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3.1.8 STEP 7 (Connect and Paint the Pipe)

Figure 19 Paint Tank Connector

Figure 20 Paint Base

To connect plumbing pipes, the T connector is used to facilitate the plumbing pipes are connected with each other’s. The size of connector T is 20mm same the size of pipe. And the PVC tank connector will used to connect between base and platform. The black spray (ANCHOR) uses to paint the base of this prototype.  

3.1.9 STEP 8 (Set Up the Base and Platform)

Figure 21 Set Up Base and Platform

After the entire step to set up a base and platforms, the next step is to specify the base and platform. PVC tank connecter is used to specify the base and platform. The size of PVC tank connecter is 20mm.

3.1.10 STEP 9 (Spin the Copper)

Figure 22 Spin the Copper

Figure 23 Copper After Done Roll

For the magnetic flux system, the length of pipe is 6”inch. This step is to create the magnetic flux system. The total of turn copper for one pipe is 300 and for this project the total pipe for magnetic flux system is 4. The size of pipe is 1 ½ inch.

3.1.11 STEP 10 (Attribute the Magnetic Flux System)

Figure 24 Set Up the Project with Magnetic Flux System

This step is to combine the magnetic flux system in prototype. To attribute the magnetic flux system, same like base the connector T will be used to attribute the magnetic flux system. The size of connector T is 20mm. Float will be use to transfer the energy from wave energy to magnetic flux system (motion). For one pipe of station generator will put 8 pieces of magnet.

3.1.12 STEP 11 (Wiring the Magnetic Flux System)

Figure 25 Connection With Boost Circuit

Figure 26 Parallel Connection

For this project, which was carried out to connect the wiring between the magnetic flux system with boost circuit. Wire will using single core wire and the size of connector is 0.3mm. Type of connection for this circuit is parallel circuit. For the solution of magnetic flux system is pipe 3inch with yellow color. In solution have a rectifier circuit, connect between magnetic flux systems and boost circuit. 

3.1.13 STEP 12 (Last Checking and Test the Prototype)

Figure 27 Prototype


Figure 28 Mechanism of Movement

To check all the connection of system, multimeter will be use to check all the connection is connect. For the result of this project will check at 4.0 Result. For the operation and information of this project will be shows at 3.2 Methodology 2 Flow Chart Project Operation and 3.3 Block Diagram.

3.2 Methodology 2 = Gantt Chart

Figure 12 Gantt chart

3.3 Methodology 3 = Flow Chart Project Operation

 = Process

 = Decision

 = SubProcess

 = Start/End

 = Data


3.4 Methodology 4 = Block Diagram

3.3.0 Description for Block Diagram


The voltage will generate by using magnetic flux system.

In size and strength of magnet for my project, the output can be generating in low voltage.

Average voltage in 30~40mV. (For each of station generator)


The magnetic flux system will produce unstable voltage.

The output charge from this system can be positive and negative.

The rectifier will be using to stabilize the output charge.

Boost circuit using for step up the low voltage from the input.


The value of output can be average in 300-330mV (after boost).

After that the voltage will flow to onshore for supply at home or anything used.

From my prototype, the output is very low because the size of my project.

3.5 Methodology 5 = Calculation of Magnetic Flux and Linkage

In the calculation, to make a precise calculation of the magnetic flux system is difficult because the tools provided in the lab are not enough. Make calculations about magnetic require extensive knowledge. The value of the theory is in stark contrast to the practical value because the magnetic energy is reduced each time it is used. Therefore, to get the ideal value is very difficult for this system.

Magnetic Flux, Ф, is defined as:


Unit for the magnetic flux is Weber, where ‘A’ is area sweeped out = ᶩ∆s

The magnetic flux linkage through a coil of N turns is:

Magnetic Flux Linkage=NBA


Chapter 4

4.0 Result

Position of Magnets Deflection in Multimeter

(we don’t have galvanometer to use)

Magnet at Rest No Deflection in Multimeter

Magnets Moved Towards in Coil Deflection in Multimeter in one direction

Magnets is Held Stationary at Same Positions (near the coil) No Deflection in Multimeter

Magnets Moved Away from the Coil Deflection in Multimeter but in Opposite direction

Magnets is Held Stationary at Same Positions (away from the coil) No Deflection in Multimeter

Table 2 Result of the Magnet Movement

NOTED: That is the result for the magnetic flux cutting. Multimeter will be used for detect the current or voltage be generate from this system. This result just for in linear motion not in rotation. There is relative motion between conductor and a magnetic field, the flux linkage with a coil changes and this change in flux induces a voltage across a coil.

