In any structure or structural element before application in actual field there is some
testing should have to perform so that to check its reliability and serviceability. So in
characterization process we have to set its limitation either they are structural or
geometrical. At some extent, in beginning of service life of any structure main aim of
SHM is also that to characterize the limiting values only. Latter it defines rest of life
and current performance of structure.
The Structural health monitoring can be defined as non-destructive in-situ structural
evaluation method in which several types of sensors and actuators are attached or
embedded in structure. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) aims to give, at every
moment during the life of a structure, a diagnosis of the “state” of the constituent
materials, of the different parts, and of the full assembly of these parts constituting the
structure as a whole. The state of the structure must remain in the domain specified in
the design, although this can be altered by normal aging due to usage, by the action of
the environment, and by accidental events.
And the rest part is Prognosis in which the prediction of residual life of the structure
is to be done. Due to time-dimension of monitoring, which makes it possible to
consider the full history database of the structure, and with the help of Usage
Monitoring, it can be able to provide a prognosis (evolution of damage, residual life,
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In structural health monitoring damage is defined as changes to the material and/or
mechanical properties of a structure, including changes to the boundary conditions,
which adversely affect the structural performance. These sensors collect data which is
analyzed and stored for future analysis and reference that can be used for safety,
integrity, strength or performance.
Components of SHM
The structure on which the SHM system will be placed.
Sensors and Actuators
Communication of information
Intelligent processing and analyzing of data
Storage of processed data
Damage modeling and damage detection algorithms
Retrieval of information as required
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Layout of structural health monitoring
Fig.1.1 Layout of structural health monitoring
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TABLE 1.1 Categories of SHM
S.no Categories description
Static Field Testing
Stress history tests
Ambient vibration tests
Dyn. Load Allowance (DLA) tests .
Pullback (anchored cables) tests
4 Periodic Monitoring
Field testing Tests to determine
changes in structure
Advantages of SHM
Increased understanding g of in‐situ structural behavior
Early damage detection
Assurances of structural strength and serviceability
Decreased down time for inspection and repair
Development of rational maintenance / management strategies
Increased effectiveness in allocation of scarce resources
Enables and encourages use of new and innovative materials
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Levels of SHM
Level I: This basic level SHM system is capable of detecting damage in a
structure, but cannot provide any information on the nature, location or severity of
the damage .it cannot assess the safety of the structure.
Level II: Slightly more sophisticated than level 1 SHM system level II system can
detect presence of damage and can also provide information about its location. So
that can be detect and repair
Level III: In this level we can locate pin point location and of damage and its
Level IV: It is the most sophisticated system of SHM and provide detailed
information about presence, location and severity of damage and in some extent it
can also provide information about the life of the structure.
1.3 Loading frame
A high stiffness support structure against which the test forces can react. The load
frame comprises a base beam, two columns, and a moving crosshead. It is a selfstraining
structure that means no other load is transfers to ground except its selfweight.
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Fig.1.2 loading frame
Types of loading frame
According to axis of loading
o Vertical loading frame
Fig.1.3 Vertical loading frame
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o Horizontal loading frame
Fig.1.4 Horizontal loading frame
o Straight Sided four column Type
o Straight Sided box Type
o Straight Sided Column/C-Frame Type,
o H-frame Type,
Significance of loading frame
The test-loading frame can be utilized to test the behavior and load-carrying
capacity of both full-size structures as well as separate structural member.
This equipment is best suited for producing static and repeated loadings
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1.4 Objectives of the study
Characterization of loading frame
to monitor health of loading frame.
vertical stiffness means stiffness of structural member in vertical loadings
displacements under characteristics load etc
And comparative study of the general manual results with experimental results.
1.5 Outline of project
Is to study various aspects of structural health monitoring and part of
instrumentation involved in it.
Experimental procedure setup and methodology used.
Description of experimental investigation.
Description of strain gauges and their types.
Comparative study of experimental and theoretical results.
1.6 Scope of the work
To achieve the above objective, to the scope of this work for the project generally
involves the following.
To verify the loading frame geometrically by performing flatness test and
To verify structural performance of frame using strain gauges LVDT’s, data
logger and load cell as instrumentation part and hydraulic jack spacers as
To apply the tests more times to verify reliability of our instrumentation system.
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To make completive study of results of theoretical and experimental calculation
and prediction about health of frame.
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I.C. Medland, et al, (1966).
