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  • Published on: 7th September 2019
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I – Field Sprinkler

Department of Computer Engineering Page 1

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION OF PROJECT

1.1 Introduction of problem

In farms we have to water the plants manually which is very time consuming and it takes the whole day of farmer. If some plants or and crops did not watered properly than it will not grow correctly. If some are of farm is dry then also we have to water in the whole farm in normal method. Our recent survey for the same shows that there are some solutions developed for watering (e.g. drip irrigation, sprinklers). These systems are timer based which will water the farm at several time intervals. Some of them are automatic or some are semi-automatic.

1.2 Problem Statement and Explanation

1.2.1 Problem Statement

Since these systems cannot provide watering based on the dryness or moisture content of soil and sometimes it will water at the scheduled time whether the farm is dry or not so it will leads to the wastage of the water. So there is need to provide an effective solution which provides watering solution in farms based on the soil moisture and automatic so farmers have to be present whole time at the farms.

1.2.2 Description

We are implementing “I – Field Sprinkler” which provides the automated watering in farms based on the dryness of the soil. It not only provides the automatic watering but also provides the real time information of the farm dryness, watering status and water level of the tank. It also provides refilling of the tank automatically if it goes below the certain limit. It also provides the facility to water the farm manually from the android application.

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The system will measure the soil moisture using the soil moisture sensors. The sensors are connected with the control unit (Raspberry Pi 3). Which reads the sensor value and from that it will turn on/off the specific watering valves (Solenoid Valve). It will also stores the moisture reading to the database which can be shown from the android application. The water tank also has sensor which will determine the water level of the tank and based on that refill it from the pump. The water level is also stored into database which can be read from the android application. The watering valve state is also stored in database and can be display from android application.

The android application will display the soil moisture, valve state and water level from the database to the user. User have to login using given credentials for seeing status of these. The user can turn on/off the specific valve if he/she wants. She/he also can refill the water tank manually if he/she wants.

1.3 Project Plan

Figure 1.1 Gantt Chart

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 Existing Systems

2.1.1 Drip Irrigation

Drip irrigation is a technique in which water flows through a filter into special drip pipes, with emitters located at different spacing. Water is distributed through the emitters directly into the soil near the roots through a special slow-release device. Compared to other types of system it delivers water only to the root zone of plant. It requires little water compared to other. It requires about 40-80 liters water per day for 100-200 plants.

Link:http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/drip-irrigation

Figure 2.1 Drip Irrigation

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2.1.2 Sprinkler Irrigation

Sprinkler irrigation is a method of providing rainfall-like irrigation to the crops. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. Spray heads at the outlets distribute water over the entire soil surface. Sprinkler provide efficient coverage for small to large areas and suitable for all types of crops. These sprinklers may be used in sold set configuration where sufficient nozzles are installed to cover all parts of the area or they can be used in a set-move configuration where lateral lines are operated and then moved and then moved at intervals of 12 or 24 hours.

Link: http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/sprinkler-irriga

Figure 2.2 Sprinkler Irrigation

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2.1.3 Basin Irrigation

Basin irrigation is the common form of surface irrigation. It is used particularly in regions with layouts of small fields. If a field is level in all direction, is encompassed by a dyke to prevent runoff, and provides an undirected flow of water in the field so it is called a basin. The accurate land leveling is required for high uniformities and efficiencies, but is difficult to accomplish in small areas. Leveling the fields and making the reservoirs is expensive. It is requires workers which increase the cost.

Link: http://www.sswm.info/category/implementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/surface-irrigati

Figure 2.3 Basin Irrigation

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2.2 Comparative Statements from survey

Table 2.1 Comparative Statements from Survey Features Drip Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation Basin Irrigation Man Power Require Yes No Yes Soil Moisture Sensing No No No Automatic Watering No Yes/No No Water Tank Monitoring No No No Water Tank Refilling No No No Live Monitoring of Farm No No No Remote Access No No No

2.3 Motivation from Survey

In farm farmer has to manually start the watering and has to present that till it finished. Also if farmer is not at the home the crops will not watered and it may not grow properly. We will try to overcome this problem by automatic watering which will water the farm when it needs water by sensing the soil moisture. It also provides water tank monitoring and refill it automatically if it goes below certain limit. It also provides android application which shows the live information of farm and also has facility to control the system manually from any location.

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CHAPTER 3

SYSTEM ANALYSIS

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Purpose

In farms we have to water the plants manually and some crops and plants did not grow correctly if it was not watered enough. If some area of farm is dry then also we have to water in whole farm in normal method. We decided to develop “I – Field Sprinkler” to overcome this problem. It will monitor the soil moisture and based on that it will water in the farm. It uses droplet system to effectively water the farm. It can also water in particular area where the dryness is high compared to other area of farm so there is no waste of water. The water is supplied from the tank so if the water level is low in the tank then it will automatically refill the tank. There is also option to refill tank from the canal. The all tasks can also be done from android application.

