\"WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER USING MICROWAVE\"
JAY PATEL 111010111022
MOHIT JADAV 111010111037
In partial fulfillment for the award of the
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
IPCOWALA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
Gujarat Technological University
IPCOWALA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
Amrapalitownship, Petlad-Khambhat Rd, Dharmaj-388430 Ta.Petlad, Dis.Anand (Gujarat)
Phone: 02697-245141 Fax: 02697-245808 Email: [email protected] web: www.iietedu.org
Here we declare that by the Reports, submitted along with the Project for the project Entitled\"WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER USING MICROWAVE” submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachleor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering to Gujarat Techinical University,Ahemadabad is a bonafide record of the project work out at Ipcowala Institute of Engineering &Technology under the supervision of Assi.Prof.Miss. Priya Nagarkar and that no part of these reports has been directly copied from any students’s reports or taken from any other source,without providing due references.
Name of the Students Sign of Students
1. JAY PATEL 111010111022
2. MOHIT JADAV 111010111037
IPCOWALA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGYDHARMAJ
Amrapali township, Petlad-Khambhat Rd, Dharmaj-388430 Ta.Petlad, Dist.Anand(Gujarat)
Phone:02697-245141 Fax:02697-245808 Email: [email protected] web: www.iietedu.org
This is to certify that the reports, submitted along with the project entitled “WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER USING MICROWAVE\" has been carried out byJAY PATEL, MOHIT JADAV under my guidance in partial fulfillment for theBachleor of Engineering in Electronics and Communication Engineering 7TH Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahemadabad during the academic year 2016-17.
Internal Guide Head of the Department
Asst.Prof . Priya Nagarkar Asst. Prof. Nilkanth Patel
SELF-DECLARATION (by a student/team of students) of each UDP
(This has to be attached along with IDP/UDP report while submitting to the departments in hardcopy)
We JAY PATEL, MOHIT JADAV the student(s) of EC Branch/enrollment number 111010111022, 111010111037 enrolled at Ipcowala Institute of Engineering Technology,Dharmaj-anand here by certify and declare the following:
• We have defined our project based on input
\"WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER USING MICROWAVE\" and each of us will make significant efforts to make attempt to solve the challenges. We will attempt the project work at our college or at any location under the direct and consistent monitoring of Miss Priya Nagarkar .We shall adopt all ethical practices to share credit among stall the contributors based on their contributions during the project work. (We will work on the project work under the direct and consistent monitoring of Faculty Guides)
• We have not purchased the solutions developed by any3rd Party directly and the effort share made by us under the guidance of guides.
The project work is not copied from any previously done projects directly. (The same problem can be attempted done in new ways.)
It is the matter of pride and elation for us to acknowledge the contribution of many individuals who have been inspirational, supportive and helpful throughout our work and endowed us most precious knowledge to see success in our endeavor. Our work bears the share of all those people and we are heartily grateful to all of them.
We are heartily thankful to our mentor, Assi. Prof. Priya Nagarkar,Mr Nilkanth Patel Assistant Professor Ipcowala Institute of Engineering & Technology, who has supported us through out our thesis with his patience, knowledge and his ability to unveil a solution to the problem whilst allowing us the room to work in our own way. We attribute the level of our Bachelor degree to his encouragement and effort. His approach towards problem an achieving scientific excellence will have a lasting effect on our professional career.
We shall like to place on record our unstinted appreciation and deep sense of indebtedness to Miss Priya Nagarkar (HOD, EC), Mr Nilkanth Patel and all Staff Members of EC Department for helping a lot during lab work.
In addition, we extend our thanks to management of Ipcowala Institute of Engineering &Technology, Dharmaj-anand for providing adequate facilities for project work.
In our daily work we have been blessed with friendly and cheerful friends for constantly motivating us to do our work. We heartily thank them all for being there always.
Finally, we thank god for his blessings and our family for supporting throughout all our studies.
