Essay:

Essay details:

  • Subject area(s): Engineering
  • Price: Free download
  • Published on: 7th September 2019
  • File format: Text
  • Number of pages: 2

Text preview of this essay:

This page is a preview - download the full version of this essay above.

SMART TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

A PROJECT THESIS

Submitted by

AtikManjothi(130030109065)

ParthZalariya(130030109126)

VichiRavi(130030109122)

MevadaJivan(140033109019)

In fulfillment for the award of the degree

Of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

In

ELECTRICAL ENGINERRING

Atmiya Institute OfTechnology& Science, RAJKOT

Gujarat Technological University,

Ahmedabad

2016-2017

DECLARATION

I hereby  declare that  the project  entitled “Smart Traffic Control System”  submitted  in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering  in Electrical Engineering to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad. is a bonafide record  of the project  work  carried  out  at  Atmiya institute of technology and Science under the supervision  Prof.KhusbooDhokiaand that no part of the UDP has been presented earlier for any degree, diploma, associate ship, fellowship or other similar title of any other university or institution.

AtikManjothi (130030109065)

ParthZalariya(130030109126)

Ravi Vichhi(1300030109122)

JivanMevada(140033109019)

CERTIFICATE

Date:-        /       /2016

This is to certify that the UDP entitled “Smart Traffic Control System” has beencarried out byAtikManjothi(130030109065), ParthZalariya(130030109126), Ravi Vichhi(130030109122), JivanMevada(140033109019) under my guidance in fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Electricalof Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2016-17.

Faculty Guide Head of the Department

(Prof. KhusbooDhokia) (Prof. Dharmesh.J.Pandya)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

  We all marvel at the beautiful rose. The rose, with all its beauty and grandeur but seldom we pause and thank the gardener who patiently manure and watered it.

We  are very much thankful to almighty for his blessings and caring support from the Head Of Department Prof. DharmeshPandya and most respective faculty and our project guide Prof.KhusbooDhokiafor guiding us on the way of developing our project technically and systematically and we are fortunate to have such helpful, knowledgeable Faculty Members of our Electrical Department. We are most thankful to our families for supporting us economically and morally for carrying out our project work.  

AtikManjothi(130030109065)

ParthZalariya(130030109126)

Ravi Vichhi(130030109122)

JivanMevada(140033109019)

ABSTRACT

• Work and Explanation  :

As per current scenario in India for traffic matter, it is worst uncontrollable. With the increasing of population traffic issues are rapidly rises. Manually or ordinary traffic system and traffic department is unable to control this traffic in effective manner.

According to a survey of “THE TIMES OF INDIA” 75,200 people lost their lives in crashes at traffic crossing in 2013, which is almost 50% of the total death on Indian Roads.While more then 56,868 deaths were recorded at uncontrolled junction having no traffic light or traffic police.

Now a days people are violating rules of traffic. At traffic signals, signals are being broken by some peoples. To stop such kind of activities, We have planned to develop a effective traffic signal with spike mechanism using microcontroller.

Here, we basically are going to design a machine to machine interface device which can be controlled and operated in a user-friendly way. We will design a micro-controller based Traffic Signal with Road Spike Mechanism.

The main aim of project is to design new traffic signal system that controls and operate such traffic signal with road spikes mechanism thus creating an ease for traffic police to control traffic at road signal.

Thus,the whole design will turn a micro-controller based system into an automated & controlled traffic controlling system which further will be able to drive the motors to control road spikes and other interfaced peripherals signalling lights.

• Area of Application :

For easy controlling of traffic signal systems. Also it will very helpful for traffic police for easy control and we are going to provide manual switch/sensor for emergency.so at the time of emergency situation we can give way to emergency vehicles.  

For example, In Medical or Fire emergency ambulance or fire emergency vehicle come at red signalled lane then by manual switch or a sensor that will sense the emergency situation and will allow to pass the vehicle. So we can give priority to emergency vehicle.

