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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This project called mimic board for ship auxiliary system. Mimic board is a panel simulating layout system in which small indicator lamp display the selected area or component. All ships is provided with several system. One of them is auxiliary system. Majority of auxiliary system is driven by electrical power. Auxiliary is a machinery other than the main propulsion unit is usually called auxiliary even though without some auxiliaries the main machinery would not operate for long. This project is to build mimic board for ship auxiliary system. Therefore it uses some components, to drive the system, mimic board. Function of mimic board is to help crew in the ship to reduce excessive use of time.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

After study is done, there are some problems that arise during the use of the old ways. Among them are:

a. Student do not know what and how the mimic board is all about.

  They also do not know how does mimic board is working. Some of the students never heard about the mimic board.

b. No mimic board prototype are made for studies purpose.

  There is no mimic board prototype that use for education at the market, especially in Malaysia. For example in UniKL no mimic board prototype use in study. So, if mimic board are produced it can help student to know about its function.

1.2 OBJECTIVE

The successes of a design that can attract users, assessed according to objective fulfill the scope of the production design itself. Therefore, as a set of objectives in a design that should be right in terms of valuation and objectives. Thus, the objectives of the project have been assigned to develop a tool that can:

a. To design the mimic board for ship auxiliary system.

b. To develop a prototype of mimic board for use in study.

c. To implement a system that use digital technology.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

As is known, the scope of the project is one part of attention in this project. It is also a guide to students in fulfilling the needs of the project in order not to stray from the objectives and scope. The project scope is as below:

a. Using two types of Integrated Circuit (IC) : IC NOR gate (7427) and IC AND gate (7408)

b. Used only for educational purpose.

1.4 PROJECT BACKGROUND

Mimic Board for Ship Auxiliary System is not the actual mimic board. It is because the system is different but the function remain the same like the real mimic board. The real mimic board is connected directly to the selected area or component while this mimic board is not. This mimic board just connected to the switch. When the switch is on it acts as component is on running.  The function is same because the LEDs will light up to indicate the component are being use or not. Practically, this mimic board using switch, so the LEDs will light up when the switch is turn on.

 

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

In this chapter projects related to mimic board for ship auxiliary system will be reviewed. The study also focused on the selection of projects, major components and materials to be used. Comparisons were made to increase the need for the project mimic board for ship auxiliary system. Studies have been made to give some idea on how the mimic board for ship auxiliary system works.

2.1 MIMIC PANEL

These mimic panels allow to graphically representing technology processes, diagrams of power networks, water supply and distribution network, gas grids, plans and other individually arranged solutions. With the use of modern technology, complex and automated, point Mimic becomes effective visualization tools to support the control and management of the process well. Thanks to the use of modular components combine light, it is possible to visualize and modify the process to show the operating condition of the device via the LED signal with control options on the front panel of the device. ZPAS-NET is a leading producer of dispatch mimic boards in Poland.

 Mimic matrix boards are mainly produced for the power sector, for electric power stations, heat and power generation plants, sewage treatment plants, the mining industry, chemical industry, water supply systems, monitoring systems of industrial facilities, etc. Almost all the local and regional power transmission in Poland equipped with Mimic board. Installation and commissioning at customer facilities Mimic board conducted by a team of experts. Our experts also develop, modernize, build and renovate existing space. We offer quick and continuous maintenance services. ZPAS-NET keeps abreast of changing market requirements, launching innovative solutions dictated by emerging needs related to the visualization of power networks and industrial processes. 

Figure 1: Example Mimic Panel 1

Mimic boards are available in two dimensions:

a. STM, with 25 x 25 mm raster

b. D TM, with 24 x 24 mm raster.

