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  • Subject area(s): Engineering
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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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Literature review

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  Medland, et al. (1966) The study of author was concerned about an investigation of the behavior of structures composed of the high yield-stress steel to B.S. 968. Moreover, it concerns about the applicability of the plastic theory to the design of such type of framed structures.  In this investigation, he had conducted a number of bending tests on simply supported beams of having I-sections. In the new steel to check the applicability of the previous theories to the estimation of the strain-hardening characteristic of such beams. He had found that the rigid-plastic-strain-hardening (r.p.s.h.) and rigid-plastic-rigid (r.p.r.1 theories both gave good estimates of the strain-hardening characteristic of high tensile steel beams and that the basic rigid-plastic-rigid theory could be used as a suitable basis for a design method.

  Sinha, et.al, (1988) The study was concerned about CAD (computer-aided design) of hydraulic press structure of capacity 918KN in which they used finite element model to analyze the press because only through FEM method we can reach  near  about  to model exact shape like its topology. They also considered  factors such as  fillet, edge cutting, provision of openings, change in position of stiffeners and eccentric loading. They explained us merits  of FEM for  modeling of such types of complicated structure. On the basis of this Investigation, certain significant guidelines related to its behavior and it’s design   have been obtained for the analysis& design in future of press frames that are.

(i) Clearance between members should maintain as minimum, as much as accuracy expected from the machine tool;

(ii) Proper alignment of different elements, especially for sliding ones should be ensured with greater accuracy.

  Saleh, et.al. ( 1992) This study describes the systematic procedure for investigation  of the structural  performance and the design and analysis of the welded structure of a 150-tonne hydraulic press machine in other sense load frame or load carrying structure . This machine was designed without any measurement earlier. The author has discussed the theoretical and experimental model of the machine structure  to make the accurate and optimal design analysis for further development in the present machine design at minimum time and at lower cost. The applicability of the existing Computer based Finite Element package, as a CAD (computer aided design) tool, was also discovered. They use both  conventional analytical formula and numerical technique, using Finite Element to model it theoretically. But the conventional model is based on the simple bending theory in which they use the total strain energy principle for 2D beams or frames. The LUSAS Finite Element software is used for numerical modeling because modeling and solving the equation of FEM f such type of complex structure is too problematic or can say impossible and why they waste their labor while facilities are. By using FE model they able to be consider such factors which are not possible to replicate by other method. The they factors considered are:- the boundary condition the mesh density and the type of the element being used. The experimental model consist of load cells strain gages and L.V.D.T. and A comparison had made between the experimental and theoretical results.

  Bisby, et al. (2004) Concerned about the introduction to structural health monitoring and its various aspects like its components, classification, levels, methods of computation etc. they also gives a brief description of  sensors and actuators and there types which generally used in monitoing  with some example of bridge structure.

  Farrar, et al. (2006) The study is concerned about an introductory part of SHM that is The process of applying a damage identification technique for aeronautical, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is called structural health monitoring (SHM). Damage is defined as changes in the mechanical properties of material and geometric and structural properties of the systems. It including changes in the boundary conditions and system inter connectivity or can say inter molecular connectivity between material molicule which adversely affect the system’s performance. it also concerned about huge  variety of highly accurate local Non-destructive testing mechanisms are available for such monitoring and also tells about motivation for SHM technology development, feature retrieval and information collection, Operational evaluation and difficulties occurred in SHM.

  Osman, et al. (2011) This study is concerned about to develop simple and accurate three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FE) which able to be analyze the actual behavior of beam-column joints in steel frames in the application of lateral loadings. The software named ANSYS was used to model the joint. They had chosen bolted extended-end-plate connection as an important type of beam–column joints. The extended-end-plate connection had chosen for its complexity in the analysis and behavior due to more number of connection components and their inheritable means having similarity in non-linear behavior. They chose two experimental tests from the literature to verify their finite element model. After that they compared the results of both the experimental and the proposed finite element model were. One of those tests monotonic loading was used, whereas in the second cyclic loading was used. The finite element model was improved to overcome the defects of the finite element model which was used. These defects are; the long time need for the analysis and the inability of the contact element type to follow the behavior of moment–rotation curve under cyclic loading. As a contact element, the surface-to-surface element was used in place of node-to-node element to improve the model. The FE results showed good correlation with the experimental results. This was an attempt to improve a new technique for modeling bolts. And Concluded that FE results and the experimental results are compared to examine the validity and the predictability of the proposed model. The FE results have good agreement with the experimental one at different stages of loading. The FE model can provide a variety of results at any location within the model. A viewing of the full fields of stresses and strains are possible in the FE model. This provides a great advantage in monitoring the components of the connection. And shown that modeling a beam-to-column connection loaded cyclically is expensive and time consuming in both building and solving the model. So, there is a great need to model the connection more simply and at the same time with an acceptable accuracy.  and gave a proposal for a new technique of modeling bolts is presented. The proposal is to model the bolts as a mixing of shell elements (for head and nut) and link elements (for shank). This technique for modeling of bolts, called shell bolt, was examined and compared to other methods for modeling of bolts and was found to be accurate. Also, it needs less time of solution and less storage volume comparing with other techniques for modeling the bolts.