• Technologies Covered :

Embedded systems, Road Spikes Mechanism, Control and automation.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 Acknowledgment…………………………..……………………….04

 Abstract……………………………………………………………..05

 List of Figure……………………………………………………….08

 Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………………………09

1.1 Area of Interest………………………………………………………...10

1.2 Motivation………………………...………………………………..….10

1.3 Objective………………………...…………………………………….11

1.4 Outline…………………………………………………………………12

1.4.1Basic block diagram……….…………………………………..12

1.4.2 Hardware implementation….…………………………………13

1.4.3 Software platform………...………………………….….……..14

1.4.4 Operation According To Programming......................................15

 Chapter 2: Literature Survey……………………………...………16

2.1 Main Sources……………………………………………………………17

2.1.1 Web............................................…………………….………...17

2.1.2 Patent Database......………………………………….………...18

2.2 Reference Books And Other Resources…………………………….......18

2.2.1 Subject Books.........................………………………………..18

2.2.2 Websites……………………………………………………….18

 Chapter 3: Hardware/Software Implementation…….…………..19

3.1 Hardware Implementation………………………………………….….20

3.1.1 Hardware blocks …………….…………………………...…..20

3.1.2 Components required………………………………...………22

3.1.3 Circuit diagram and working ………………………………...24

3.1.4 Pindiagram.....................................................................……...27

3.2 Programming..................……………………………………………...31

3.2.1 Creating C Programming……………….………….……………..32

 Chapter 4: Conclusion And Future Work…………………..……

4.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………....32

4.2 Future Work……………………………………………………………..32

 Chapter 5: References……….…………………...………………...33

5.1 Weblink References…………………………………….………………34

5.2 Books And Other Resources……………………………………………34

LIST OF FIGURES

1. Objective diagram of smart traffic control system…………..…..…….........…11

2. Basic block diagram of Project flow…………………...…………...................12

3. Hardware block diagram ……………………………………............................13

4. LED connection with Microcontroller……………….…………...……...........24

5. Interfacing of Controller with L293D and Motor..........….……...….…………25

6. AT89C51 Pin diagram............…………………………....……........................26

7. H-bridge L293D pin diagram..........….…………………….……….………....28

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Area of Interest

Our project basically is concerned with the Traffic Signalling System so we are  interested for designing a hardware that can help such issues using following technologies :

Microcontroller is a powerful part where a programming can control the light signals and drive motor with help of motor driver IC to operate Road Spike mechanism.

Roadspike Mechanism is part of control and that helps to stop peoples to violate the traffic rules and stop breaking Red Signal at traffic signal

Motor is used for operate the road spikes. We are using DC motor that is easy to control and interface

1.2 Motivation

Currently the Traffic issue is the large issue of developing India. As we are developing, transportation and accommodation increase and that is causing many traffic issues. From many of road traffic issues we are focusing on problems occurring at traffic signal on road junctions. Peoples are violating traffic rules , Uneducated as well as educated peoples are also breaking signals and that is worst. And this is resulting in Road accidents. For controlling we are using Traffic lights at road junction and traffic police to direct and control traffic at road junction.

To direct the whole traffic by one traffic police is not enough so government need to recruit more traffic police and warden for control. That will results in more government expanse. After such provisions  traffic signal is also braking, even in the presence of traffic police. Sometimes police is helpless for controlling.

So, we were motivated to design a signalling system which can offer ease of control to the controlling of such traffic and vehicles and reduce the chances of such accidents and also be proven economical as well as accurate. So, we decided to go through the recent trends developed for easy operations of such machines and the one thought inspired us for working on this project was the recent and most emerging field of Road spikes that can make a huge

difference between the use of technology in an extraordinarily effective way. The further steps we were supposed to take were using other supportive technologies such as manual switch/sensor,embedded systems(hardware base) and signal lights(indication).

1.3 Objective

Our main objective was to design a traffic signal with road spike mechanism with help of embedded system. That is operated with road spike mechanism. We are going to interface road spike mechanism with motor and motor is controlled by microcontroller. Also traffic light indication is control by controller. Further it should some provisions for emergency vehicle.

So, the effective way of utilizing the technology should enhance the traffic control system also reducing requirement  of man power and that will resulting in saving the money in terms of salary of traffic police. Also we can stop peoples to violate traffic rules and also easy for traffic police to control the traffic at road junction.

Fig1 : Objective diagram of smart traffic control system

1.4 Outline

1.4.1 Basic block diagram

1.4.2 Hardware implementation

1.4.3 Software platform

1.4.4 Operation according to programming

1.4.1 Basic Block diagram :

Figure 2 : Basic block diagram of  project flow

Explanation :

Main heart of the system is Microcontroller. It will operate the whole system. As per the Programming controller gives controlling and signalling command to other blocks.

Traffic Light Signal will get ON and OFF command from the controller and as per commands Red , Green And Yellow/Amber light will give indication at all 4 lane’s signal.