DTM is a very suitable place to combine analog indicators without having to use additional cover element. Basic lighting components are modular LED Mimic boards (with one or more LED). There are also other elements fixed in the board’s surface, including pushbuttons, switches, controllers, digital displays, analogue and digital meters, signal boxes, analogue and digital clocks, monitors, visual screens, etc. Updating and changing of board images is quick and easy thanks to special caps placed on the frames. Self-latching caps used in the D TM and STM systems allow for expansion according to individual needs. The matrix surface takes one of four forms: straight, radial (polygonal), broken-type and cabinet-type (wall-mounted). Thanks to specially profiled edges, it is possible to finish boards without visible divisions between individual panels. Cycolac, the materials used to make the elements of panel board, is very flexible, very resistant to temperature and mild. In addition, it has a clean and fire retardation certificate issued by the Scientific Institute of Poland. The material allows for the obtaining of products that are highly resistant, flexible and attractive looks.

Mimic boards with large diagrams, easily adjustable and developed depending on the needs of users flexibility are the main advantages of the design has to offer. ALL CAPS net can be inserted quickly and easily to any spot on the board. Panel with devices and caps can be easily installed in the control desk, rotating frame and control cabinet door.

Figure 2 : Example Of Mimic Panel 2

2.2 DESIGN OF MIMIC PANELS, MOSAIC PANELS, ALARM ANNUNCIATOR PANELS AND INDICATOR / GAUGE PANELS.

We can also design, installation and commissioning of all types of control panel or mimic panel and control circuit connected. This can be an alarm annunciator panel is easy, through a complex fire and gas control systems, closure.

Our in-house engineering team offer design of your mimic panels utilizing the latest Computer Aided Design software and CNC engraving system ensures that displays can be manufactured as per your specifications with a quick delivery time and competitive price.

We are also able to offer carvings usually on trefoil, acrylic, aluminum, copper, and Perspex screen printing stainless steel or any other materials. This design can be a sign of a simple name, for complex diagrams Mimic.

Figure 3: Design Of Mimic Panel

2.2.1 REVERSE ENGRAVED ACRYLIC

Engraving on a board trefoil carried on the upper surface and can only be a single color. In reverse engraving, a special laminate used. It was engraved as a 'mirror image' on the back of the laminate and then filled with filler color. Mimic will work side panel and Mimic screen can be kept clean by simply wiping with a cloth that is not sharp. This type of engraving is especially useful in the food and beverage industry (for reasons of hygiene), however, is suitable for any application where color is needed:

Figure 4: Sample CAD diagram for a Cargo Control Console mimic

Figure 5 : Sample CAD diagram for a Ballast Water Control Console mimic 

2.3 DESIGN AND ASSEMBLY OF CONTROL PANELS, DISTRIBUTION BOARDS, PUMP STARTERS

We design, assemble, install and commission all types of control panels and distribution boards, pump motor starter panels, alarm panels and general control & automation panels.

This could be based on the clients design and engineering drawings, or we could provide the initial feasibility studies, preparation of cause & effect documentation, engineering, construction, installation and commissioning of control panels and systems.

Our team of engineers is familiar with the various class requirements and international engineering standards and practices. We utilize the latest design tools and are able to provide engineering drawings in AutoCAD or Adobe PDF formats.  

Figure 6: Design and assembly of control panels

Ocean Automation Solutions are able to provide simple alarm annunciator panels through to complex Fire & Gas control/shutdown systems.

We have designed several types of bespoke systems for our customers. Examples of include systems that monitor pressure pipe break point connection of offshore and raise the alarm in the event of pressure loss suddenly.

Another example is a PLC based system on an LNG vessel which monitors the position of the cargo valves during an emergency shutdown (ESD) in order to determine the root cause of the ESD.

Figure 7: Complex Fire & Gas control/shutdown systems.

Other projects include the design, engineering, construction and installation / commissioning of a replacement Inert Gas Generator Control System for the vessel LNG Edo.

This system was recently fitted and commissioned in a shipyard in Spain.

Figure 8: Gas Generator Control System for the vessel

High Expansion Foam System connection of the series FSO in dry docks World - Dubai. This includes the additional control cabinet design for 28 new foam extinguishers, and a series of remote controlled Mimic panel.

The complete system was re-engineered to interface with remote operated mimic panels which were installed in the wheelhouse and cargo control room. From these locations, the system can be monitored and activated in the event that a confirmed fire has been detected.