Table 3 Result for Series Circuit (1 station generator for 1 boost circuit)

Output Voltage Comments

One pipe in 300turn of copper and 8 magnets.

Average in 31~40mV In linear motion, the result what will provide just in 31-40mV.

One pipe in 300turn of copper and 8 magnets. (after using boost converter)

Average in 80-97mV Boost converter will be function to step up the voltage but the power is same. Power or watt can’t be step up using boost converter.

Four pipe in magnetic flux system. (without boost converter)

Average in 105~125mV This system using rectifier to add the number of voltage in each pipe. When the rectifier does not use the total voltage can’t be stable. Because the output from this system can be positive and negative.

Four pipe in magnetic flux system. (using boost converter)

Average in 300-330mV The voltage can be increase the output and will using to flow the load. (For this prototype the voltage what will generate can be used to turn on a lamp) because the scale is too small.


The voltage what will generate from this prototype is very small. Because the size of magnets and numbers of turn copper is not big or strength. But from this research we will agree the theory of magnetic flux system is right. The scale of this prototype is 1:100.

NOTE: The amplitude of wave is not same so the voltage will be generate not constant. Because the value of cutting flux is not constant, so the value of voltage is not stable. Some of others factor about the produce of voltage by magnetic flux system.

CAUTION: if we use a parallel circuit in this project we will be able to average output of 2.0mV-3.5mV after the boost (for 1 station generator we must use 1 boost circuit).

IMPORTANT: The voltage is not stable; depend on factor of magnetic flux system.

Table 4 Result for Parallel Circuit (4 station generator for 1 boost circuit)

Output Voltage Comments

One pipe in 300turn of copper and 8 magnets.

Average in 2~2.5mV In linear motion, the result what will provide just in 31-40mV. Voltage lost at another station generator.

One pipe in 300turn of copper and 8 magnets. (after using boost converter)

Average in 2-3.5mV Boost converter will be function to step up the voltage but the power is same. Power or watt can’t be step up using boost converter. The value of output not same because the voltage is very small and losses when want flow.

Four pipe in magnetic flux system. (without boost converter)

Average in 2~2.5mV This system using rectifier to add the number of voltage in each pipe. When the rectifier does not use the total voltage can’t be stable. Because the output from this system can be positive and negative. The voltage will losses when flow from one generator to another generator.

Four pipe in magnetic flux system. (using boost converter)

Average in 2-3.5mV The voltage can be increase the output and will using to flow the load. Voltage can be step up the higher voltage because the output from station generator is very small.


The voltage what will generate from this prototype is very small. Because the size of magnets and numbers of turn copper is not big or strength. But from this research we will agree the theory of magnetic flux system is right. The scale of this project is 1:100.

NOTED: The value of voltage generate in parallel connection is very low. The big value of losses voltage in this connection because the voltage will generate in low voltage. Laws of the parallel circuit is the total value of input same the total value of output.

RECOMMENDED: For this project, the series circuit is more effective than parallel circuit. Because of the weakness of the motion (linear) in this project will apply the addition and subtraction in the system.  

4.1 Discussion

The hypothesis of this system, the faster the cutting speed flux and the higher the voltage is generate. This hypothesis does not apply to linear motion, can only be used for the movement of rotation only. Because the production of different voltage for rotation with linear movement because the movement of rotation produces only one polarity. Whereas, for linear motion also produced two polarities, difference with rotation. This hypothesis should be rejected because their output is not the same between the two movements. In linear motion generate two output (+ive and –ive output)

4.1.0 Discussion about the objective of this project

Design the magnetic flux diagram for wave energy machine.

