Essay details:

  • Subject area(s): Engineering
  • Price: Free download
  • Published on: 7th September 2019
  • File format: Text
  • Number of pages: 2

Text preview of this essay:

This page is a preview - download the full version of this essay above.

About Baben Village

According to Census 2011 information the location code or village code of Baben village is 524347. Baben village is located in Bardoli Tehsil of Surat district in Gujarat, India. Bardoli is nearest town to Baben village.

Block → Bardoli

District → Surat

State → Gujarat


Baben : 2013 – 2014

Village Baben

Sarpanch Shree Bhaveshbhai naginbhai patel

Deputy Sarpanch Shree Yunusasha Nashirsha Fakir

Talaticum minister Shree A.V Vishvambharan

Panchayat Total Person 19

Nyay Samiti Persons 5

Samadhan Panch Persons 1

Population As Per Census 2011 Mail Femail Total

8642 6968 15610

Hospitals Private Public Trust Total

2 1 1 4

Cheap Grain Shop 5

Post Office 1

Primary School 1

Collage 1

Nursery School 6

Total Lake 1

Gardens 2

Wells Drinking Irrigation Total

0 2 2

Total Ward 19

Seats Open SC ST Obc Femail Total

8 3 2 2 4 19

Nearest Railway St. 0.5 km

Animal Hospital At Bardoli

BPL Familys 731

( Table-5 Overview of Baben village )

Baben As Per 2013 – 2014

School Aadarsh Primary School

Childrens 988

Teachers 28

Aanganwadi 6

Total Chails in Aanganwadi 260

Public Toilets 6 Unit – 46

Factory Sugar Factory, Baben

Organisation Shree Khedut Sahkari Jining And Prosing So. Li. Baben

Tax 1 House tax 30,65,820/-

2 Up Tax 3,06,582/-

3 Light Tax 82,700/-

4 Cleaning Tax 3,06,570/-

5 Water Tax 2,30,440/-

6 Income Tax 36,64,630/-

7 Income Tax R.C. 85,400/-

8 Market Tax 4,54,660/-

Total Voters Mail Femail Total

3329 3968 7297

Farmers Rich Small Big Total

43 71 91 205

B.P.L. 0-16 17-20 Total

471 270 731

Population As Per Cast Cast Houses Population

S.C. 312 1892

S.T. 378 2260

Obc 626

( Table-6 Overview of Baben village )

2.1 Background

  Baben village, which is located some 35 km from Surat city here villagers enjoy all the facilities that one living in the city does. The 2-km road from Bardoli to Baben gives a commuter the feeling of passing through a highway. This is because the village road is 12-meter-wide and is well lit with street lights. This road has not been laid with government money, but the fund for it was raised through various ingenious schemes by the villagers.

 “We take contributions from real estate developers, who come to develop land and houses in the village and use that money to develop basic amenities for the residents of the village” said Baben gram panchayat president Bhavesh Patel.

The village panchayat collected Rs. 3 crore in the past five years from the real estate developers and used that money on roads, street lights, a lake, public toilets, drainage and water system for the 15,000 people of Baben. The village also has a degree and diploma engineering college, a school and a restaurant.

A developer is charged Rs 2,000 per plot. The buyer of the plot, too, is charged the same amount by the village panchayat.

\"Our maximum emphasis is on cleanliness,\" said Patel. Baben village got the best gram panchayat of the year award in 2011 from the state government.

2.2 Study Area Location

Baben Primary School:

  Baben Primary School is a Primary with Upper Primary School in Baben Village of Bardoli. It was established in the year 1941 and the school management is Local body. It\'s a Gujarati Medium - Co-educational school.

 Baben Primary School runs in a government school building.

 The school has total 10 classrooms.

 The lowest Class is 1 and the highest class in the school is 8.

 This school has 7 Male Teachers and 18 Female Teachers.

 There is a library facility available in this school and books are available the no. of 470.

 This school also has a playground.

 Baben Primary School does not provide any residential facility.

 The school also provides meal facility and meal is prepared in school.