L293D is motor driver IC. Controller gives command to L293D and that will operate motor. Forward or Reverse direction of motor is controlled by L293D.

Motor is driven by L293D and with the help of motor we are operating rack and pinion mechanism that will convert rotary motion in to linear motion and that will operate spikes of road spikes mechanism.

Road spike Mechanism is mounted on road. Whenever red light is turn on at same time Spike come across the road and at green signal Spikes goes below ground.

1.4.2 Hardware Implementation :

Figure 3: Hardware block diagram

Explanation :

The hardware comprises of a microcontroller in control circuit, heart of the control system i.e. Road spike mechanism, and the motors and driver circuitries.

Microcontroller having the programming according to it the system works. Basically programming is done into a software named Keiluvision. Programming language is used C language.

So now as per programming Traffic lights operate, which are connected with controller.

Motor is also connected with controller by L293D so it will also operate as per commands given by controller and as result of it Road spike mechanism operates.

1.4.3 Software Platform :

C Programming:

C language is programming language. We can make logical, arithmetical programming in C. We can write structural programming in C. There is many advantages of C like, small key words, easy for programming.

Keil uVision:

The uVision IDE from Keil is software for debugging program, project management, source code editing and simulation in powerful environment. uVision Programming Platform is easy to use and helping in creating embedded programming and also we can create Hex code easily from the programming.

Proteus:

Proteus is simulation software for design and simulate circuits of Microcontroller. It is very popular because all types of microcontroller are available in it. We can test mostly all kind of microcontroller. Proteus 8 can make PCB design directly after simulation, so it is very easy and helpful software.

1.4.4 Operation According to Programming :

Using Keiluvision 4 IDE tool we will create the machine level code by designing it in embedded C language.

This code basically is dedicated to interpret the instructions to be decoded and sent to output port of micro-controller. Red, Green and Yellow lights with proper time delay is operate by programming. Also the spikes are operate with it.

The  instructions are sent as follows :

At instant 1:-

Green Signal → lane 1→ Spikes below the ground level

Red Signal → lane 2  → Spikes across the road

Red Signal → lane 3 → Spikes across the road

Red Signal → lane 4 → Spikes across the road

At instant 2(after some delay):-

Red Signal → lane 1→ Spikes across the road

Green Signal → lane 2  → Spikes inside the ground

Red Signal → lane 3 → Spikes across the road

Red Signal → lane 4 → Spikes across the road

Same for remaining two lanes

Hence, the C code will be a basic bit manipulation program ( normal output byte programming ).it will give on/off commands to traffic lights and also L293D to run motor for make spikes across the road at red signal and make it below ground level at green signal.

Chapter 2:Literature Survey

2. 1 Main resources :      

The resources used in accomplishing the literature needs of the project are categorized according to the requirement and the solution of the problems they are pointing to. This is because in general a project engineer is supposed to refer the resources at the time of critical thinking and analysis of the problem is needed which the literature and resources fulfils.

Problem:Finding and finalising definition for the project

Solution: Searched the problems occurring at road junction with trafficsignal.

At the initial stage we were studying and finding various project definitions which would be proven a challenging and interesting concept of afirmating our field concepts and providing us opportunity to implement the ideas we have and innovate and learn the latest technologies the market is updated with. It pointed us to search the best possible solutions for traffic signal. As we are currently working for “Smart City”, traffic is the biggest issue of any city. Some peoples are violating traffic rules at traffic signal that is making many problems like unnecessary Traffic jam, road accidents, requirement of more number of traffic police, problem to provide priority to emergency vehicle. This is a real time problem so to find solution for such things we need to find new unique solution which is helpful in traffic control.

For solve such kind of problems we searched about our project but we didn’t find any perfect solution for it. So we designed new kind of traffic control system. In this system we are replacing A type system with Z type system and Z type system is (A+B+C) i.e. we replaced normal traffic signal with Signal + Road Spike mechanism + Emergency switch.

During a literature survey we find this concept in web, named “road spike near road crossing”. It was just an idea given by high school students when he lost his friend in an accident. We are going to make its working module and also providing provisions for emergency. Hence our project is unique with creative and innovative idea with real time solutions.  So we referred about components of our project like Road spike, Traffic Light System.

2.1.1 Web:

For having exposure to previous ideas and projects that were developed in this area.Also we get details and information about the components used in the project, trouble shooting and information. Also for the history of traffic lights, traffic rules and current senaireo of traffic in india we refered web.

