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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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.C. Medland ,   (1966).

 Collapse load of steel frame works allowing for the effect of strain hardening

Concerned an investigation of the behavior of structures composed of the high yield-stress steel to B.S. 968. Moreover, it concern about the applicability of the plastic theory to the design of such type of framed structures.  In this investigation, he had conducted a number of bending tests on simply supported beams of having I-sections in the new steel to check the applicability of the previous  theories to the estimation of the strain-hardening characteristic of such beams. He had found that the rigid-plastic-strain-hardening (r.p.s.h.) and rigid-plastic-rigid (r.p.r.1 theories both gave good estimates of the strain-hardening characteristic of high tensile steel beams and that the basic r.p.r. theory could be used as a suitable basis for a design method.

 S.P. Sinhaet.al,(1988)

 Computer aided design of hydraulic press by and P.D.Murarka (1988)

The study was concerned about computer aided design of hydraulic press in which they used finite element model to analyze the press structure and it has been used in making a comparative study of the behavior of the structure. The factors considered are fillet, edge cutting, provision of openings, change in position of stiffeners and eccentric loading. On the basis of this investigation, certain significant guidelines have been obtained for the design of press frames that are..

(i) Clearance between sliding members to be kept to a minimum, according accuracy expected of the machine tool;

(ii) Proper alignment of different elements, particularly sliding ones should be ensured.

 Dr. Mohamad M. Salehet.al, ( 1992)

 Design study of heavy duty hydraulic machine using FEM technique,

This thesis describes the systematic procedure for investigating the performance and the design analysis of the welded structure of a 150-tonne hydraulic press machine. This machine was designed without any measurement or variable hydraulic system. The investigation discusses the theoretical and experimental model of the machine to establish the accurately optimal design analysis and further development of the present machine at minimum time and lower cost. The applicability of the existing PC based FE package, as a computer aided design tool, was also investigated. The theoretical model takes into account both conventional analytical formula and numerical technique, using Finite Element Analysis. The conventional model is based on the simple bending theory using the total strain energy principle for 2D beams. The LUSAS Finite Element software system is used as a tool to establish the theoretically predicted numerical model. This model has been discussed with different factors. The factors considered are: the boundary condition; the mesh density and the type of the element being used. The experimental model consist of load cells strain gages and L.V.D.T. and A comparison has been made between the experimental and theoretically predicted results.

 L.A. Bisby 2004

 An Introduction to structural health monitoring,  L.A. Bisby 2004

 Concerned about the introduction to structural health monitoring and its various aspects like its components, classification, levels, methods of computation etc.

also gives a brief description of  sensors and actuators and there types with some example of bridge structure.

 Charles R. Farrar et.al,(2006)

 An Introduction to structural health monitoring,

 The study is concerned about an introductory part about SHM that The process of implementing a damage identification strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system’s performance. it also concerned about wide variety of highly effective local Non-destructive evaluation tools are available for such monitoring and also tells about motivation for SHM technology development, feature extraction and information condensation, Operational evaluation and Challenges for SHM.      

 Mohammad Osman et al  (2011)                       

 Finite element analysis of beam-column joints in steel frames under cyclic loading.

This study is concerned to develop simple and accurate three-dimensional (3D) finite

element model (FE) capable of predicting the actual behavior of beam-to-column joints in steel frames subjected to lateral loads. The software package ANSYS is used to model the joint. The bolted extended-end-plate connection was chosen as an important type of beam–column joints. The extended-end-plate connection is chosen for its complexity in the analysis and behavior due to the number of connection components and their inheritable non-linear behavior. Two experimental tests in the literature were chosen to verify the finite element model. The results of both the experimental and the proposed finite element were compared. One of these tests was monotonically loaded, whereas the second was cyclically loaded. The finite element model is improved to enhance the defects of the finite element model used. These defects are; the long time need for the analysis and the inability of the contact element type to follow the behavior of moment–rotation curve under cyclic loading. As a contact element, the surface-to-surface element is used instead of node-to-node element to enhance the model. The FE results show good correlation with the experimental one. An attempt to improve a new technique for modeling bolts is conducted. And Concluded that FE results and the experimental results are compared to examine the validity and the predictability of the proposed model. The FE results have good agreement with the experimental one at different stages of loading. The FE model can provide a variety of results at any location within the model. A viewing of the full fields of stresses and strains are possible in the FE model. This provides a great advantage in monitoring the components of the connection. And shown that modeling a beam-to-column connection loaded cyclically is expensive and time consuming in both building and solving the model. So, there is a great need to model the connection more simply and at the same time with an acceptable accuracy.  and gave a proposal for a new technique of modeling bolts is presented. The proposal is to model the bolts as a mixing of shell elements (for head and nut) and link elements (for shank). This technique for modeling of bolts, called shell bolt, was examined and compared to other methods for modeling of bolts and was found to be accurate. Also, it needs less time of solution and less storage volume comparing with other techniques for modeling the bolts.