( Figure-24  primary  school )

2.3  Physical & Demographical Growth :


           ( figure-25 Demographical growth population )

Total General Schedule Caste Schedule Tribe Child

Total 15,610 11,458 1,892 2,260 2,121

Male 8,642 6,484 937 1,221 1,164

Female 6,968 4,974 955 1,039 957

( Table-7 Caste wise male female population 2011 – Baben )

2.4    Economic Profile

• The village of Baben is locate in Bardoli city, nearest Surat city. The Baben village is small, family-oriented village will a mix of residence and small business. The village slow but steady growth, and a high quality of life define is community. Baben values a small community atmosphere that is quiet and safe.

• More than 50% people working in farm as a farmer and they are use in advanced technology in farm like a drip irrigation etc...and produced crop are sugar cane, cotton, mangoes, etc.

• The village provide the public water system and is jointly involve in Bardoli waste water treatment facility.

• For an example, in Baben village one factory of sugar cane, which is benefit for farmer as shown in figure.


( figure-26 Baben sugar factory )

2.5    Social scenario:

• Society living in village and dependent on natural environment

• Rich in culture and tradition

• Economy rests on agriculture and allied activities

• Socio-economically less developed

2.6   Infrastructures facilities :


( Figure-27 Infrastructure Facilities in Baben Village )


• Infrastructure facilities is not only a key component of rural development but also and important ingredients insuring any sustainable poverty reduction programmer the proper development of infrastructure in rural area improves rural economic and quality of life. it promotes get a productivity increase in agriculture income in adequate employment, etc.

• Baben village are best example of infrastructure facilities. since 2010-11 onwards all road connected Baben, that roads are in good condition.

• In Baben village 7 unit of public washroom are provided some every 300m distance without any charge.

• Centre library progress in Baben as well as 3 computers are provide in library. only 5% residence are not constructed by cement concrete and 95% other are constructed by cement or other material.  2 bus stop are providing in Baben gam. 3 R.O. plants are providing different area.

• The Baben village in garbage collect door to door every day by government and in the village there are 4 bank (2 gov. and 2 private) and 4 ATM are providing in has also provide 1 petrol pump and 1 CNG pump and 1 vegetable market as well as 2 garden are provided.

2.7  Key elements of ideal village

  A 21st century village in india needs to incorporate certain key themes which would be essential for its success.for example, technology could be used to improve the quality and delivery of other services such as health and education,which in turn contributes to sustainable development.similarly,the village tree planation drive could encourage a community participation,benefit the environment,prevent soil erosion and benefit agriculture,converse water,and finally contribute to the aesthetics of the village.

   The key element for ideal village(Baben) are below.


                                    2.Community Involvement



1. Sustainability:-  

• Baben gam. 3 R.O. plants are providing different area.

• The Baben village in garbage collect door to door every day by government.

• Centre library progress in Baben as well as 3 computers are provide in library. only 5% residence are not constructed by cement concrete and 95% other are constructed by cement or other material.

• In Baben village 7 unit of public washroom are provided some every 300m distance without any charge.  

2. Community Involvement:-

• The village panchayat collected Rs. 3 crore in the past five years from the real estate developers and used that money on roads, street lights, a lake, public toilets, drainage and water system for the 15,000 people of Baben.

• The village also has a degree and diploma engineering college, a school and a restaurant.

• A developer is charged Rs 2,000 per plot. The buyer of the plot, too, is charged the same amount by the village panchayat.

3. Technology:-

• The Baben village are not more used technology but some irrigation technology are used in farms.

• The urgent need is to bring about a convergence of all such intitial,for which 2 things would be essential-(a)grassroots level planning; and (b)mobilization of resources.

4. Connectivity:-

• The 2-km road from Bardoli to Baben gives a commuter the feeling of passing through a highway. This is because the village road is 12-meter-wide and is well lit with street lights.

• 2 bus stop are providing in Baben gam.