2.1.2 Patent databases :

For learning the patents filed in the relevant work. So we can get some innovative ideas that can be implemented to the project. Other than that it gives a brief analysis of the techniques and concepts used in this project ( e.g. a patent on road spike mechanism gives us an idea to make new type road spikes that can be operate remotely by motor)

2. 2 Reference books and other resources:

2.2.1 Subject books:

1. For having a brief idea on the programming and interfacing of micro-controller families( In our project it is a AT89C51 ).

2. “Programming in C” for having an overview on C programming concepts.

3. “Electrical Machines” of J. B. Gupta for having an over view about Motor.

(Note : The books are listesd in the reference.)

    2.2.2 Websites:

For ,

i. Datasheet learning

ii. Documentation formats

iii. Hardware references

iv. Software references

v. Searching and viewing patents and databases

vi. “you tube” and “tubemate” For searching videos on hardware designing techniques

(Note: all the websites and links are enlisted in the reference section)

Chapter 3:Hardware/Software implementation

3.1 Hardware Implementation:

3.1.1 Hardware blocks

3.1.2 Components Required

3.1.3 Circuit diagram and working

3.1.4 Pin diagram

The hardware level implementation of project refers to design a circuitry and peripheral circuit which can then be used for module level implementation in creating the physical architecture of our robot.

  The design flow can be explained as follows :

3.1.1 Hardware blocks:

A. Power Supply:

Main block in the system is power supply(not shown in fig.) We need to provide different power supplies for Controller and Motor that will be discuss further in next part.

B. Traffic Light SignallingSystem:

This is the simple current traffic signalling system. So as per traffic rules and regulations we are going to place Red, Yellow and Green Lights for Visual Indication and signalling

C. Road Spike Mechanism:

With the light indication road spike mechanism is also operating. Controlling of road spike is done by motor. Motor is controlled by L293D IC which is receiving controlling commands from Microcontroller.

D. Emergency Switch/Sensor

As explained earlier we are going to provide such provisions for emergency situations. So in this block we are going to provide Sensor or Switch, so by that controller get command that in any particular lane emergency vehicle is reached so controller stop its current execution and it will took spikes back in to ground level and will allow to pass vehicles of that lane.

This circuitry comprises of following units :

• Controller IC:

This can be stated as the heart of the system. The controller is having the code of execution and is having the power to control the traffic lights and road spikes movements. As stated previously, the system level code (machine level language) is designed in the IDE and code file is dumped into the Controller program memory.

So that, when the traffic lights are operating by controller it will give on/off command to lights of all four lane. Also it will control the motors of road spikes with help of L293D. So micro-controller is then supposed to convey these bytes to the motor driver IC.

• Motor driver IC:

The motor driver circuitry is there to interpret the data bytes given by the controller so that it can drive motors accordingly. The rotation of motors in one particular direction is the major factor deciding the spike movement.

e.g. 1.clockwise – move spikes uprward

      2.anti-clockwise – move spikes downward

• Emergency Sensor/Switch:

It is not decided yet that we are going to use sensor or switch for the emergency. By pressing this switch or sensing the siren sound we are going to generate and apply interrupt signal to the controller. Whenever controller receive interrupt signal from any lane it will give command to the lights and spikes to give way for that lane and emergency vehicle can pass through the signal even in red signal

3.1.2 Components Required

a) AT89C51 microcontroller and development board

b) DC Motor

c) L293D motor driver IC

d) R-Y-G LED lights for each lane.

• AT89C51 Microcontroller and Development Board

Microcontroller with development board is main controlling block of our project. Development board is having all protection, power supply and other peripheral components for microcontroller. Further detailed description will give in next part.

• DC Motor

DC motor is a electrical apparatus by which we can convert electricity into mechanical energy. Electrical energy is in the form of DC (direct current). All types of DC machines having electro mechanic or electronic arrangement for transformation of the current direction periodically. Motors generate rotational mechanical energy. Direct Current motors are the first type of motor that was widely using. Main Advantage of using DC motor is that we can operate by AC supply with rectifier and also from direct DC supply. Speed controlling of DC motor is also easy. It is done by changingsupply voltage or by changingfield current. Direction of DC motor is easily change by interchanging the supply polarity, hence this is the most advantage of it. We need to operate motor bidirectional for Operate road spikes Up/Down direction. The advent of power electronics has made replacement of DC motors with AC motors possible in many applications.