• In the near future due to extensive use of energy, limited supply of resources and the pollution in environment from present resources e.g. (wood, coal, fossil fuel) etc. Alternative sources of energy and new ways to generate energy which are efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses are of great concern.
• Wireless electricity Power transmission using microwave (WETM) has become a focal point as research point of view and nowadays lies at top 10 future hot burning technologies that are under research these days. In this project, we present the concept of transmitting power wirelessly to reduce transmission and distribution losses. The wired distribution losses are 70 - 75% efficient.
• We cannot imagine the world without electric power which is efficient, cost effective and produce minimum losses is of great concern. This project tells us the benefits of using WETM technology and also how we make electric system cost effective, optimized and well organized.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter: 1 INTRODUCTON………………………………...12
1.1 Introduction to Project……………………………..13
1.2 Possible Design…………………………………….14
Chapter: 2 INTRODUCTIONS TO MICROWAVE……….16
2.1 Definition of Microwave…………………………...17
2.2 Microwave spectrum and bands……………………18
2.3 Parameters of Microwave…………………………..19
2.4 Characteristics of Microwave……………………....19
2.5 Advantages of Microwave………………………….19
2.6 Disadvantages of Microwave……………………....20
2.7 Application of Microwave………………………….20
Chapter: 3 POWER SUPPLY OF MAGNETRON………...21
3.1 Circuit diagram ………………………………………22
22.214.171.124 Construction of magnetron….............28
Chapter: 4 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGE……..30
Chapter: 5 APPLICATIONS………………………………...32
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. Figure description Page No.
Fig. 1.1 Setup of microwave generation 14
Fig. 3.1 Circuit Diagram 22
Fig. 3.2 Power Transformer 23
Fig. 3.3 Cut-section of Transformer 24
Fig. 3.4 H.V. Capacitor 25
Fig. 3.5 H.V. Diode 26
Fig. 3.6 Working of Diode 26
Fig. 3.7 Magnetron 27
Fig. 3.8 Cut-section of Magnetron 28
Fig. 3.9 Electron path for magnetic field 29
Fig. 3.10 Cut-section of magnetron 29
Fig. 5.1 Flow chart of application 32
LIST OF TABLE
Table no. Table description page no.
Table 2.1 Microwave bands 17
Table 2.2 Designation of frequency ranges 18
1.1 Introduction to Project
1.2 Possible Design
1.1 Introduction to project
The present power generation system is not very efficient in terms of energy transfer. About energy is lost during the transmission &distribution of the electricity. Therefore the scientists are major working on the projects to improve the electricity supply.
We are looking for efficient technologies to provide maximum electricity transfer. The change and development in the electric engineering fields have brought more client satisfaction and output, Therefore the wireless transmission of electricity is also on move.
In 1864, James C. Maxwell predicted the existence of radio waves by means of mathematical model.
In 1884, John H. Pointing realized that the Pointing vector would play an important role in quantifying the electromagnetic energy. The prediction and evidence of the radio wave in the end of 19th century was start of the wireless power transmission.
During the same period of Marchese G.Marconi and Reginald Fessenden who are pioneers of communication via radio waves. Nikola Tesla is known as the father of wireless transmission. The most famous wireless technology tower also known as the Tesla tower is the first was designed merely for wireless transmission of electricity. He made electric coil which was a 3 feet diameter ball at its top. He fed300 kW power to tesla coil resonated at 150 kHz. The RF potential at the top sphere reached 100 MV. Unfortunately he failed due to diffusion in all directions.