Fabricated the magnetic flux system to harvest wave energy.

Design, fabricated and record a mini scale of wave energy machine

For the objective 1, before create the magnetic flux system the research must be do it about theory of magnetic flux system. For this objective we can look at Chapter3 (3.2). This theory can look at Chapter 2. This is magnetism for button magnets:

Figure 29 Button Magnet Fields

All the type of magnets has different of magnetism flow. So to do the design we must know how to cutting the flux by using the button magnet. This objective more to operation of this system and how this system will operate. We using linear motion in this project, we get this idea from my supervisor. We got the idea to use as the linear movement of the magnetic system of our supervisor. This movement can indeed produce electricity but there are some disadvantages such as a charge out of this movement will result in an unstable charge.

Next objective more to fabricate the magnetic flux system. For fabricated this system we need to know what the motion adopted by this project. Before we will achieve the objective 1, we must create the objective 2 first. After objectives 2 have been achieved, then we can look at in detail how the objectives 1 will be works. We can look at Figure 28 about the magnetic flux system.

Figure 30 Magnetic Flux System

The last objective requires priority in the design of this project. Therefore, the previous objective 1 and 2 are achieved; we need to do a preliminary design to get an idea in advance of the start of this project. To achieve this last objective, we need to achieve all the objectives which have so we can see the final shape of our project. The scale project we do we cannot produce high energy, if the scale is large, the greater the energy that will be produced.

This objective using the boost circuit to get better results or output that is higher than the existing one. Although we use the boost converter to raise the voltage and power that we cannot be in boost or improved based on the size or scale of the project we're doing this. The result what will get from the experiment will be looking at 4.0 Result. All the objectives are achieved.

4.1.1 Factor of current flow

When a conductor moves with respect to a magnetic field an electric current is induced. We need to think of magnetic field lines as magnetic flux. Magnetic flux flows out of the North Pole of a magnet in back into the South Pole. When a conducting wire cut across the magnetic flux an induced current is produced. The result for the movement will look at 4.0 Result.

Obviously, when magnets moving in opposite directions the electric produce opposite induced current and similarly for magnetic fields moving in opposite directions.

Factors affecting the induced current:

Magnetic Field Strength (the magnetic flux density)

Speed of Cutting (it’s not effective in linear motion)

Number of Turns of Wire 

4.1.2 Advantages of Wave Energy

1) Green

Harnessing wave energy comes without the emission of harmful greenhouse gases. This is the main motivation factor behind further development of this way of power generation.

2) Renewable

Like with most green energy sources, wave power is also renewable. Since this source ultimately comes from the heat energy that is emitted from the sun, it will not disappear for some time.

3) Reliable

Waves are hardly interrupted and almost always in motion. This makes generating electricity from wave energy a reasonable reliable energy source.

It should be mentioned that the amount of energy that is being transported through waves does vary every year and from season to season. Wave and wind energy has a larger potential during the winter which is a nice synergistically effect with solar energy where the largest potential is in the summer.

4) Offshore Wave Power

Ocean wave energy plants can be put offshore, solving several of the issues that come with power plants closer to the land. The first benefit of offshore wave power that there is a larger energy potential in these waves.

The larger flexibility as to where to put these offshore wave farms could potentially minimize the negative environment effects wave power has on the environment.

4.1.3 Disadvantages of Wave Energy

1) Costs

Wave power is in very early stages of development, which makes speculating on costs harder. Wave resources, connections to the power grid and the lifespan of the technology are just a few factors that result in different costs for different projects.  Of these factors, the lifespan is the most uncertain one, since this is a relatively new technology and we are lacking data on how long these wave power inventions realistically can operate.

At the moment, the costs of wave power are generally very high. These power plants cannot be developed without sufficient funding from the governments. On the other hand, renewable energy is the future, and the costs are expected to drop when larger facilities are up and running.

Many of the parts that are involved in wave power generation require regular maintenance.  The fact that some of these parts are under the water does not make it any easier – or cheaper for that matter.