The brushed DC electric motor generates torque directly from DC power supplied to the motor by using internal commutation, stationary magnets (permanent or electromagnets), and rotating electrical magnets. Advantages of a brushed DC motor include low initial cost, high reliability, and simple control of motor speed. Disadvantages are high maintenance and low lifespan for high intensity uses.

Maintenance involves regularly replacing the carbon brushes and springs which carry the electric current, as well as cleaning or replacing the commutator. These components are necessary for transferring electrical power from outside the motor to the spinning wire windings of the rotor inside the motor. Brushes consist of conductors.

DC motor is having the big advantage of it that we can change its direction by just reversing its polarity. In simple words DC motor having two terminals, by applying DC supply voltage with proper polarity motor will run in desired clockwise direction. Now when we reverse the polarity of supply voltage motor will run in reverse direction. Now as we know that controller can operate maximum 5v DC motor and it is not sufficient to do controlling by 5v DC motor.

To resolve this problem motor is not directly connect with controller but we connect controller to L293D and motor is connected to L293D. There  are two power supply of L293D one is 5v supply it is for IC and other supply is for DC motor which is connected to IC, Upto 36v motor can be operate by L293D.

• L293D Motor Driver IC

L293D is a dual H bridge Motor drivers IC .It work as current amplifier Component it takes a low control signal from microcontroller and provide a higher current to Motor. L293D having two inbuilt H bridge driver circuits. In its normal mode of operation simultaneously two DC motors can be drive by L293D, in forward and reverse direction also. The motor operations of two motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in clockwise and anticlockwise directions, respectively. Enable pins 1 and 9 (corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start operating. When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the high impedance state

• R-Y-G light for each lane:

RED(STOP)

Stop before the stop line, and do not cross the intersection. This not only obstructs a clear view of theintersection for other road users, but also make the zebra crossing unsafe for the pedestrians. You are allowed toturn left at the red signal unless there is a sign specifically forbidding you to do so. When turning, yield the right ofway to pedestrians and vehicles from other directions.

Amber/Yellow(Be Alert)

The Amber light gives time to vehicles to clear the road when the signal is changing from green to red. If caught in the Amber signal in the middle of a large road crossing do not press your accelerator in panic but do continue with care.

Green(Go)

If first in line, do not go tearing off at the green signal but pause to see whether vehicles from other directions have cleared the road. Sometimes you are allowed to turn left or right too, unless separate signs exist for each direction. if turning, yield the right of way to pedestrians and vehicles from other directions.

3.1.3 Circuit Diagram and Working

Explaination and working:

• As explained earlier with the help of block diagrams, the working can be divided into various parts as below:

Part 1 : Controller to LED signalling light:

Fig 4:  LED connection with Microcontroller

Working:

Part 1: LED

This block is normal traffic light signalling block. Red, Yellow(amber), Green lights for each lane. As per traffic rules timing we programmed lights on time and off time so as per rules all lights are on and of periodically.

Part 2 : Controller to L293D to Motor:

Fig 5:  Interfasing of Controller with L293D and Motor

Part 2:

This block is spikes controlling part. We are operating spikes with help of DC motor and DC motor are controlled b1y L293D. We programmed microcontroller such that at the time of red signal spikes should across the road so motor is driven clockwise direction at the time of red signal. And same at the time of green signal spikes goes below the ground level and for that motor should run in anticlockwise direction. So programming is done such that at the time of signal changing motor is run for some specific time that operate spikes

3.1.4 Pin Diagram

a) Micro-controller AT89C51 :

Fig 6: AT89C51 Pin diagram

 AT89C51

The AT89C51 is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology

Memory size of microcontroller is 4KB

Controller is PEROM type (Flash programmable and erasable read only memory)

It is a high-performance and low-power  CMOS 8-bit microcomputer

The device is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51 instruction set and pinout.

The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional

nonvolatile memory programmer.