Collapse load of steel frame works allowing for the effect of strain hardening
Concerned an investigation of the behavior of structures composed of the high yieldstress
steel to B.S. 968. Moreover, it concern about the applicability of the plastic
theory to the design of such type of framed structures. In this investigation, he had
conducted a number of bending tests on simply supported beams of having I-sections
in the new steel to check the applicability of the previous theories to the estimation
of the strain-hardening characteristic of such beams. He had found that the rigidplastic-
strain-hardening (r.p.s.h.) and rigid-plastic-rigid (r.p.r.1 theories both gave
good estimates of the strain-hardening characteristic of high tensile steel beams and
that the basic r.p.r. theory could be used as a suitable basis for a design method.
S.P. Sinha, et.al, (1988)
Computer aided design of hydraulic press by and
The study was concerned about CAD (computer-aided design) of hydraulic press
structure of capacity 918KN in which they used finite element model to analyze the
press because only through FEM method we can reach near about to model exact
shape like its topology. They also considered factors such as fillet, edge cutting,
provision of openings, change in position of stiffeners and eccentric loading. They
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explained us merits of FEM for modeling of such types of complicated structure.
On the basis of this Investigation, certain significant guidelines related to its
behavior and it’s design have been obtained for the analysis& design in future of
press frames that are.
(i) Clearance between members should be minimum, as much as accuracy expected
from the machine tool;
(ii) Proper alignment of different elements, especially for sliding ones should be
ensured with greater accuracy.
Dr. Mohamad M. Saleh, et.al, ( 1992)
Design study of heavy duty hydraulic machine using FEM technique,
This thesis describes the systematic procedure for investigating the structural
performance and the design and analysis of the welded structure of a 150-tonne
hydraulic press machine in other sense load frame or load carrying structure . This
machine was designed without any measurement earlier. The author has discussed
the theoretical and experimental model of the machine structure to make the
accurate and optimal design analysis for further development in the present machine
design at minimum time and at lower cost. The applicability of the existing
Computer based Finite Element package, as a CAD (computer aided design) tool,
was also discovered. They use both conventional analytical formula and numerical
technique, using Finite Element to model it theoretically. But the conventional
model is based on the simple bending theory in which they use the total strain energy
principle for 2D beams or frames. The LUSAS Finite Element software is used for
numerical modeling because modeling and solving the equation of FEM f such type
of complex structure is too problematic or can say impossible and why they waste
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their labor while facilities are. By using FE model they able to be consider such
factors which are not possible to replicate by other method. The they factors
considered are:- the boundary condition the mesh density and the type of the element
being used. The experimental model consist of load cells strain gages and L.V.D.T.
and A comparison has been made between the experimental and theoretical results.
L.A. Bisby,et al, (2004)
An Introduction to structural health monitoring
Concerned about the introduction to structural health monitoring and its various
aspects like its components, classification, levels, methods of computation etc.also
gives a brief description of sensors and actuators and there types with some example
of bridge structure.
Charles R. Farrar et.al,(2006)
An Introduction to structural health monitoring,
The study is concerned about an introductory part of SHM that is The process of
applying a damage identification technique for aeronautical, civil and mechanical
engineering infrastructure is called structural health monitoring (SHM). Damage is
defined as changes in the mechanical properties of material and geometric and
structural properties of the systems. It including changes in the boundary conditions
and system inter connectivity or can say inter molecular connectivity between
material molicule which adversely affect the system’s performance. it also concerned
about huge variety of highly accurate local Non-destructive testing mechanisms are
available for such monitoring and also tells about motivation for SHM technology
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development, feature retrieval and information collection, Operational evaluation
and difficulties occurred in SHM.
Mohammad Osman, et al, (2011)
Finite element analysis of beam-column joints in steel frames under cyclic
This study is concerned to develop simple and accurate three-dimensional (3D) finite
element model (FE) which can be capable of analyzing the actual behavior of beamcolumn
joints in steel frames in the application of lateral loadings. The software
ANSYS was used to model the joint. They had chosen bolted extended-end-plate
connection as an important type of beam–column joints. The extended-end-plate
connection was chosen for its complexity in the analysis and behavior due to the
number of connection components and their inheritable non-linear behavior. They
chose two experimental tests from the literature to verify their finite element model.