2) Maintenance

Maintenance is the something what need to do for all the equipment and others. For this project, to do the maintenance at offshore it’s very difficult because the material what use in this project is very heavy for the scale 100:1. The maintenance for this project need a long time before the maintenance will be do it.   

4.2 Comparison

4.2.0 Linear Motion and Rotation

Linear motion is the movement up and down. Linear movement used in this project has its own weaknesses. The magnetic system, this movement will generate positive and negative charge. Therefore, these movements reduce the energy produced in linear movement. The missing energy will reduce the production output. Therefore of research and experiment we did in this project, a linear movement is the movement that is not relevant to high energy. This is because, inefficient linear movement and cutting the level of flux is reduced.

For the movement of rotation in only one direction that moves relative to the linear movement. This movement rotates in one cycle. A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation. A three-dimensional object always rotates around an imaginary line called a rotation axis. This movement generates only a single charge of positive charge, depending on the direction of play if the rotation direction reverse negative charge will result. This movement can be categorized as the most efficient movement compared with other movements.

Conclusions can be made; rotation movement is the most efficient movement relative to linear motion. The election is seen by a number of factors such as the charge resulting from the movement of the cutting flux. Linear movement generate the electric charge is not constant relative to the movement of rotation is capable of producing stable.

Table 5 Comparison of Motion

Comparison Between Linear and Rotation Motion

Type of Motion Linear Rotation

Polarity Positive and Negative Positive

Efficiency Not Efficient More Efficient

Comment Do not good for generate electricity. Very good for generate electricity.

Note: The motion is very important to generate the electrical because in motion we will get the efficiency of output voltage.

4.2.1 Anticipated Compares for wave energy?

About the cost, we get the example from others country because their country have the experience about the wave energy plant. So from the others country we will do the compares about the cost from the offshore electricity plants and onshore electricity plant.

It has been estimated that improving technology and economies of scale will allow wave generators to produce electricity at a cost comparable to wind-driven turbines, which produce energy at about 4.5 cents kWh.

For now, the best wave generator technology in place in the United Kingdom is producing energy at an average projected/assessed cost of 7.5 cents kWh.

In comparison, electricity generated by large scale coal burning power plants costs about 2.6 cents per kilowatt-hour. Combined-cycle natural gas turbine technology, the primary source of new electric power capacity is about 3 cents per kilowatt hour or higher. It is not unusual to average costs of 5 cents per kilowatt-hour and up for municipal utilities districts.


Chapter 5

5.0 Conclusion

For theconclusion, to make waves as a source of energy that can generate electricity is not impossible. Based on the result that can be collected in this project demonstrates a rather significant drawback in terms of efficiency in the movement of magnetic flux system. For Comparative movement can be seen in 4.2.0 Linear Motion and Rotation (Chapter 4).

For the overall conclusion, wave energy conversion is not currently competitive with other renewable energy sources from an economic perspective. However, this project more to continue the research, wave energy conversion will become competitive in the long term. Wave extraction technology is still in the preliminary stages of experimentations and there are a wide range of devices currently be evaluated. As the technology improves and the energy productions grow, the cost will decrease. There are many benefits to extracting energy from waves. The oceans are a largely untapped resource containing a vast amount of energy.

5.1 Recommendation

5.1.0 The Impact or Benefits on the Environment and Country?

Wave power structures that are equally long lived promise comparatively begin environmental effects. Wave power is renewable, green, pollution free and environmentally invisible. Its will be the net potential is better than solar, wind and others. For example solar, at night the sun is not visible by the solar energy cannot be produced or used against the wave energy that never stops generating waves even at night.

5.1.2 Benefits

There are numerous benefits associated with extracting energy from waves that support the claim that wave energy has the potential to be economically competitive with other forms of renewable energy. Perhaps the most important benefit of wave energy extraction is that energy in waves is more concentrated than in other forms of renewable energy such as wind or solar. Although both waves and wind are driven by the sun, the average power flow intensity of a wave is approximately ten times greater than in the sun's rays. This means that a device that can efficiently extract energy from waves can extract more energy per unit time than a device that harnesses solar or wind energy.