  Rinn, et al. (2012) Study is concerned about physics of stochastic processes we present a new approach for structural health monitoring. this new method allows for an in-situ analysis of the elastic properties of a mechanical structure it also reliable in in-situ analysis because this method compensate the external noise which are desired in actual condition. In this study, an experimental set-up of undistorted and distorted beam structures was exposed to a noisy excitation under turbulent wind conditions. The method of reforming stochastic equations from measured data has been extended to realistic noisy excitations like those given here. In our analysis, the part which is to be determine had separated from the stochastic dynamics of the system and they showed that the slope of the deterministic part, which is linked to mechanical features of the material, changes sensitively with increasing damage. The results are more significant  than corresponding changes in Eigen frequencies, as commonly used for structural health monitoring. Commonly detection systems use fast Fourier transformation (FFT) to extract system features and to determine the condition of the system from changes in the Eigen frequencies. One demerit of this method is that the noisy excitation of the structure increases the peaks of the frequency spectrum and so makes it harder to detect and analyze the changes reliability of approach.

  Kisioglu, et.al. (2013) In this study author designed a straight sided four-pillar type  hydraulic press and calculated the stress distribution  using both analytical and finite element methods under different loading conditions. Three different loading types, axial, eccentric and oblique, are considered in design process. Six different types of standard sections having the same cross-sectional area are used for the press columns. Three different models for the press head are designed to hold the hydraulic cylinder. Therefore, eighteen different design combinations for a hydraulic press are modeled under three different loading conditions. Their stress distributions ware calculated using a computer-aided finite element analysis (FEA) tool, analytical formulas, and the obtained results ware compared. Two different types of finite elements, shell and beam, had used for the modeling processes. Based on the obtained results, the best model for the hydraulic press considering the head and body types has defined. And recommended that the T type head and hollow circular or I-sectioned column is the best design consideration.

  Zahalka, et al. (2013)  The study discuss the dynamic behavior of the forging machines is necessary to explore due to the increasing of speeds on large forging hydraulic presses for open die forging. The study describes the modal analysis of two selected presses, which represent the most common designs of hydraulic presses for forging. The first press is with double-column frame CKV 50 with the force 50MN and the second one is with four-column frame CKV 170 with the force 170 MN. Further are described the simulations of oscillation,  which was excited by time-dependent work force. Results of analysis ware compared with measurement in the real experiments. w and concluded that we can get higher second moment of area with the same area of cross section by changing of shape only.

  Kumar, et al. (2014)  In above study author Discussed about Using the optimum resources possible in designing the hydraulic presses frame can effect reduction in the cost of the hydraulic presses. By optimizing the weight of material utilized for building the structure. An attempt had made in this direction to reduce the volume of material. So here we consider an industrial application project consisting of mass minimization of H-frame type hydraulic press. This press has to compensate the forces acting on the working plates and has to fulfill certain critical constraints. ANSYS has been used for this analysis the main aim is to reduce the cost of the Hydraulic presses without compromising on the quality of the output. With regarding to design specification, stress distribution, deflection, and cost, are aimed on optimized design. The methodology followed in this work is comparison of stresses induced in machine for different thickness used for construction of frame and column of the H-frame type hydraulic press. In this project it has been compared original design of H frame type hydraulic press with design that have been optimized by using software tool (ANSYS) .

2.2   Critique:

Since lot of studies had performed on structural health monitoring of steel frame for both static and dynamic condition the type of testing methods from analog to digital.

Further work has been done on structural analysis and optimization of loading frame and hydraulic presses we plant to replicate that for our loading frame.

                                                          

                                                                                                                       

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