We have demonstrated wireless power transfer by coupling RF power from a microwave oven magnetron RF source using a dipole at optimum position within the cavity. A 40dBm coupled power is transmitted using a monopole corner reflector antenna having gain of 14.97dBi and a half power beam width of 22: At the receiving end a patch antenna is placed at variable distances ranging from 0.307 meters (1 foot) to 4 meters (13 feet). .,
Microwave wireless power transmission is a wide range process in which long distance electric power transmission becomes possible. This process uses the microwave voltage source which emits the microwaves. The micro wave source acts as a transmitting antenna and a microwave receiver is attached with the load which acts as receiving antenna. The received microwaves are then converted back in to electrical energy through which the load is driven. Different parts of the wireless power transmission through microwaves are briefed as following. The microwave source antenna acts as transmitting antenna at the base station. It uses the microwaves of high frequency ranging from 1GHz to 1000 GH There are many types of microwaves source antennas Each of which has its own efficiency. Usually the slotted wave guide, micro strip patch and parabolic dish antennas are used for this purpose. For high power applications the slotted waveguide antennas are used because of their high efficiency.
The microwave receiving antenna is mounted at the load end and due to high frequency of microwaves it could be used for large distance applications of wireless power transmission. At the load end the microwaves are received by microwaves receiving antenna and then the received microwaves are converted back into dc power. The unit which receives microwaves and then converts back to the dc power is called rectenna. The rectenna is mounted at the load end. A typical rectifying antenna used to produce dc power from microwave energy is called rectenna. These are extensively used in microwave wireless power transmission systems. As defined in, “simple rectenna consists of a dipole antenna with an RF diode connected across the dipole elements. The diode rectifies the AC current induced in the antenna by the microwaves, to produce dc power, which powers a load connected across the diode
1.2 Possible design
• Setup of microwave generation and wireless power transfer using microwave
Wireless Power Transmission System William C. Brown, the pioneer in wireless power transmission technology, has designed, developed a unit and demonstrated to show how power can be transferred through free space by microwaves. The concept of Wireless Power transfer in the transmission side, the microwave power source generates microwave power and the output power is controlled by electronic control circuits. The wave guide ferrite circulator which protects the microwave source from reflected power is connected with the microwave power source through the Coax – Waveguide Adaptor. The tuner matches the impedance between the transmitting antenna and the microwave source. The attenuated signals will be then separated based on the direction of signal propagation by Directional Coupler. The transmitting antenna radiates the power uniformly through free space.
In the receiving side, a rectenna receives the transmitted power and converts the microwave power into DC power. The impedance matching circuit and filter is provided to setting the output impedance of a signal source equal to the rectifying circuit. The rectifying circuit consists of Schottky barrier diodes converts the received microwave power into DC power
• 1899: Sir NICOLAI TESLA was the first one to propose and research the idea of wireless transmission. He managed to light 200 lamps from a distance of 40km.
• 1961: William C. Brown publishes an article exploring possibilities of microwave power transmission
• 2009: Sony shows a wireless electrodynamics-induction powered TV set, 60 W over 50 cm
INTRODUCTIONS TO MICROWAVE
2.1 Definition of Microwave
2.2 Microwave spectrum and bands
2.3 Parameters of Microwave
2.4 Characteristics of Microwave
2.5 Advantages of microwave
2.6 Disadvantages of microwave
2.7 Application of microwave
2.1 Definition of Microwave
Microwaves wave is an electromagnetic wave which has a wavelength of 3mm to 1 meter and a frequency of 0.3 GHz to 100 GHz
2.2 Microwave spectrum and bands
Designation Frequency range
L Band 1 to 2 GHz
S Band 2 to 4 GHz
C Band 4 to 8 GHz
X Band 8 to 12 GHz
Ku Band 12 to 18 GHz
K Band 18 to 26 GHz
Ka Band 26 to 40 GHz
Q Band 30 to 50 GHz
U Band 40 o 60 GHz
Table 2.1: Microwave bands
Radiation Type Frequency Range (Hz) Wavelength Range
Gamma rays above 3 x 1019 < 10-12 m
X-rays 3 x 1017 - 3 x 1019 1 nm - 1 pm
Ultraviolet Radiation 7.5 x 1014 - 3 x 1017 400 nm - 1 nm
Visible Spectrum 3.8 x 1014 - 7.5 x 1014 750 nm - 380 nm
Infrared Radiation 1011 - 3.8 x 1014 25 um - 2.5 um
Microwaves 108 - 1012 1 mm - 25 um
Radio waves 104 - 108 >1 mm
2.3 Parameters of Microwave
Electrical and magnetic fields
2.4 Characteristics of Microwave
Microwave wavelength are very small
Microwave pulses are very short so that the can used for distance or time measurement
High frequency of microwave means very large bandwidth is available for communication
Microwaves are necessary for compunction through satellite line and gives reflection hence can be used for distance and direction measurement
2.5 Advantages of microwave system
1) Microwave communication does not require a dedicated path between stations.