Figure 9: High Expansion Foam System connection

2.4 ELECTRICAL PANELS

Panelec offers two types of electrical panels - a waterproof rocker panel series and an electrical panel system.

2.4.1 B Series Panel System

The B Series is a general purpose panel system that is used for both extra low voltage DC (up to 32 volt) and low voltage AC (up to 250 volt) applications. In addition to traditional circuit breaker, switching and metering components, the B Series can mount control panels and assemblies from a broad line of third party manufacturers. This extends the application of the panel system beyond that of an electrical panel into the realm of a fully-fledged component mounting system. This means that a fully integrated engineering panel system can be created (see panel at right). The diverse range of panel functionality includes:

a. Circuit breaker protection and switching from 5 amp through 300 amp capacity

b. Reverse engraved LED backlit labels with integrated LED status indicators

c. Local and remote battery switching

d. Battery monitoring

e. Alarm annunciation and control

f. Electrical parameter metering

g. AC source selector switching

h. Mimic panels

i. Equipment control panels (battery charger, inverter charger, desalinators etc )

j. Fluid level monitoring

k.

Figure 10: DC House Panel

Figure 11: Master DC Distribution Panel

Figure 12: Water Maker Panel

Panels are arranged in rows and columns of circuit breaker container format in which each step of the former 112 mm wide by 19.5 mm tall. From a practical standpoint, the panel can accommodate up to 5 columns wide by 24 rows in the resolution of a row or column. In theory, the device panel can accommodate up to 16 columns by 60 rows and 10 columns by 90 rows.

The diversity of the panel system required a new approach to specifying the panel content and layout. A web based Virtual Panel Builder™ (VPB™) was developed as an alternative to the traditional paper or spreadsheet approach. This unique tool allows a user to fully configure all elements of a panel including panel size, panel components, component values and component labels. The customer panel specification resides in a secure database on the web server where it is ready for processing by Panelec staff. 

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.0 INTRODUCTION

Before starting the project, some research will be made. In addition, the materials that are compatible with the design of the mechanism must also be established.  The project consists of three sections of the important and should be followed.

First section is find the solutions for the problem statement. Second part is literature review. An extensive review will produce a satisfactory result. Third part is development of hardware. Both the section covers the design of the mechanism and circuit design.

After both hardware is successful it will role into one.

3.1 OVERALL PROJECT FLOWCHART

 Figure 13: Overall Project Flowchart

The project contains several important parts of the flow and be dealt with. The first part is literature review. An extensive review will produce a satisfactory result. The second and third is the development of hardware. Both chapter covers the design of the mechanism and circuit design. After both hardware is successful it will be rolled into one. The fourth part is the software part. In this section all about the software will be election are set out. Having successfully implemented the software part, the software will be downloaded in protues software for simulation purposes. If the simulation is not successful, refer back to these four parts. If the simulation was successful the next process can be carried out. The next process is purchasing material. After that, is installation the components on the PCB circuit. Then troubleshoot the circuit. If the circuit is not function, then check again wiring on the circuit. After finish the project, the next step is presentation and report submission.

3.2 GANTT CHART

    

3.3 ORGANIZATION CHART

This final year project has been complete in one group. A group of team is with two members and one supervisor where each of member is given the tasks in order to do the project in the systematic way. EN. MHD ASLAN BIN YAHYA is the supervisor of this project. The role of the supervisor is to survive, monitor, and teach about this project.

3.4 SCOPE OF WORK.

This is our scope of work throughout the duration during the project.

NO NAME TASK

1.

MOHAMAD FIRDAUS BIN ABD RAHIM

a. Project design using autocad

b. Set up equipment and material

c. Drilling circuit

d. Drilling Perspex

e. Purchase equipment and material

f. Report writing

2.