• In Baben village there are 4 bank (2 gov. and 2 private) and 4 ATM are providing in has also provide 1 petrol pump and 1 CNG pump and 1 vegetable market as well as 2 garden are provided.

2.8  Resources  

         Under existing schemes like a fund across different sector such as health, education, skin development could be utilized and based on the specify demand of the village resource could be channelized into the development of the village. some important CSS (centrally sponsored schemes) which could be utilized are NRLM, NHM, SSA, NREGA and midday meal schemes. MPLAD fund (Rs. 5 Crore / year) could be utilized for the construction of high quality, sustainable assets such as school buildings, hospitals, Anganwadi Centers and school kitchens for Mid-Day meals. Funds could also be channelized into road construction, and the construction of toilets in schools and homes, particularly for girls.

        Baben developed has not been laid with government money, but the fund for it was raised through various ingenious schemes by the villagers. The village panchayat collected Rs 3 crore in the past five years from the real estate developers and used that money on roads, street lights, a lake, public toilets, drainage and water system for the 15,000 people of Baben. The village also has a degree and diploma engineering college, a school.


( Figure-28 Resources of Baben Village )

     2.9   SWOT Analysis of ideal village :

         ( Figure-29 SWOT Analysis of ideal village )

• Regarding Baben Village-


 Baben village are main strangth is the 75% people are educated.

 Very good selling skill of Baben peoples.

 Degree Collage are available in Baben Village.

 Baben peoples are Speaks two or more languages like gujarati,hindi and english.


 Some peoples are Dresses to casually like old generation.

 No more land available in Baben village for the development.


 main opportunities available in Baben village are Sugar factory for employment.


 Advance technology are not used for clearing polluted air,

 solar system are not used for street lights.

2.10  Future prospects

• The main future scope of Baben village made Green Baben plantation around 35000 Trees.

• The village is in also provide the solar street in future.

• The village is creating the proper drainage and network system in related small town provide in future.

• Baben village is knowns as the smart village and clean village compare to the other village.

2.11  Benefits of the visits

• Baben village is the most beautiful village than other village and the gram panchayat members having good nature. they gave satisfied answer and they told everything of Baben village, so it was our great experience that we got visit of Baben village and we learnt  more things about provision of different facilities in village and as well as small requirements which are require to the people of village, so it was  better benefit of the visit.

3. Sustainable Technical Options for Solid  & Liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas:

3.1 Technical Options for Liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas:

3.1.1 Stabilization pond system for waste water treatment

     A stabilization pond is a large shallow excavation that receives sewage from a sewer system, the sewage so that biological processes can destroy most of the disease-causing organisms, and discharges the effluent as treated. Sometimes two or more ponds are constructed and connected by pipes. Constructing stabilization ponds requires the services of an experienced construction supervisor and surveyor. Construction involves assembling labour, materials, and tools; preparing the site; staking the pond, embankment, and pipe locations; excavating the pond; building embankments; laying pipes; and finishing embankments.

( Figure-30 Stabilization Pond System )

There are three types of pond system :

1.Anaerobic pond system :

An aerobic stabilization pond contains bacteria and algae in suspension and large concentration of organic and inorganic solids in wastewater is reduced by sedimentation and digestion process.

2.Facultative pond system :

      Facultative ponds are characterized by having an upper aerobic and lower anaerobic zone, with active purification occurring in both. Facultative pond is designed for BOD removal.  


3.Aerobic pond system :

      Aerobic pond is designed for  phathogen  removal and  retaining suspended stabilized solids and this

Pond depends on the required bacteriological quality of the final effulen

( Figure-31 Types of Pond System )

Construction Steps :

Preparing the Site :

1. Locate the site and temporarily mark it on the ground.

2. Assemble all labours, materials, and tools needed to begin construction.

3. Clear the pond and embankment site of all trees, bushes, stumps, brushwood, large rocks, and any other material not suitable for building the embankment. Haul this list material to a landfill or other disposal site.

4. Remove any trees upwind from the site for a distance of l00 - 200m. This will create an unobstructed windpath, which will improve the efficiency of the pond after it is put into operation.