After that they compared the results of both the experimental and the proposed finite
element model were. One of those tests monotonic loading was used, whereas in the
second cyclic loading was used. The finite element model was improved to overcome
the defects of the finite element model which was used. These defects are; the long
time need for the analysis and the inability of the contact element type to follow the
behavior of moment–rotation curve under cyclic loading. As a contact element, the
surface-to-surface element was used in place of node-to-node element to improve the
model. The FE results showed good correlation with the experimental results. This
was an attempt to improve a new technique for modeling bolts. And Concluded that
FE results and the experimental results are compared to examine the validity and the
predictability of the proposed model. The FE results have good agreement with the
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experimental one at different stages of loading. The FE model can provide a variety
of results at any location within the model. A viewing of the full fields of stresses and
strains are possible in the FE model. This provides a great advantage in monitoring
the components of the connection. And shown that modeling a beam-to-column
connection loaded cyclically is expensive and time consuming in both building and
solving the model. So, there is a great need to model the connection more simply and
at the same time with an acceptable accuracy. and gave a proposal for a new
technique of modeling bolts is presented. The proposal is to model the bolts as a
mixing of shell elements (for head and nut) and link elements (for shank). This
technique for modeling of bolts, called shell bolt, was examined and compared to
other methods for modeling of bolts and was found to be accurate. Also, it needs less
time of solution and less storage volume comparing with other techniques for
modeling the bolts.
Philip Rinn, et al, (2012)
Stochastic method for in situ damage analysis,
Study is concerned about physics of stochastic processes we present a new approach
for structural health monitoring. this new method allows for an in-situ analysis of the
elastic properties of a mechanical structure it also reliable in in-situ analysis because
this method compensate the external noise which are desired in actual condition. In
this study, an experimental set-up of undistorted and distorted beam structures was
exposed to a noisy excitation under turbulent wind conditions. The method of
reforming stochastic equations from measured data has been extended to realistic
noisy excitations like those given here. In our analysis, the part which is to be
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determine had separated from the stochastic dynamics of the system and they
showed that the slope of the deterministic part, which is linked to mechanical
features of the material, changes sensitively with increasing damage. The results are
more significant than corresponding changes in Eigen frequencies, as commonly
used for structural health monitoring. Commonly detection systems use fast Fourier
transformation (FFT) to extract system features and to determine the condition of the
system from changes in the Eigen frequencies. One demerit of this method is that the
noisy excitation of the structure increases the peaks of the frequency spectrum and
so makes it harder to detect and analyze the changes reliability of approach.
Yasin Kisioglu, et.al, (2013)
Hydraulic press design under different loading conditions using finite element
In this study author designed a straight sided four-pillar type hydraulic press and
calculated the stress distribution using both analytical and finite element methods
under different loading conditions. Three different loading types, axial, eccentric and
oblique, are considered in design process. Six different types of standard sections
having the same cross-sectional area are used for the press columns. Three different
models for the press head are designed to hold the hydraulic cylinder. Therefore,
eighteen different design combinations for a hydraulic press are modeled under three
different loading conditions. Their stress distributions are calculated using a
computer-aided finite element analysis (FEA) tool and analytical formulas and the
obtained results are compared. Two different types of finite elements, shell and beam,
are used for the modeling processes. Based on the obtained results, the best model for
the hydraulic press considering the head and body types is defined. and recommended
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that T type head and hollow circular or I-sectioned column is the best design
Martin Zahalka, et.al, (2013)
Modal analysis of hydraulic press frames for open die forging,
The study discuss the dynamic behavior of the forging machines is necessary to
explore due to the increasing of speeds on large forging hydraulic presses for open die
forging. The study describes the modal analysis of two selected presses, which
represent the most common designs of hydraulic presses for forging. The first press is
with double-column frame CKV 50 with the force 50MN and the second one is with
four-column frame CKV 170 with the force 170 MN. Further are described the
simulations of oscillation, which was excited by time-dependent work force. Results
of analysis are compared with measurement in the real operation. w and concluded
that we can get higher second moment of area with the same area of cross section by
changing of shape only.
Santosh kumar, et al, (2014)
Analysis and structural optimization of 5 ton H-frame hydraulic press,
In above st Discussed about Using the optimum resources possible in designing the
hydraulic presses frame can effect reduction in the cost of the hydraulic presses. By
optimizing the weight of material utilized for building the structure. An attempt has
been made in this direction to reduce the volume of material. So here we consider an
industrial application project consisting of mass minimization of H-frame type
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hydraulic press. This press has to compensate the forces acting on the working plates
and has to fulfill certain critical constraints. ANSYS has been used for this analysis
the main aim is to reduce the cost of the Hydraulic presses without compromising on
the quality of the output. With regarding to design specification, stress distribution,
deflection, and cost, are aimed on optimized design. The methodology followed in
this work is comparison of stresses induced in machine for different thickness used
for construction of frame and column of the H-frame type hydraulic press. In this
project it has been compared original design of H frame type hydraulic press with
design that have been optimized by using software tool (ANSYS) .
Since lot of work has been done on SHM of steel frame for both static condition the
type of testing methods from analog to digital .
Further work has been done on structural analysis and optimization of loading frame
and hydraulic presses we plant to replicate that for our loading frame.ay in here...
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