MUHAMMAD AMIR HAZIM BIN BAHIDON a. Circuit design using software proteus.

b. Set up equipment and material

c. Soldering circuit

d. Etching circuit

e. Purchase electronic equipment

f. research

3.4.1 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) FABRICATION

To complete the PCB fabrication it have many step to complete. The first step is PCB drawing. PCB drawing is designed in software Proteus 8 Professional. This software can automatic  rotate the connection. So we are not use auto rotate, because it can make the circuit use many wire jumper.  So we are make manual connection because we want to reduce use many jumper. After finish drawing this software can convert schematic file to PCB automatically.  The next step is Film printing. After PCB file is generated, use a laser printer to print it on transparency. After film printing is PCB cutting. PCB cutting is to cut photo PCB size according to the film size. Next step is PCB photo etching. Expose the photo PCB in photo etching kit for 7-10 minute. Next step is PCB developing. PCB developing is washing the PCB use alcohol to get rid of the green coating for one or two minute. After wash with alcohol, put it in machine rota spray acid for 4 minute. And after use rota spray wash PCB with PCB developer for three minute. The last step is drilling. Drill the PCB use drill bit 0.8mm.

Figure 14: Etching Process 1

Figure 15: Etching Process 2

Figure 16: After Finish Etching

Figure 17: Drilling Process 1

Figure 18: Finish Drilling

3.4.2 COMPONENT INSTALLATION.

After finish the PCB process, the next step is buying electronic component. Then the component is install at PCB circuit. After finish install all components, then solder the components. After finish install at PCB then next process is install LED and Switch at the board. Last but not least, wiring process. This process is where the LED and the switches are connected to the PCB. This process  use connector to connect LED and Switch at PCB.

Figure 19: Install Component

Figure 20: Soldering Process

Figure 21: Finish Soldering

Figure 22: Wiring Process

3.5      CONSTRUCTION PROJECT STRUCTURE

3.5.1     PART MECHANISM.

Construction of the project is the most important part. This is because without good material and appropriate it will affect the project. Part of structure construction project is divided into two steps:

a. The mechanical parts using self sketch form.

b. Build a structure based on the design of the project have been made.

Before build mimic board for ship auxiliary system, the built form should be designed. Beginning with sketches and subsequently change the design to 3D display using the software / drawing (Autocad 2015).

3.5.2     STRUCTURAL DESIGN PROJECTS.

In the process of designing, sketching methods were used to design the mimic board for ship auxiliary system. The complete design mimic board for ship auxiliary system are as follows:

Figure 23 : Isometric View of Mimic Board from AutoCAD

As the diagram above, the mimic board for ship auxiliary system has been designed with complete successful. Detailed information will be described in the next section.

3.5.3     CONSTRUCTION  TOOL

After the design process is completed, the next process is the process change the design to actual design. All materials to be used to develop mimic board for ship auxiliary system has been selected. This process will take a long time to make sure material chosen is suitable. Table 1 shows the materials or components required to develop mimic board for ship auxiliary system.

NO. ITEM QUANTITY

1 Perspex 1 (36cm x30cm)

2 Aluminum 2 (3inch x2inch x12inch) (3inch x 2inch x 14.2inch)

3 Plywood 1 (36cm x 30cm)

4 Connector aluminum 4

5 Rivet As needed

6 Printing sticker As needed

Table 1 : Material Required

With the list item or components, which are necessary to build the mimic board for ship auxiliary system, the process may proceed to step onwards. Connector and rivets used for the connection.

3.5.4 CIRCUIT DESIGN

The circuit is designed by using the proteus8 professional software. Proteus software is used because it can use to design circuit and design PCB layout. Other than that, proteus software also can simulate the circuit that has been designed. Proteus software is like one pit stop. The circuit is divided into four (4) sections. Every section has different numbers of component but still using the same type of components. The first section is the generator section. This section used three (3) 100 ohm (Ω) resistors, three (3) green LEDs and one (1) switch. Next section is switchboard section. Switchboard section used four (4) 100 ohm (Ω) resistors, four (4) yellow LEDs and also one (1) switch. The third section is emergency section. On this section, it’s only used two (2) 100 ohm (Ω), green LED and yellow LED with one each. Forth section is auxiliary system section. This section also divided into three (3) sections. Each section consist four (4) switches, three (3) red LEDs, six (6) 90 ohm (Ω) resistors, three (3) normal diodes, a NOR gate, and a AND gate. Overall, this circuit consist 18 resistors, four (4) integrated circuit (IC), 30 diodes, 18 LEDs 17 toggle switches and one (1) on-off switch.