 Philip Rinn et al (2012)

 Stochastic method for in situ damage analysis,

 study is concerned  about physics of stochastic processes we present a new approach for structural health monitoring.  this new method allows for an in-situ analysis of the elastic features of a mechanical structure even for realistic excitations with correlated noise as it appears in real world situations. In particular an experimental set-up of undamaged and damaged beam structures was exposed to a noisy excitation under turbulent wind conditions. The method of reconstructing stochastic equations from measured data has been extended to realistic noisy excitations like those given here. In our analysis the deterministic part is separated from the stochastic dynamics of the system and we show that the slope of the deterministic part, which is linked to mechanical features of the material, changes sensitively with increasing damage. The results are more significant  than corresponding changes in eigen frequencies, as commonly used for structural health monitoring. Commonly detection systems use fast Fourier transformation (FFT) to extract system features and to determine the condition of the system from changes in the eigen frequencies. One drawback of this approach is that noisy excitation of the structure broadens the peaks of the frequency spectrum and thus makes it harder to detect changes reliably.

 Yasin Kisioglu et.al,(2013)

 Hydraulic press design under different loading   conditions using finite element analysis

this study, a suitable hydraulic press having four-column is designed and the stress distribution is calculated using both analytical and finite element methods under different loading conditions. Three different loading types, axial, eccentric and oblique, are considered in design process. Six different types of standard sections having the same cross-sectional area are used for the press columns. Three different models for the press head are designed to hold the hydraulic cylinder. Therefore, eighteen different design combinations for a hydraulic press are modeled under three different loading conditions. Their stress distributions are calculated using a computer-aided finite element analysis (FEA) tool and analytical formulas and the obtained results are compared. Two different types of finite elements, shell and beam, are used for the modeling processes. Based on the obtained results, the best model for the hydraulic press considering the head and body types is defined. and recommended that T type head and hollow circular or I-sectioned  column is the best design consideration.

 Martin Zahalka et.al, (2013)

 Modal analysis of hydraulic press frames for open die forging,  

the study discuss the dynamic behavior of the forging machines is necessary to explore due to the increasing of speeds on large forging hydraulic presses for open die forging. The study describes the modal analysis of two selected presses, which represent the most common designs of hydraulic presses for forging. The first press is with double-column frame CKV 50 with the force 50MN and the second one is with four-column frame CKV 170 with the force 170 MN. Further are described the simulations of oscillation,  which was excited by time-dependent work force. Results of analysis are compared with measurement in the real operation. w and concluded that we can get higher second moment of area with the same area of cross section by changing of shape only.

 Santosh kumar  et al (2014)

 Analysis and structural optimization of 5 ton H-frame hydraulic press,    

  In above st Discussed about Using the optimum resources possible in designing the hydraulic presses frame can effect reduction in the cost of the hydraulic presses. By optimizing the weight of material utilized for building the structure. An attempt has been made in this direction to reduce the volume of material. So here we consider an industrial application project consisting of mass minimization of H-frame type hydraulic press. This press has to compensate the forces acting on the working plates and has to fulfill certain critical constraints. ANSYS has been used for this analysis the main aim is to reduce the cost of the Hydraulic presses without compromising on the quality of the output. With regarding to design specification, stress distribution, deflection, and cost, are focused on optimized design. The methodology followed in this work is comparison of stresses induced in machine for different thickness used for construction of frame and column of the H-frame type hydraulic press. In this project it has been compared original design of H frame type hydraulic press with design that have been optimized by using software tool (ANSYS) .

2.2   Critique

Since lot of work has been done on SHM of steel frame for both static condition the type of testing methods from analog to  digital .

Further work has been done on structural analysis and optimization of loading frame and hydraulic presses we plant to replicate that for our loading frame.

                                                          

                                                                                                                       

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