2) Microwave can carry large quantities of information.
3) Requires relatively small antennas.
4) Microwaves can easily propagate through ionized layers hence most suited for satellite communications.
5) Transmission distance is large hence less number of repeaters for amplification.
6) Propagation delay is negligible or minimum.
7) Signal cross talk is eliminated.
8) Highly reliable systems.
9) Least maintenance is required.
2.6 Disadvantages of Microwave Systems
1) At microwave frequencies, circuit design is complex.
2) Measurements at microwave frequencies are difficult.
3) Line of Sight (LOS) propagation limits the use of microwave.
2.7 Application of microwave
• Because of certain useful properties that microwave possesses, it is becoming more and more widely used. Some applications arc dismissed
1. Drying of wood, paper, printing Inks and textiles
2. Destruction of dry root fungus in wood.
3. Heating of plastics and rubbers.
4. Grinding of minerals.
5. Transmission of power.
6. Cooking and baking.
8. Thickness measurement of metal sheets in rolling machines.
POWER SUPPLY OF MAGNETRON
3.1 Circuit diagram
126.96.36.199 Construction of magnetron
3.1 Circuit Diagram
The steel laminations are ‘E’ and ‘I’ parts. Unlike the tradition designs used in older manufactured parts, the E\'s were all inserted from one side as a bank of laminations. These were similarly banked and placed against the E\'s from the opposite side.
They were attached to each other using a mechanical notching technique. These have a half round notch on the outer edge midway of the ‘I’. When these are place together in a bank the manufacturer seam welds along the groove formed by the notches to hold the ‘I’ laminations together. A mounting plate is then spot welded to the surface with the groove formed by the notches in four places to attach the ‘I’ laminations to the mounting plate.
There was shunt laminations used between the primary and secondary windings. These were pressed into position by the manufacturer. The lack of space between the primary, secondary and filament windings made removal tedious. The primary was damaged during the attempt to remove the shunts. Although the primary did not physically short during the removal process I was not comfortable with using the transformer with damage to the insulation.
The high voltage winding, primary winding and filament windings are not wound on a common bobbin. Actually no bobbin was used on any winding. The windings seem to have been wound on a mandrel, removed from the mandrel and inserted into the E laminations. The windings were wrapped with a single thin layer plastic insulator which was maybe 5 mils thick.
The wire used on the mains primary is heavy gauge, appearing to be between 13 and 14 (67 mils). The wire on the high voltage secondary was much finer between 24 and 25 gauge (18 mils). The filament wire was just heavy insulated hookup wire, about 22 gauge.
The mains winding was positioned near the open end of the E\'s while the high voltage winding was placed against the boxed end of the E\'s. The filament winding was wound between the primary and high voltage secondary and then wedged with what appeared to be phenolic strips on both sides. The whole unit then appeared to have been dipped in a shellac or similar product.
After removal of the windings it was obvious that the primary was light weight for the amount of copper wire. To determine the number of turns of wire on the damaged primary, the primary was cut into two parts with a band saw. The reason for the light weight became apparent as the wire was manufactured from aluminum.