NO. Component Quantity

1. 100 ohm (Ω) resistor 9

2. 90 ohm (Ω) resistor 9

3. 7427- 3 input NOR gate IC 2

4. 7408 – 2 input AND gate IC 2

5. Diode 30

6. Green Light Emitting Diode (LED) 4

7. Yellow Light Emitting Diode (LED) 5

8. Red Light Emitting Diode (LED) 9

9. Toggle switch 17

10. On-off Switch 1

Table 2: Component Circuit

3.6  COST OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Selection material is important to make sure the project can be done correctly according to the scope of the project. Therefore, by making a list of items could be a wise action to ensure the scope of the project can be fulfilled. To complete the project mimic board for ship auxiliary system, two materials were adopted, namely mechanical and electronic.

NO ITEM SPECIFICATION QUANTITY PRICE

1 Aluminum (3inch x2inch x12inch) & (3inch x 2inch x 14.2inch) 2 RM 50

2 Perspex 30cm x 36cm 1 RM48

3 Plywood 30cm x 36cm 1 RM 30

4 Connector aluminum 4 RM 10

5 Rivet As needed RM 5

6 Printing Sticker As needed RM 125

TOTAL RM 268.00

Table 3: Cost of mechanical material.

NO ITEM SPECIFICATION QUANTITY PRICE

1 6 Pin On/Off/On Toggle switch 1 RM 2.00

2 Rocker Switch 1 RM 2.00

3 IC SN-74LS08 AND Gate 2 RM 4.00

4 IC 7427 NOR Gate 2 RM 10.00

5 IC base 4 RM 5.20

6 10MM LED -Red –Yellow –Green 26 RM 15.60

7 Twin banana socket 1 RM 4.00

8 Toggle switch 3Pin 20 RM 50.00

9 Connector 1 Packet RM 20.00

Total RM 112.80

Table 4: Cost of electronic material.

3.7 THE OVERALL COST

The overall cost is the sum of the two types of mechanical materials and electronic materials. Comparisons of the estimated costs and the actual costs have been shown in Table 3.7 below.

Mechanical Electronic Total

Estimate RM 200 RM 60 RM 260

Real RM 268.00 RM 112.80 RM 380.80

Cost Increase RM 68.00 RM 52.80 RM 120.80

Table 5: Total Overall cost

Based on the comparison worksheets have been made, it appears mechanical costs have increased by RM 68.00 and electronics costs increased by RM 52.80. It is because there are some changes to the design and selection of items.

3.8 HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION.

3.8.1 LOGIC GATE

A logic gate is a basic building blocks of digital circuits. The most logic has two inputs and one output. At one time, each terminal is one of two binary conditions low (0) or high (1), which are represented by different voltage levels. The logic state of the terminal can, and usually does, change often, as a data processing circuit. In the logic gate, a low state is about zero volt   (0 V), while the state's high is about five volt (5V).

3.8.2 NOR GATE

NOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical NOR - it acts according to the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results if the two input to the gate is LOW (0); If one or both input is HIGH (1), output LOW (0) results. NOR is the result of the negation of the OR operator. It can also be seen as an AND gate with inverted input. NOR is a full function NOR gate operations can be combined to produce any other logic functions. In contrast, the OR operator is monotonic as it can only convert low to high but not the opposite. In most, but not all, circuit implementation, negation comes for free, including CMOS and TTL. In the family that logic, OR is more complicated operations; it can use NOR followed by NO. One important exception is some form of domino logic family. NOR Gates are basic logic gates, and thus it is recognized in TTL and CMOS IC. This standard, 4000 series, CMOS IC 4001, which includes four independent, two input NOR gate. Pinout diagram is as follows:

Figure 24: Symbol NOR Gate and Truth Table

Figure 25:IC NOR Gate

3.8.3 AND GATE

The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logic conjunction of it acts in accordance with the truth table to the right. A HIGH output (1) results only if the two inputs to the AND gate is HIGH (1). If no or only one input to the gate is HIGH, LOW output results. In other words, function and effectively find minimum of two binary digits, just like the OR found the maximum. Therefore, the output is always 0 except when the all inputs are 1.

