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High Speed Packet Access

Seminar Report

Submitted

By

RishabhShekhar

Reg. No: 120907628

Section: B2

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(A Constituent Institute of Manipal University)

MANIPAL-576 104,August 2016

INDEX

SR.NO. TOPIC PAGE NO.

1. Introduction 3

2. HSDPA 3-5

3. HSUPA 6

4. QOS Prediction 6-7

5. HSPA+ 8

6. Conclusion 9

7. References 10

1. INTRODUCTION

HSPA is a combination of 2 protocols High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access(HSPUA). It extends and improves the performance of existing 3G mobile using WCDMA.

A further improvement is HSPA+ which has higher data rate.

2. HSDPA

3G HSDPA: - Provides speed upto 14.4Mbps

3G HSDPA an upgrade to original 3G UMTS cellular system that provide                much higher data download speed.

Key 3G HSDPA Technology:-

(1) Modulation: - This is a key feature in HSPA. It is an additional form of modulation namely System-16 QAMmodulation which carries higher data rate & also resilient to noise if system is robust. This is done by information fed back about a variety of parameters.

QAM: - Both analog& digital modulation. 2 carriers shifted in phase by right angle are modulated & the resulting O/P consists of both amplified phase & phase variation can be considered as a mixture of amplitude and phase modulation.

This is useful because ordinary modulation wastes Band/Width

16QAM Constellation diagram:-

Blurriness increases with increase in quams. This is why we don’t use higher QAM’s

3. HARQ:- Here use don’t discard packets but stored in buffer & later                                                                        recombines & see if correct & if it is we send it.

4. HSDPA Channels:-

(1) Provides additional capacity as well as control required.

(2) High speed Downlink Shared Channel:-

(2.a) Dynamically shared B/W users.

(2.b) Data transport channel.

(2.c) Supports adaptive coding & modulation.It enables changing to adapt to changing condition under the system.

(2.d) Rate controlled.

(3) High speed signalling control channel:-

(3.a) Signals the scheduling to the users every 2ms according to TTI.

(3.b)  Carries 3 main elements of information:-

(3.c)  Carries UF identity to allow specific addressing of individual UF’s on the shared control channel.

(4)  High speed Deducted Physical control channel:-

(4.a)  Used to provide feedback to the scheduler & is located in the uplink, Itcarries the following information:-

(4.a.i)  Channel quality information.

(4.a.ii)  HARQ ACK/NAK information is used to furnishing information back about the successful receipt & decoding of information.

Physical layer option: - (HSDPA)

Steps:-

(1) Scheduling in Nodes estimates condition of channel, such as  what data are left in the channel, when was the last time user session was expired.

(2) The HS-DSCH parameters are now assigned.

(3) HS-SCCH is transmitted to inform terminal of necessary parameters.

(4) Then HS-DSCH TTI is transmitted.  

(5) TTI→ Transmission time interval & refers to the duration of a transmitter on the radio link.

(6) After decoding takes place by terminal it defines to which ARQ process data belongs & whether it requires combination of data.

After this it sends ACK/NACK indicated in the upward direction

 3. HDUPA Channels:-

(1) Companion technique to HSPDA but applied to the uplink from UE to base system.

(2) Considerable increase in upload speed.

(3) Characteristics:-

(3.a)  Increased data rate.

(3.b)  Lower latency.

(3.c)  Improved system capacity: - In order to enable large number of high data rate users, it has been necessary to ensure that overall capacity when using HSUPA is higher.

(3.d)  BPS Modulation:-

(3.e)  Hybrid ARQ.

(3.f)  Fast Packet Scheduling.

 4. QOS Prediction for HSPA:-

(1) Using BayesianNeural N/W.

(2) Call Admission Control Scheme can be used for doing evaluation.

(3) Although it is difficult to set the threshold, QOS can be improved by adaptive thresholding

(4) Channels are reserved by assigning threshold value for each class of service in  TTBR Method.

Type of call Priority

All Handover calls (AHC) 1

Conversion call (CC) 2

Streaming Data call (SDC) 3

Interactive Data call (IDC) 4

(5)State Space is denoted by E :{K:KQ,KR,KP}.

Where, KQ is number of QQ, KR→ SRQ &KP→IPQ in a cell.

Number of differenttypes of services in a state K:S(K)={SQ (K), SR (K), SP (K)}.

CU=∑ K€E B(K)[SQ(K)PQ+ SR(K)PR+ SP(K)PP]

BPi=∑B(K)[I(S(K)< max(Li(Tt-Pi))]

DBi=∑K€E B(K) I[S(K)<(Tt-li)]

Where li is the threshold for service i

iT→Total number of channel

pi→B/W required by service i

CU→ Channel utilization

BP→BlockingProbability

DB→DroppingProbability

The feed forward neural network with biases, a sigmoid layer & a linear O/P layer are capable of approximating a finite number of discontinuities. This is adapted in a 3 layer feed found network trained by the Bayes’ method.

I/P:-    A = [tnc, L1, L2, L3]

O/P: -  B = [CU, BP, DB]

For a given data set, R= {(A1, B1), (A2, B2), (A3, B3),…(An,Bn)}, It is aimed to find set of weight &bias that minimizes MSF.

MSF = ER (W) = ∑i=1 to n[Bi-B(W, Ai)]2 = √(W)V(W)

In order to stabilize NN, regularization has been applied in order to restart the weights & biases to smaller values.

Hence,

MSERFRG (W) = δER(W)+θEw(W).

When the model M, Training data D & regularization parameter θ,δ are given, density function for the weights & biases are updated as shown,

P(W)R, θ,δ,M) =[B(R)W, δ,M)B(W/θ,M)]/[B(D/θ,δ,M)]

Where,  B(W/θ,M)] → Prior density

B(R)W, δ,M) → Likelihood function

B(D/θ,δ,M) → Normalizing factor

5. HSPA+:- This is an improvement over HSPA and can provide up to 42.2 Mbps .It has antenna array technologies for example (1) beam forming and (2) multiple input/ multiple output communication. It increases life of battery and enable idle time to change to have always on connection.

6. CONCLUSION: -With advances in HSPA we will see higher data rate and better QOS. Every new release reduces latency, increase capacity, and improve support for VoIP and multicast services.

In the downlink, the introduction of 64QAM increases the peak data bit rate to as much as 21Mbps. Likewise, the introduction of 16QAM in the uplink increases the peak data bit rate to 11Mbps

7. REFERENCES:-

[1]. Yuting Sun; K. F. Tsang; H. Y. Tung; K. L. Lam; K. T. Ko,QoS Prediction for High Speed Packet Access Networks,Consumer Communications and Networking Conference,2008

[2].High Speed Packet Access. Available:-

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/cellulartelecomms/3g-hspa/umts-high-speed-packet-access-tutorial.php

[3].”High Speed Packet Access.”WIkipedia.com.Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 05:22. 25 September 2016. Web. 10.11.2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=High_Speed_Packet_Access>

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