance that triggers that person to be motivated.  However, The developments in motivation and management theory . Motivation theories can therefore offer guidance to anyone interest in motivational issues. Motivation theories can help mangers consider how and why employees are motivated. For example, Hierarchy of need theory may help manager figures out where someone is in term of the satisfaction his or her short and long term needs -which may in turn influence how they seek to create the situation that may be the most motivating. A number of motivation theories discussed were based on work related environments. However the can be applied to help individuals understand human behaviour at work.

Motivation is naturally conceptualized either as an desire arising from within the human being or as an impulse arising from within the organism or as an attraction arising from an object external to the individual. Some researches define motivation as the internal processes that activate, guide, and maintain behaviour especially goal-directed behaviour or as free will element of behaviour and the psychological mechanism governing the direction, intensity, and persistence of action not due solely to individual differences in ability or overwhelming environmental demands that force action.

Motivation is very important to all decisions that you have to make.  The effective performance of employees is what makes or breaks a company. So to keep employees motivated, employers must invest in the overall morale by implementing workshops and seminars to help them. Managers are the key personnel in what makes an employee follow directions. Using rewards like promotions and incentives as well as compliments can greatly improve an employee's view of the company and its managers. Employees like to be recognized for their efforts regardless of the salary bracket. Such recognition keeps them motivated in getting their job done. Recognition in this case is the motivation technique that managers can tap into and gain the structure over the workplace environment of how they want things done. What organization and managers can do is provide the environment, support and resources that will influence and effect motivation. Nowadays, managers are trying to find useful motivation theories to motivate their employees. While there are a wide variety of motivation theories on human motivation discussed briefly in this literature review, which means that managers can use any or all those motivation theories to motivate their employees.


This is all about the main researchers of motivation theories and to illustrate how these theories can be apply to practical situation. Also reviewed how the major concepts and contributions can apply in work related situations and applying them in groups, teams at organizational level and individual level. Motivation is a complex concept and there are many different theories which look at the subject from different perspectives.


According to Maslow (1954) projected that motivation is based on a number of human need. It has to do with the hierarchy that requires the lower more basic needs to be satisfied before the increasingly less basic ones above. Maslow believed that there are five basic needs of the theory. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is one of the most famous motivation theories, and it has been the center of much interest by management researchers .

As many scientist believed that the theory engrossed criticism regarding its principle that individuals work on satisfying needs at a higher level only once all lower- level needs have been met. Also major problem facing the theory is how to measure needs, both in terms of how powerfully they are felt and of how someone knows they have been met. Furthermore, the theory is not easy to apply directly to work because need are not met through one source.


According to (Herzberg et al 1959) proposed his Two-Factor Theory of Human Motivation, known as Motivation-Hygiene theory. Hygiene theory is based on the principle that things people come across satisfying in their jobs are not always the opposite of things they find dissatisfying. Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory is based on the results of research into the factors in a workplace that lead to employee satisfaction.

 The criticisms facing the theory, is methodology used by Herzberg does not take into account that often, when things are going well, people take the credit themselves, and when things are not , they blame others and their situation. There is on job satisfaction against which the people could rate their job. Also situational factors were not identified. Despite the criticisms the theory is a vital theory of motivation and used by managers to consider hygiene factors with regards to motivation.


 The relationship between managers and employee could be improved if the assumptions that had develop about how people behaved at work were changed from Theory X view to a Theory Y view. Basically one is positive and the other is negative. The theory X and Y can influence how motivating factors are regarded within an organization. Theory X has to do with extrinsic rewards such as pay in order to motivate people to execute good in their job while theory Y has to do with working environment in which employees may discern intrinsic rewards in their job.


This theory is based on how to design a job so that it is motivating to individual. Also the theory deals with how individual responds to complex and challenging tasks.  fields of management background study like leadership, decision making and organization plan persist to develop conceptually speculative developments focusing on work motivation have not held in reserve speed. These changes can have a philosophical manipulate on how companies challenge to attract, retain and motivate their employees in labor market.

Suggestion which have been approved in motivating  employee nowadays :

It has been detected in the last century for the latest ways in which the director followed in stimulating the company's employees and by following simple points and that may be a reminder of several theories based on psychology in the evaluation of job performance. Employees are hoping to gain a sense of hope and enthusiasm in every quarter year , but they need the manager's cooperation . simply a lot of genuine effort can be shown in following these suggestions , you will not only notice attitude shifts, but real changes in behavior among your employees.

Instead of talking about better communication , start communicating better. By developing open two-way conversations that are energetic and contagious, your employees will feel comfortable to speak their mind. Make sure you listen to what is not being said. Include employees in meetings or any formal gathering to get their perspective. Make your meetings interesting by surprising your employees with a new incentive or a message of appreciation.

Moreover , the manger must be encouraging  by discuss the impairment points in the system without blaming individuals.  Ask them to show how can they be appreciated and more valued. Employees need to know that their concerns are being heard. By constructive feedback, and essentially by positive comments. When employees meet deadlines or suggest creative solutions that positively affect the bottom-line, recognize the behavior immediately. Include their names in a company newsletter , for instance .

Creating ( SUPPORTIVE TEAMS) within departments, and throughout the entire company, which may allow an open many useful discussion  and remove job descriptions that keep people stuck in a box. Rewarding employees who help others and contribute to the company as a whole. Using exercises that remove barriers and blind spots and move the team forward. The ""we versus they"" attitude must be eliminated in order to make the team work beside respecting  employees 's differences. most successful teams are diverse members , bring in different ideas and a variety of strengths.

Beside encouraging creativity and empower employee to feel liberated .   It's a compulsory to help them feel comfortable with their chances .

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