Figure 26: Symbol AND Gate and Truth Table

Figure 27: IC AND gate

3.8.4 LED

The Light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator light in many devices and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode. When the diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombined with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called Electroluminescence and light color (corresponding photon energy) is determined by the energy gap semiconductors.

LED typically small in area (less than 1 mm 2), and integrated optical components used to form the radiation pattern and assist in reflection. LEDs present many advantages compared incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved strength, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.

Figure 28: LED

3.8.5 DIODE

A diode is the most simple two-terminal semiconductor devices unilaterally. This allows current to flow in only one direction and blocks current flowing in the opposite direction. The two terminal diode called the anode and cathode. Diode symbol is shown in the figure below.

Figure 29: Symbol Diode

Operation of Diode

Diode operates when the signal voltage is applied across the terminals. Use the DC voltage to create the diode operates in a circuit called a 'bias. As stated above like a diode with a switch one way so it can be either in a state of flux or in the absence of flux. The state is 'ON' diode achieved by 'bias Forward' which means that a positive or higher potential applied to the anode and negative or lower potential is applied to the cathode of the diode. In other words, an 'ON' during the diode has been applied in the same direction the arrow head. The state is 'OFF' diode achieved by 'Reverse bias' which means that a positive or higher potential applied to the cathode and negative potential or lower is applied to the anode of the diode. In other words, an 'OFF' has been applied diode current in the opposite direction of the arrow head.

In an 'ON', the diode offers a practical obstacles called 'Forward resistance'. Diodes require forward bias voltage to switch to an 'ON' so-called cut-in voltage. Diodes start running in reverse bias mode when the reverse bias voltage exceeds the voltage limit is called the damage was. Diodes remain in a state of 'OFF' when no voltage is applied across.

CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This chapter is about the final result. After all the process is finish. The project is tested to get the result. The LEDs are the result of this project.

4.0 CIRCUIT FUNCTION

Figure 30: Functional Block Diagram

Figure 31: Auxiliary System Section Block Diagram

Figure 32: Circuit Diagram

The circuit is designed by using proteus8 software. this part will explain how the circuit will operate. First of all, the circuit must be connected to the power supply. The should be connect to 6v power supply with 2A for the ideal output. the voltage can be adjust to make the LEDs light up brighter or dimmer.

After the circuit are connected to the power supply, there are main switch of the circuit. Then it goes to the generator switch. This switch is a two way switch that placed in the circuit. Other that connected to the generator part, this switch also connected to the emergency part. When the switch is turn on to the generator part, the green LEDs that represent generator will light up. If the switch on to the emergency part, the green LEDs and yellow LEDs that represent emergency generator and emergency switchboard respectively will light up. Both part the connected to the switchboard.

Then, it goes to the switchboard part. Either the generator switch turn on to generator part or emergency part the switchboard part are ready to be use. The switchboard has theirs’ own switch. The switch needed to be turned on to light up the LEDs. The switchboard part’s switch will light up all the three yellow LEDs when it turned on.  The switchboard part will also light up even though the generator switch is turn to the emergency part. This is because the circuit is based on the real connection on the ship.

Next, is the auxiliary system part. This is the main part of the circuit. Auxiliary system is divided into three different level but the component and the function are same. Every level have four switches, three LEDs, a NOR gate, an AND gate and several diode. Other than that, the auxiliary system part also has theirs’ own main switch. The switch is placed right after the switchboard part. The switch also needed to turn on before use the separated level of the part. One of the switches from four of switch in the separated level are called level check switch. The level check switch will light up all the LEDs that have on the level when it turn on. But, it’s not easy just like that. The switch are connected to the AND gate IC. Another input for the AND gate IC is the output of the NOR gate IC. Meanwhile, the input for the NOR gate IC are from the other three switches. The three switches is called auxiliary switch. The three auxiliary switches are also connected to the red LED each. On the other words, one auxiliary switch will connected to the LED and NOR gate IC simultaneously. One switch control one LED. Means, the LED will light up when the switch are turn on.