5. Remove topsoil or sod from the site and place it to one side. This will be used later to finish the embankment.

• Staking Pond Site and Pipe Locations

1. Set reference stakes 5 -10m apart indicating the boundaries of the bottom of the pond. Find the elevation of each stake using a surveyor\'s level and rod from the base point used in constructing the sewer. See \"Constructing Sewer Systems,\"

2. Measuring the distance and elevation from the reference stakes, set slope stakes indicating the points at which to begin building the embankment and excavating the pond.

3. Set stakes to indicate pipe locations. This will eliminate re-excavating portions of the embankment.

• Excavating the Pond :

1. Begin excavating at the inside slope stakes. Dig at the slope specified by the project designer until the bottom elevation is reached. Check this elevation with a surveyor\'s level and rod.

2. Continue excavating along the bottom elevation of the pond. Use excavated soil to build up the embankments.

3. Make the bottom of the pond as level and as uniformly compacted as possible. If there are soft spots or tree roots, dig them out, fill with moist soil, and compact.

4. Make the corners of the pond rounded.

5. Leave some excavated soil on the pond bottom if small dikes are to be built for the start of pond operation. See \"Operating and Maintaining Stabilization Ponds,\" SAN.2.O.5.

• Building Embankments :

1. Begin building embankments as the pond is excavated. Embankments must be well tamped, with sides sloped according to design specifications.

2. Leave gaps in the embankment at pipe locations. It may also be convenient to leave one or more wide gaps for removal of excavated soil.

3. The top of the embankment must be level, well-tamped, and at least 1.0m wide. The horizontal distance from the top of the embankment to the bottom of the pond must equal the design depth of the pond plus 1.0m.

• Laying Pipes :

1. Excavate trenches for pipes at the design depth and locations. The bottoms of the trenches should be well-tamped.

2. Build bases about 0.5m high for the inlet pipes from concrete or stone. The purpose of the bases is to raise the inlet pipe above the bottom of the pond.

3. Build slabs for the outlet pipes from concrete or stone. The purpose of the slab is to support the outlet pipe and . to prevent erosion due to the discharge of treated sewage. Build support slabs under all valve locations.

4. Lay sewer pipe and mortar together sections; Install valves.

5. Build the vertical outlet from sleeved sections of pipe. The height of the vertical outlet determines the depth of the pond. It must be equal to the design depth calculated by the project designer. The sleeved sections will allow the pond to be drained when necessary.

6. Build a protective screen around the vertical outlet . with creosote-treated wood posts and rust-proof wire screen. The screen should extend at least 0.3m above and 0.3m below the vertical outlet. It will prevent floating debris from entering the outlet pipe after the pond is put into operation.

7. Carefully fill in pipe trenches with moist soil and tamp.

• Finishing Embankments :

1. Fill in any gaps in the embankment that were used for laying pipe or removing excavated soil. Thoroughly tamp the top and slopes and make them uniform with the existing embankment.

2. Line the entire inner race of the embankment slope with rocks and flat stones. This will prevent erosion due to wave action during pond operation. Rocks and stones should be smoothly graded to conform to the design slope of the embankment. Avoid using gravel and pebbles because this material tends to move downslope.

3. If topsoil or sod was initially removed from the site, use it now to cover the outside slope and top of the embankment. If no sod is available, plant grass seed. This will help prevent erosion of the embankment from wind and rain.  

4. Excess soil excavated from the pond can be used to build small dams to divert surface water away from the pond. If not, it should be graded level or hauled away from the pond site.

Working :

   In a first pond (anaerobic pond), solids and settleable organics settles to the bottom forming a sludge, which is, digested anaerobic by microorganism. In a second pond (facultative pond), algae growing on the surface provide the water with oxygen leading to both anaerobic digestion and aerobic oxidation of the organic pollutants. Due to the algal activity, pH rises leading to inactivation of some pathogens and volatilisation of ammonia. The last pond (aerobic pond), serves for the retention of stabilised solids and the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms via heating rise of pH and solar disinfection.