Wave energy is a force that can be said to be no obstacle. This is because, if in comparison with other renewable energies such as wind energy, to get this place wind energy high speed needed to obtain optimum energy and wave energy ubiquitous in every area.

Furthermore, wave energy extractors have a relatively minimal environmental footprint, even with respect to other sources of renewable energy. In particular, wave energy devices do not produce liquid, solid, or gaseous emissions. Additionally, waves travel large distances with minimal energy loss, meaning that the placement of wave energy extractors is flexible. Whereas wind turbines and solar panels must be placed in optimal locations, wave energy extractors can be placed in a larger area and still extract energy efficiently from the environment.

Finally, wave energy extractors can generate electricity for approximately 90% of the day on average, compared to 20-30% for wind turbines and solar panels. Therefore, wave energy extractors have the potential to be a more consistent source of energy. 

6.0 Reference

6.1 References of Website:

1) Author: Professor Joseph F. Becker, Title – Physic Department (San Jose State University)

2) Author : Richard Fitzpatrick, Title : Faradays Laws, Years :14/07/2007

3) Author : Progress on the EU Directive (18/11/2015), Title : Emf info’s

4) Author : Josh Williams, Title : Gear & Lights

5) Author : Miguel Barrrientos (Founder), Claudia Soria (Co-Founder), Title : Index or Statistic

6) Author : Wayne Storr (Lowa State University), Title : NDT Education Resources (2001-20014)

7) Author : Wayne Storr, Title : Electromagnetic Inductions

8) Author : Institute of Physics, Title : Electromagnetism

9) Author: Lockheed Martin Ltd, Title: Wave Energy

10) Author: International Energy Agency (IEA Statistics © OECD/IEA, Title: Energy Statistics and Balances of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Statistics of OECD Countries.


6.2 References of Video

6.2.1 References of Wave Energy Mechanism References

1) Posted by : Trav Laa, Published on May 14, 2013, Title : Savonius Rotor

2) Posted by : Morten M. Jakobsen, Published on Feb 7, 2014, Title : Floating Wave Energy Converter

3) Posted by : Weptos (A/S Denmark), Uploaded on Oct 25, 2011 Title : Waypoints of Wave Energy

4) Posted by : Teng Choy, Published on Oct 20, 2012 Title : Ocean Power (Piston Pumps & Racks)

5) Posted by : TomoNews US, Published on Apr 4, 2015, Title : Converts Sea Waves

6) Posted by : Sergio Pereira, Published on Aug 9, 2012, Title : Wave Energy Plants in Brazil

7) Posted by : Peace Trees, uploaded on Mar 2, 2011, Title : SEARASER Wave Energy Device

8) Posted by : Ocean Power Technologies, Published on Apr 2, 2012, Title : PowerBuoy

9) Posted by : Vega Science trust Achieve, Uploaded on Jul 7, 2010, Title Wave Power

6.2.2 References of Magnetic Flux System

1) Posted by : Brightstorm, Published on Apr 23, 2014, Title : Faraday’s Laws & Lenz’s Laws

2) Posted by : Kijun song, Published on Apr 16, 2014, Title : Magnetic Field Experiment

3) Posted by : IbPhysicsHelp, Published Mar 23, 2010, Title : Electromagnetic Induction

4) Posted by : Tawkaw OpenCourseWare, Published on Jun 4, 2014, Title : Electromagnetic Induction

5) Posted by : Tutor Vista, Published on Apr 30, 2010, Title : Electromagnetic Induction

6) Posted by : Tawkaw OpenCourseWare, Published onJun 4, 2014, Title : Motional EMF

6.3 References of Lecturer




APENDIX A – Article 1

Article about Converting Wave Energy

Converting Wave Energy into Electricity – Wave Energy Conversion

In a world ruled by fossil fuels, converting wave energy into electricity might seem far-fetched, but ocean power is gradually joining the ranks of wind and solar as a source of renewable energy. According to the Electric Power Research Institute (2005), ocean energy conversion appears to be the most promising and closest to commercial production and may be economically feasible in the near future.