3.1.2 Scope

Our system can be used in farms, gardens and plant nurseries. The main objective for developing our system is to water the crops in farm automatically when it needs so it can grow properly. Also our system will use droplet system so it reduce the wastage of water. The biggest advantage of our system is user can see the status of the system and control it from any place at any time using the Wi-Fi/internet connection.

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3.2 Overall Description

3.2.1 Product Perspective

Our Product i.e. I – Field Sprinkler will be able to provide a basic and easy inter change of information i.e. it should be able to remove the communication gaps between an customer and the service provider. It should be compatible with all the operating systems and Android Devices. The System will provide efficient Graphical User Interface (GUI) that can help any users to interact with our system easily. Our system will provide the guidelines by that new user can easily understand how to interact with system.

3.2.2 Product Functions

“I – Field Sprinkler” implements some major functions in order to accomplish required tasks. These functions constitute a basis for the whole system. These functions can be stated as:

 Authentication and Authorization:

Being connected to internet, users will be able to get into the system. In order to see the interface related to his/her role type, the users account should be authorized and also his/her user name and password should be authenticated. These tasks are basically held by the functions implemented under the header of Authentication and Authorization major function.

 See the Status of System :

It will show the overall status of the whole system i.e. soil moisture level, watering valves state (i.e. ON/OFF) and tank water level. It will show this to authentic users only.

3.2.3 User Characteristics

The project will be developed and maintained by an average user with basic computer knowledge and any person will be able to use the system.

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3.2.4 Constraints, Assumptions and Dependencies

Constraints

For these systems we are designing E-R diagram and Data Flow Diagram from which we will knows the attribute or classes and how the system will flow. How the whole system will work one by one. For the implementation we will use Android as a platform. We will use MySQL as a database for this system.

3.3 Specific Requirements

3.3.1 External Interface Requirements

3.3.1.1 User Interfaces

The requirements for user interface are the user wants to login and retrieve the status of the system. After login user can see the soil moisture level, tank water level and watering valve state (i.e. ON/OFF). If user wants to ON specific valve then he/she can do it from application. User has also rights that he/she can refill the water tank manually.

3.3.1.2 Hardware Interfaces

The “I – Field Sprinkler” application will be storing multiple data.

OS: Windows XP, 7, 8 or 10

CPU: Intel® Pentium-4 - 1.5 GHz

RAM: 512MB

Storage: 500 GB hard drive

Input devices: Keyboard, Mouse

Output devices: Monitor

Hardware equipment for automation:

 Microcontroller : Raspberry Pi

 Measure Moisture: Soil Moisture Sensor

 Measure Water Level: Ultrasonic Sensor Shield (HC-SR04)

 Interface : Jumper Wires

 Water Supply : Solenoid Valve

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 Refill tank : Pump and Relay Module

 Load : Resistors

 Power Supply : 5V AC Power Supply with Micro USB Cable

 Other : Ethernet Cable or Wi-Fi

3.3.1.3 Software Requirement

Since I – Field Sprinkler system is a web-based and android application, internet connection must be established. I - Field Sprinkler application will be use Android Mobile Phone. It functions via internet in any Android Mobile Phone. I – Field Sprinkler application interface will be developed in Android Studio. I – Field Sprinkler system personal database model will support MySQL environment as DBMS.

3.3.1.4 Communications Interfaces

In our system, the Soil Moisture Sensor should communicate with the database server and control unit (Raspberry Pi 3). So that the status of the soil moisture level be updated live. So we need communication interface between Sensor and Control unit (Raspberry Pi 3) for live data updates of soil moisture level.

3.3.2 Functional Requirements

 User Details:

 Introduction: Stores the details of User in database

 Input: Name, Address, Date of birth, Phone No, and other details mentioned in the form.

 Processing: Storing the details of users

 Output: The exact details of User stored in the database.

 Farm Details:

 Introduction: Describe the details of soil moisture, tank water level and watering valve states.

 Input: Display the Soil Moisture Level. Display the watering valve state, Display the tank water level.

 Processing: System will check the details and update the database.

 Output: Display the updated recode.

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3.3.3 Other Nonfunctional Requirements

3.3.3.1 Performance Requirements

The expected system that we are going to develop will be used by a user. Therefore, it is expected that the database and microcontroller would perform functionally all the requirements that are specified by the user.