By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications

Key Featuresof AT89C51:

• 4K bytes of Flash

• 128 bytes of RAM

• 32 I/O lines

• two 16-bit timer/counters

• Five vector two-level interrupt architecture

• Full duplex serial port

• On-chip oscillator and clock circuitry

b) H-bridge L293D :

 L293D

Fig 7: H-bridge L293D pin diagram

Key fetures of L293D:-

• Featuring Unitrode L293 and L293D

• Products Now From Texas Instruments

• Wide Supply-Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V

• Separate Input-Logic Supply

• Internal ESD Protection

• Thermal Shutdown

• High-Noise-Immunity Inputs

• Functionally Similar to SGS L293 and

• SGS L293D

• Output Current 1 A Per Channel

• (600 mA for L293D)

• Peak Output Current 2 A Per Channel

• (1.2 A for L293D)

• Output Clamp Diodes for Inductive

• Transient Suppression (L293D)

The L293 and L293D are quadruple high-currenthalf-H drivers. The L293 is designed to providebidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at voltages

from 4.5 V to 36 V. The L293D is designed toprovide bidirectional drive currents of up to600-mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. Both

devices are desiged to drive inductive loads suchas relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar steppingmotors, as well as other high-current/high-voltage

loads in positive-supply applications.

All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is acomplete totem-pole drive circuit, with aDarlington transistor sink and a pseudo-Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in pairs, with drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4enabled by 3,4EN. When an enable input is high, the associated drivers are enabled, and their outputs are activeand in phase with their inputs. When the enable input is low, those drivers are disabled, and their outputs areoff and in the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or bridge)reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications.

3.2 Programming:

Designing the programming for the project includes three sections:

• Creating and compiling the embedded C code for traffic lights signal with appropriate delay timing .

• Controll motors with help of L293D for opeate spike mechanism. This wil done at the time of signal changing means run motor in clockwise/anticlockwise directon as per requirement.

• Emergency Switch/Sensorfor emergency vehicle there is two task,

a. Detect the emergency vehicle

b. Give command to controller for provide way to the vehicle.

The detailed process and design flow is given below.

3.2.1 Creating C programming:

Using the Embedded C language we operate Traffic lights. With required time delay we programmed each lights of each lane.

The spike mechanism also operates with lights . That means road spikes should be operate with proper synchronism with lights. Hence we are going to create programming such that at the changing the signalling light spikes are operate. In other words motor is operate in clockwise direction for make spikes across the ground and anticlockwise to keep it below ground level. Programming is done such that when the red light turn on forward operating command is given to the motor of that lane. Before the Red light turn off motor will operate anticlockwise that will make spikes below the ground level before the green light turn ON. Same for the All four lanes.

Emergency switch is connected with intrupt pin of the microcontroller. So whenever we press the switch it will give intrupt to the program and will do the sub routine for give the way of that lane in which emergency vehicle is coming.

Chapter 4: Conclusion and Future Work

4.1 Conclusion:   

A. Current technologies in use:

• Currently normal traffic signal is using at road junction

• As we know peoples are not follow traffic rules willingly and violate traffic rules.

• That is resulting in traffic jam and road accidents.

• For solution of such problems government using manpower (i.e. Traffic Police) that is not economical government paying salary to them

• Also at the presence of police some peoples are breaking rules

• Hence, smart traffic control system is the only solution to make it economic and efficient.

B.  Advancement through our solution:

• Firstly, our solution is based on latest technological hardware as well as software advancements to eliminate un-accurate, inefficient, hazardous, and uneconomical solutions in market.

• It uses efficient hardware-software interface for traffic signalling and traffic control.

• Also it is user friendly and simple to operate when required.(system is automatic but as a backup in emergency situation we can operate manually)

• Hence provides user friendly and easy way of access to our client.

C.  Current progress:

• Currently, we have simulated the real time application.

• The outcome satisfies the criteria targeted.

4.2 Future work:

• Programming and developing of complete project.

• Designing of road spike mechanism.

• We are making prototype now, for real life application we need to make system of higher capacity.

• We are going to make suggestive design diagram circuit for larger capacity system.

• For emergency vehicle we decided to arrange sensor that will detect the vehicle and provide way to that lane’s vehicle.

Chapter 5 :References

5.1 Weblink References:

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DC_motor 2/6

2. http://www.engineersgarage.com/sites/default/files/L293D.pdf

3. www.geniusdevils.com

4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C_(programming_language)

5. http://www.engineersgarage.com/electroniccomponents/l293dmotordriveric

5.2 Books and other references:

1. “The micro-controller 8051 and embedded systems” , by Muhammad Ali Mazidi and Janice GillispieMazidi

2. “Programming in C” for having an overview on C programming concepts.

3. “Theory &Performance Of Electrical Machines” by J.B.Gupta

...(download the rest of the essay above)

About this essay:

This essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay Sauce, . Available from:< https://www.essaysauce.com/essays/engineering/2016-10-16-1476633403.php > [Accessed 24.10.19].