The popular energy sources in the world today, the fossil fuels—including coal, natural gas, and oil, provide about 95% of the world’s total energy. However they contain many environmental and social issues.

The Environmental impact is so dangerous that the burning processes of these fossil fuels is considered to be the largest contributing factor to the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Nowadays, it is even believed that energy providers are the largest source of atmospheric pollution. There are many types of harmful outcomes which result from the process of converting fossil fuels to energy. Some of these include air pollution, water pollution, accumulation of solid waste, not to mention the land degradation and human illness.

To prevent and reduce the damage caused by use of polluting energy sources, the world began to turn to natural sources to produce energy; the most interesting and promising among them is the wave energy conversion.

Wave power conversion process is perhaps the least intrusive of all the renewable energy technologies. Wave power is very environmentally friendly. It does not create any waste, does not have any CO2 emissions or criteria pollutants, there is no noise pollution, no visual impact and it does not threaten marine life.

Although the technology is limited to coastal locations its potential impact is large because of the large concentration of population along the coasts and the compatibility of most coastal locations to the implementation of wave power. Proponents claim that the energy cost for producing electricity via wave power conversion technologies will be competitive with conventional power within a very short time.

Wave power is renewable energy which is environmentally friendly. Unlike most of renewable energy resources, wave energy can produce power all the year. The wave energy is stored in the oceans worldwide and highly concentrated near the ocean surface. As a result, Wave energy conversion will be a very competitive energy resource in the nearest future.

Ocean energy conversion has a high potential to be captured and used for generating electricity as the technology develops further. There is a lot of energy stored in waves and only a small part of the wave power is used for commercial electricity generation today.

It is clear that this is the best time for wave energy, and there are already few technologies that are ready to be deployed and which seem to be very promising, such as the ” Power Wing” and the “Wave Clapper”, of Eco Wave Power Company, headed by David Leb.

APENDIX B – Article 2

Ocean Power Technologies and Lockheed Martin developing utility-scale wave power system


13 October 2009 – Lockheed Martin and Ocean Power Technologies (OPT) have signed a commercial engineering services agreement to develop OPT’s wave energy systems for use in future utility-scale power generation projects.

Under the agreement, Lockheed Martin will provide its expertise in systems integration, lean manufacturing, and test and optimization analysis to enhance OPT’s innovative PowerBuoy wave power generation technology to utility-scale. This critical step will allow the two companies to pursue future utility-scale power generation projects in North America. The companies agreed to collaborate on such projects in a letter of intent signed in January 2009.

“The breadth of Lockheed Martin’s expertise, innovation and execution skills will add significant value to OPT’s overall delivery capability and assist in pursuing utility-scale wave energy projects,” said Mark R. Draper, OPT’s chief executive officer. “Their know-how will enhance key aspects of our current product offering, and aid the successful roll-out of our core PowerBuoy technology on the west coast of the U.S.”

OPT’s proven PowerBuoy technology uses “smart” buoys, based on integrated patented hydrodynamics, electronics, energy conversion and computer control systems, to capture and convert energy from the natural rising and falling of waves into low-cost, clean electricity. The generated power is transferred ashore via an underwater power transmission cable. A future 10-Megawatt utility power station comprised of floating PowerBuoy systems would occupy approximately 30 acres (0.125 square kilometers) of ocean space. Such a plant would generate electricity for approximately 4000 homes.

“Our work with OPT is another way in which Lockheed Martin is applying its expertise to help the nation achieve energy independence with alternative, renewable resources,” said Rich Lockwood, vice president of Lockheed Martin’s New Ventures business. “Lockheed Martin’s experience, combined with OPT’s impressive PowerBuoy technology, advances the efficient and cost-effective production of utility-scale wave power generation systems.”

In addition to its collaboration with OPT, Lockheed Martin is addressing the nation’s energy and climate challenges with work in areas including next-generation alternative energy, energy efficiency, energy storage and climate monitoring.

APENDIX C – Malaysia Net Electric Generation

Figure 31 Info Electric Generations in Malaysia

APENDIX D – Electricity Index

Figure 32 Electricity Index

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