3.3.3.2 Safety Requirements

The database may get crashed at any certain time due to virus or operating system failure. Therefore, it is required to take the database backup. Database should not have data redundancy issues. The system should provide correct status of the farm so they fill safe about their farm.

3.3.3.3 Security Requirements

System should be secured. The authenticated person can only allow to access the service of the system. The farm should be secured and theft free.

3.3.4 Software Quality Attributes

The Quality of the database is maintained in such a way so that it should be very user friendly to all the users of the database.

 Reliability: Good validation of user inputs will be done to avoid incorrect usage.

 Maintainability: during maintenance stage, the SRS can be referred for the validation.

 Portability: This system can be installed in any personal computer supporting windows operating system.

 Flexibility: The system keeps on updating the data according to the user interaction and moisture sensor data.

 Timeliness: The system carries out all the operations with consumptions of very less time.

 Security: Each time there is a security violation, the log file will be updated with the login, date, and time.

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CHAPTER 4

SYSTEM DESIGN

4.1 System Flow Chart

Figure 4.1 Flow Chart of System

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4.2 UML Diagrams

4.2.1 Use-Case Diagram

Figure 4.2 Use-Case Diagram

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4.2.2 Class Diagram

Figure 4.3 Class Diagram

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4.2.3 Sequence Diagram

Figure 4.4 Sequence Diagram

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4.2.4 Activity Diagram

Figure 4.5 Activity Diagram

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4.2.5 State Chart Diagram

Figure 4.6 State Chart Diagram

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4.2.6 Collaboration Diagram

Figure 4.7 Collaboration Diagram

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4.2.7 Component Diagram

Figure 4.8 Component Diagram

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4.3 Database Design

4.3.1 E-R Diagram

Figure 4.9 E-R Diagram

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4.3.2 Data Dictionary

Table 4.1 tblUser tblUser Column DataType Description

UserID

Int

Primary Key UserName varchar(20) Short name of user

Email

varchar(50)

Current Email ID of user ContactNo varchar(20) User recent mobile number

Address

varchar(50)

Address if user Password varchar(50) User password for authentication

Table 4.2 tblWateringState tblWateringState Column DataType Description

ValveID

Int

Primary Key ValveState varchar(20) State of valve

Table 4.3 tblFarmState tblFarmState Column DataType Description

AreaID

Int

Primary Key MoistureLevel varchar(20) Moisture level of area

Table 4.4 tblTankState tblTankState Column DataType Description

TankID

Int

Primary Key WaterLevel varchar(20) Water level of tank

Table 4.5 tblPumpState tblPumpState Column DataType Description

PumpID

Int

Primary Key PumpState varchar(20) State of the pump

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4.3.3 Data Flow Diagram

Figure 4.10 Data Flow Diagram (Context Level)

Figure 4.11 Data Flow Diagram (Level 1)

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CHAPTER 5

CANVAS

5.1 AEIOU Summary

Figure 5.1 AEIOU Summary Canvas

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5.2 Empathy

Figure 5.2 Empathy Mapping Canvas

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5.3 Ideation

Figure 5.3 Ideation Canvas

5.4 Product Development

Figure 5.4 Product Development Canvas

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CHAPTER 6

BASIC IMPLEMENTATION

Figure 6.1 Login Page

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Figure 6.2 Farm Status Page

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Figure 6.3 Manual Interaction Page

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CHAPTER 7

EXPECTED OUTCOME

In our system we are expect that the system will make the watering in farm easier than the current watering systems. We expecting that I – Field Sprinkler System does not need any manpower. We are implementing sensor based system which can automatically monitor the soil moisture and based on that it will start watering. With the system we are also implementing water level detection in water tank and based on that when water level reaches below certain limit it will automatically start the pump to refill the tank. Our system also has android application to see the status of the system and to manually control the system in certain conditions. Our system will be user friendly so any person who have little bit knowledge about internet usage and use of android mobile can use it.

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CONCLUSION

In our expected system “I –Field Sprinkler”, the system will monitor the soil moisture and when it cross the certain limit then it will start watering automatically. It also monitor the water level in tank and based on that it reaches certain limit then it will automatically start the pump to refill the tank. Such a features will make the watering easier in farms and saves the water requirement and time of user. Our system can be used in farms, gardens or nursery. It will monitor the soil moisture continuously for watering the farm so it is very efficient to the users.

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REFERANCES

[1] https://www.sswm.info/category/immplementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/drip-irrigation

[2] https://www.sswm.info/category/immplementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/sprinkler-irriga

[3] https://www.sswm.info/category/immplementation-tools/water-use/hardware/optimisation-water-use-agriculture/surface-irrigati

[4] http://myyee.tripod.com/cs457/dfd.htm

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