                    ( figure-32 working process of stabilization pond system )

Maintenance :

   Removing vegetation (to prevent BOD increase and mosquito breath) scum and floating vegetation from pond surfaces, keeping inlets and outlets clear, and repairing any embankment damage.

3.1.2 Root zone treatment system

‘Root Zone’ is a scientific term used to cover all the biological activity among different types of microbes, the roots of plants, water soil and the sun. It consists planted filter-beds containing gravel, sand and soil. The RZWT system utilises nature’s way of biologically processing domestic & industrial effluents. This effective technology called Decentralised Wastewater Systems (DEWATS) was developed in 1970s in Germany and has been successfully implemented in different countries mainly in Europe and America.

The root zone wastewater treatment system makes use of biological and physical-treatment processes to remove pollutants from wastewater. Due to its natural process, there is no need to add any input such as chemicals, mechanical pumps or external energy. This reduces both the maintenance and energy costs.

( Figure-33 Root Zone System )



• The planted vegetation plays a role in contaminant removal but the filter bed, consisting usually of a combination of sand and gravel, has an equally important role to play Ø A constructed wetland (CW) is an artificial wetland created for the purpose of treating anthropogenic discharge such as municipal or industrial wastewater, or stormwater runoff.

• It may also be created for land reclamation after mining, refineries, or other ecological disturbances such as required mitigation for natural areas lost to land development.

• Constructed wetlands are engineered systems that use natural functions of vegetation, soil, and organisms to treat different water streams.

• Depending on the type of wastewater that has to be treated the system has to be adjusted accordingly which means that pre- or post-treatments might be necessary.

• Constructed wetlands can be designed to emulate the features of natural wetlands, such as acting as a biofilter or removing sediments and pollutants such as heavy metals from the water.

• Some constructed wetlands may also serve as a habitat for native and migratory wildlife, although that is usually not their main purpose.

• The two main types of constructed wetlands are subsurface.

Working :

• Extraction of contaminants from soil or groundwater.

• Degradation of contaminants by various biotic or abiotic processes.

• Breakdown action carried out dwelling microorganisms dwelling at the root zone degrade / breakdown pollutants.

• Filtration process / biofilm formed at surface of pebble /gravel / coarse sand bed.

• Processes like adsorption / absorption in soil strata or their combination.

• Vertical and horizontal flow patterns & another possible mechanism for contaminant degradation is metabolism within the plant within the plant


( Figure-34 Working of Root Zone System )

 Maintenance :

• Overloading peaks should not cause performance problems while continuous overloading lead to a loss of treatment capacity through too much suspended solids, sludge or fats.

• Subsurface flow wetlands require the following maintenance tasks: regular checking of the pretreatment process, of pumps, of influent loads and distribution on the filter bed.

Advantages :

• By its treatment and construction features DEWATS is designed to limit operation and maintenance requirements and in the same to ensure high treatment standards even for shock loads

• Using gravity instead of pumps, avoiding valves

• Zero maintenance

• Low operating costs

Disadvantages :

• Relatively area requirements for advanced treatments.

• Current imprecise design and operating criteria

• Biological and hydrological complexity and our lack of important process dynamics.

• Possible problems with pests.

• Steep topography, shallow soils and high water tables, susceptibility to severe flooding may limit the use of constructed wetlands.

• Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System

• DEWATS encompass an approach, not just a technical hardware package, i.e. besides technical and engineering aspects, the specific  local economic and social situation is taken into consideration

• DEWATS can treat wastewaters from domestic or industrial sources. They can provide primary, secondary and tertiary treatment for wastewaters from sanitation facilities, housing colonies, public entities like hospitals, or from businesses, especially those involved in food production and processing.