But, to use the level check switch, all three auxiliary switches should be turned off first. As mention early, the three switches are connected to the NOR gate IC and the output of the NOR gate will be the input for the AND gate. The output of the NOR gate will only be 1 (on) when the all three switches are turned off. To make the AND gate output become 1 (on), both of the input should be 1 (on). Conclusion, the output of AND gate will be 1 (on) when all the three auxiliary switches is turned off and the level check switch is on. Then, the LEDs will light up. If one of the auxiliary switch is turned on, the level check switch will looks alike not function because of the NOR and AND gate.

In addition, there are two more switches. One of them are called functional check switch. While, the other one are called auxiliary system switch. The functional check switch is to check the LEDs neither in good condition nor bad. When the functional check switch is turned on, all the LEDs will light up. If there are LED are not light up, something have went wrong. Besides, the auxiliary system switch is use to show the auxiliary system part. It only will light up the red LEDs which is represent auxiliary system when it turned on.  

A B C D Y = A’+ B’ + C’

(output of NOR gate) Z = Y * D

(output of AND gate)

0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 1 1

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 0

0 1 1 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0

Table 6: Truth Table for the Project

Figure 33 : Generator Function

Figure 34 : Generator and Switchboard Function

Figure 35 : Switch Auxiliary System Function

Figure 36 : Switch Level Deck Check

Figure 37 : Emergency Function

Figure 38 : Auxiliary function when Emergency

Figure 39 : Functional Check

Figure 40 : Functional Check for Auxiliary System

4.1 DISCUSSION

There are something that should be concerned to make the project run smoothly. First, the supply voltage. Even though the brightness of the LEDs can be control by adjusting the supply voltage, the higher voltage can damage the circuit if the higher voltage the ideal voltage is applied for long time. The switches are not tightly attached to the perspex. This is because of the type of the switch. It technically built like that. Before use the project, make sure the switches are not loose. The project is using Perspex in big size. Because of that, it affects the strength of the prespex. The project is incapable of accommodate something heavy.

The digital electronics studies are used to do the project. On the other hand, several skills needed to do the project. Soldering skill is needed to get the best solder point. The soldering skill is important because if the components are not soldered correctly and neatly, the component may be moving or unattached for the PCB board. It will lead to the broken track that can make the project fail to operate. Other skill is troubleshooting skill. This skill is needed to find faulty of the project.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

Student and even the professionals do not know what is mimic board. Only certain person who has worked with the mimic board knew about it. To teach the student about the mimic board is not easy because there are no mimic board has been produced for studies purpose. To solve the problems, the mimic board for ship auxiliary system has been designed. Other than that, a prototype of mimic board for ship auxiliary system for studies purpose has been developed. In addition, the system of the mimic board for ship auxiliary system are use digital technology.

The conclusion, all the objective has been archived.

5.0 RECOMMENDATION

Nowadays, people are always to do upgrade or innovate on the existing project to make it better. There are several recommendation can be done for this project. The recommendation only to improve the function of the circuit but not change the concept of the mimic board.

First, the number of switches can be increased. The switch for generator part currently only one but there are three generators. By increasing the number of the switches, the switches can control one generator. One switches for one generator. It can also be applied on the switchboard part.

Second, by increasing the number of the LED. The number of LED can be increased to make the board more interesting. Other than that, it can also show more auxiliary system that can be found on ship.

Third, the placement of the LED. Currently, the LED are placed on the board with flow and there are also a ship plan on the other side of the project. The ship plan is marked to show the real position of the generator, switchboard and auxiliary system on the ship. The ship plan can be placed on the project with bigger size. So, the LEDs can be placed on the ship plan at where it suppose to be placed plus label.

Last but not least, the type of PCB. To make this project better, the successor should use a better quality board. This is because when using the low quality board, the track can be disappear when doing etching process.   

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