• DEWATS can provide a renewable energy source. Depending on the technical layout, biogas supplies energy for cooking, lighting or power generation

• DEWATS are based on a set of design and layout principles.Reliability, longevity, tolerance towards inflow fluctuation, cost efficiency and, most importantly, low control and maintenance requirements

• DEWATS can reduce pollution load to fit legal requirements. Like all other wastewater treatment systems, generated solid waste (sludge) must be handled, treated and disposed of in accordance with hygiene and environmental standards

• DEWATS consider the socio-economic enviroment of a given location.Neglecting these conditions will result in the failure of the technology.

( Figure-35 Decentralized Waste Water Treatment System )

Working Process :

3.1.3  Anaerobic DEWATS :

3.1.4 Aerobic DEWATS :

( Figure-36 Working of Anaerobic & Aerobic DEWATS )

Advantages :

• Provides treatment for domestic and industrial wastewater

• Low initial investment costs as no imported materials or components are needed

• Efficient treatment for daily wastewater flows of up to 1000m3

• Modular design of all components

• Tolerant towards inflow fluctuations

• Reliable and long-lasting construction design

• Low maintenance costs     

Disadvantages :

• Potential threat to ground water quality

• Can be harder to document treatment effectiveness

• No dilution benefit

• Risk of failure concentrated

3.1.5  Soakage pit system

  Soak pit is a dug out pit filled with stones or preferably over burnt bricks. The large numbers of stones or bricks increase the surface area over which biological and chemical action takes place. The water seeps into the ground and reduces danger of polluting the ground water sources.

( Figure-37 Soakage Pit System )


1. Assemble all laborers, supplies, tools, and drawings needed to begin construction. Study all diagrams carefully.

2. Use the location map and a measuring tape to lay out the dimensions of the sump on the ground.

3. Dig the hole to the depth specified by the project designer. Make the bottom of the hole fairly level. Item Labor Supplies Tools

4. Lightly rake the sides of the hole with a rake, shovel, or branches. This will allow washwater to soak in quicker.

5. Line the sides of the hole with concrete blocks, bricks, or stones as shown in Figure

6. Leave spaces of 25-50mm between the bricks.

Working :

- Install the drain pipe so that the end with the 3 cm hole reaches the centre of the pit and the perforation faces downwards.

- Cover the pit with a polythene sheet (fertilizer bags or cement bags). Make sure that the cover stretches at least 15 cm beyond the sides of the pit. Spread earth on this cover and pack it until the surface of the pit is level with the ground. Make the finished surface look the same as the surrounding area.

Maintenance :

• Daily-Remove solid deposits held in the trap and flush a litre of water through the trap to clear any blockage.

• Periodic-In time, your soak pit might become choked. Excess moisture on top of the soak pit is  an indication of choking. When choking occurs, dig out the soak pit and remove the stones and debris. Wash the stones and refill them in the pit.

• For an average family, a well maintained soak pit will last for at least five years.

Advantages :

• This is the cheapest technology for management of water at household level

• Prevents grey water stagnation

• Prevents vector breading

3.1.6  Technological Options at Household Level Management like :

• Kitchen Garden with Piped Root Zone System

• Kitchen Garden without Piped Root Zone System

• Leach Pit

o Kitchen Garden with Piped Root Zone System :

With this methodology, treated grey water can be utilized to grow vegetables, flowers or fruits in the court-yard of the house.


( figure-38 root zone system with pipe network )

Construction :

• A grease trap to collect silt (450mm x 350mm x 300mm)

• Perforated non pressure PVC pipe (50mm diameter and length as per requirement)

• Digging of trench (150mm to 200mm depth and 200mm width)

• Filling of trench with gravel of size (20 to 25mm size)

• Laying of perforated pipe

• Covering the trench with polythene sheet

• Putting the soil layer (50mm thickness over the polythene sheet)

• Construct a leach pit (900mm diameter with honey comb masonry and water tight cover)

• Put a layer of earth over (25mm thickness) over the pit cover

• Plant suitable vegetables or flowers on both sides of the trench.


( figure-39  kitchen garden with piped root zone system )

Maintenance :

• Periodical cleaning of the grease trap (every week)

• Cleaning of perforated pipes (once in a year).

Advantages :

• Simple and cost effective technology

• Cent percent utilization of water to produce vegetables and fruits

• Prevents water stagnation

• Prevents vector breeding

Limitations :

Use of strong detergent may be harmful to the plants grown in the kitchen garden.

o Kitchen Garden without Piped Root Zone System :

With this methodology also, grey water can be utilized to grow vegetables, flowers or fruits in the court-yard of the house

Construction :

• A grease trap to collect silt (450mm x 350mm x 300mm)

• A simple bed of appropriate size to absorb the available water

• Let the grey water flow into the bed

• Plant suitable vegetable or flowers at both the side of the trench.

Maintenance :

• Simple and cost effective technology

• Cent percent utilization of water to produce vegetables and fruits

• Prevents water stagnation

• Prevents vector breeding

Limitations :

Use of strong detergent may be harmful to the plant grown in the kitchen garden.

o Leach Pit :

Leach Pit is a brick lined pit constructed in honeycomb masonry having a volume of about 0.75 cubic meters.

Houses without adequate space for kitchen garden where waste water discharge is relatively more and pit structure is such that it enhances the leaching effect.


                    ( figure-40 leach pit )

Construction :

o Selection of site-the leach pit can be located at any convenient space near the house, keeping a safe distance between the wall and the pit as 1m

o Digging of the pit-dig the pit (a diameter of 1.75m and a depth of 1m)

o Construct the pit in circular fashion with honey combing in alternate layers. The pit can be constructed with single brick (100mm) with a mortar in the ratio of 1:6

o Connect the drain pipe coming from the house to the leach pit via a grease trap

o A P-trap is necessary between the pit and the outlet from the house to avoid vectors entering the leach pit

o The pit should be covered with RCC cover or flag stone slab. The diameter of the cover should be 100mm more than that of the pit.

Maintenance :

• Periodical cleaning of the P-trap

• Periodical removal of the sludge from the pit

Advantages :.

• It can handle large volume of water during peak period of water generation and is better suited than soak pits

• Prevents stagnation of grey water

• Prevents vector breeding.

3.2 Technical Options for Solid  Waste Management in Rural Areas:

3.2.1  NADEP Method :

o This compost method was developed by Naryan Devrao Pandri Pandey. A brick structure measuring 10\'x6\'x3\' is prepared with holes in the side walls to ensure adequate supply of air during composting.

o The brick tank is filled with farm wastes, soil and cow dung and water is added to maintain moisture between 60-75% . A tank is filled with soil, 16-18qtls, farm wastes 14-16qtls, dung 1-1.2qtls

o Water is added to moisture the material and upper layer is plastered with soil and dung mixture. After 75-90 days of composting, microbial culture of Azotobacter, Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacteria are added into the mixture.

o Compost becomes ready for use within 110-120 days. One tank provide about 2.5-2.7 t of compost sufficient for one hectare land.

o Another kind of nadep is known as BHU-NADEP .In this construction of tank by bricks are not required. Method of filling is same as above.

( figure-41 NADEP method )

Indore Method :

o This is an old method of compost preparation in the pit having size of 9\'x5\'x3\'. A portion of pit is filled with farm wastes layer by layer.

o Each layer is around 3\" thick and over it a layer 2\" of cow dung slurry mixed with urine is spread. Pit is filled with farm wastes and plastered with 2\"-4\" thick layer of soil and dung.

( figure-42 Indore method )

o This prevents moisture loss and allow the temperature to rise up to 60-65ºC within 3-4 days. Material inside the pit is turned after 15-30 days and moisture is maintained by adding water.

o Another turning is given after an interval of 30 days. Good quality compost become ready within 3-4 months

 3.2.2 Vermi composting :

o Earthworms are used to prepare compost from farm and livestock wastes. Earthworms continuously feed upon the organic residues and produce casts

o This casts is generally termed as  ermin compost, Casts of earthworms are usually rich in nutrients and organic matter and therefore serves as a good source of manure for growing crops.

o Certain earthworms like Eisenia foetida, Perionyx excavatus and Eudrilus eugeniae are specifically suited for the preparation of vermicompost.


( Figure-43 Vermi Composting )


• Small Scale Vermi Composting :

   Such systems usually use kitchen and garden waste, using \"earthworms and other microorganisms to digest organic wastes, such as kitchen scraps\"This includes-

• All fruits and vegetables (including citrus and other \"high acid\" foods).

• Vegetable and fruit peels and ends.

• Coffee grounds and filters.

• Tea bags (even those with high tannin levels).

• Grains such as bread, cracker and cereal (including moldy and stale).

• Eggshells (rinsed off).

• Leaves and grass clippings (not sprayed with pesticides).

• Large Scale Vermi Composting :

    Such vermicomposting systems need reliable sources of large quantities of food. Systems presently operation use :

• Dairy cow or pig manure

• Sewage Sludge

• Brewery waste

• Cotton mill waste

• Agricultural waste

• Food processing and grocery waste

• Cafeteria waste

• Grass clippings and wood chips


3.2.3 Thermophilic Composting :

o The conversion of human manure to humus is known as \"thermophilic\" (hot) composting, which involves the cultivation of heat-loving microorganisms in the composting process.

o These organisms, which include bacteria and fungi, create an environment in the compost which destroys disease organisms in human manure, converting it into a user-friendly, pleasant-smelling humus safe for food gardens

o In residential situations, human manure can be collected in a sawdust toilet, which can be as simple as a five gallon bucket. A sawdust toilet is one component in a three-component system, consisting of the toilet itself, a clean, organic cover material (such as rotted sawdust, peat moss, leaf mould, or grass clippings), and a compost bin.

o Each deposit in the sawdust toilet is followed by the addition of a carbonaceous cover material, such as well-rotted sawdust or peat moss.

o The cover material acts as a biological filter, suppressing odor, and aids in attaining a proper carbon-nitrogen ratio for composting. When the bucket is full, it is emptied into an outdoor composting bin.  


( Figure-44 Thermophile composting )

3.2.4 MARC Method: (Mid-America Regional  Council  solid waste                     management)

o Landfill space and protection of natural resources are critical issues facing the Kansas City area over the next 10 years, as two area landfi lls are anticipated to close.

o Capacity will then fall sharply with the expected closure of the Johnson County Landfi ll by 2027. This landfi ll receives the majority of the region’s municipal solid waste.

o Communities in Kansas and Missouri must work together to avert a landfi ll capacity crisis and to ensure that adequate waste management services remain available to everyone in the metropolitan region.

o The generation and disposal of waste, opportunities to recover and reuse waste, and improper waste disposal not only impact public health, but also quality of life in the entire region.

o Consistent policies, planning principles and practices need to guide the region’s solid waste management decisions.

( Figure-45 MARC SYSTEM )

3.2.5 Biogas  Technology :

o Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

o Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint.

o Biogas can be produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.

o Biogas is primarily methane (CH and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen.

o This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in a gas engine to convert the energy in the gas into electricity and heat.

( Figure-46 Biogas Technology System )

3.2.6 Toilet Linked Biogas Plant :

o A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable sanitation in a variety of contexts worldwide. Through the separate collection of feces (faces) and urine without any flush water, many advantages can be realized, such as odor-free operation and pathogen reduction by drying.

o While dried feces and urine harvested from UDDTs can be and routinely are used in agriculture (respectively, as a soil amender and nutrient-rich fertilizer—this practice being known as reuse of excreta in agriculture), many UDDTs installations do not make use of any sort of recovery scheme.

o This dry excreta management system (or \"dry sanitation\" system) is an alternative to pit latrines and flush toilets, especially where water is scarce, a connection to a sewer system and centralized wastewater treatment plant is not feasible or desired, fertilizer and soil conditioner are needed for agriculture, or groundwater pollution should be minimized.


( Figure-47 Toilet Linked Biogas Plant )

...(download the rest of the essay above)

About this essay:

This essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay Sauce, . Available from:< > [Accessed 15.10.19].