Removal of the shunts may be possible without damage to the windings but my methods failed as the primary insulation was damaged. Removal of the filament winding wire is not practical as the portion between the primary and high voltage secondary is compressed between the winding resulting in a tight friction fit. The wire simply snapped when applying force to pull it from between the windings.
A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store electrical energy temporarily in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors (plates) separated by a dielectric (i.e. an insulator that can store energy by becoming polarized). The conductors can be thin films, foils or sintered beads of metal or conductive electrolyte, etc. The non-conducting dielectric acts to increase the capacitor\'s charge capacity. A dielectric can be glass, ceramic, plastic films, air, vacuum, paper, mica, oxide layer etc. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. Unlike a resistor, an ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. Instead, a capacitor stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field between its plates.
A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region the non-conductive region is called the dielectric. In simpler terms, the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. Examples of dielectric media are glass, air, paper, vacuum, and even semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated, with no net electrical field and no influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces and the dielectric develops an electric field. In SI units, a capacitance of one farad means that one coloumb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.
An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C, defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them. Because the conductors (or plates) are close together, the opposite charges on the conductors attract one another due to their electric fields, allowing the capacitor to store more charge for a given voltage than if the conductors were separated, giving the capacitor a large capacitance.
Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically, causing its capacitance to vary. In this case, capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes:
The high-voltage rectifier (diode) works along with the high-voltage capacitor to effectively double the already-high voltage that is provided by the power transformer. This powerful voltage, about 3000 - 5000 volts DC (depending on the model), is applied to the magnetron tube, causing it to produce the microwave energy.
The magnetron is the energy source for the microwave oven. The magnetron is a vacuum tube of special construction. It is basically a diode with addition of a magnetic field. It consists of a small, coiled heating element (filament) made of tungsten which readily emits electrons when heated. This element serves as the cathode (negative element) within the tube. The anode (positive element of the tube) consists of a thick walled copper cylinder with vertical vanes extending inward which surround but do not touch the cathode. To complete the magnetron, and make it operate distinctly different from other vacuum tubes, two permanent magnets are mounted over each end of the tube. Cathode antenna electrons anode antenna (output) magnet (magnetic circuit) vane filament terminals feed through capacitor filter case magnet (ferrite) anode filament (cathode) gasket. Microwave generation system Magnetron
188.8.131.52 Construction of magnetron
Cylindrical magnetron consists of a cylindrical cathode of finite length and radius ‘a’ at the center surrounded by a cylindrical anode of radius ’b\'. The anode has several re-entrant cavities which are equi-spaced around the circumference. These cavities are connected between anode and cathode by slots. The voltage is applied between anode and cathode. The magnetic flux density Bo is maintained in positive-z direction by an Anode electromagnet. If the dc voltage (V0) and the magnetic flux (B0) are adjusted properly then under the combined forces the electrons follow the cyclical path between anode-cathode space figures shows the cycloid path of electrons under the balanced electric and magnetic field strength
The path of electron for various magnetic field strength are shown Figures.
The open space between cathode and anode is called the interaction space. In this space, the electric and magnetic fields interact to exert force upon the electrons. The magnetic Jield is usually provided by a strong permanent magnet mounted around the magnetron so that magnetic field is parallel with the axis of the cathode.
Microwave generation system Magnetron in order to create an electron flow from cathode to anode, the cathode must be heated and a potential difference must exist between the two. This is accomplished by heating the cathode with 3 to 5 V AC. (from the filament winding of the high voltage transformer) and applying a negative 4000 V DC (from the voltage double circuit) to the cathode.
Originally the electrons would travel in a straight line from the cathode to the anode. However, with the addition of a permanent magnet surrounding the anode creating a magnetic field, the electrons travel an orbital path between the cathode and anode. As the electrons approach the anode, their orbital path takes them past small resonant cavities that are part of the anode. The passing notion of the electrons induces electron current to oscillate in the resonant cavities at the very high frequency or 2,450 MHz This RF (Radio frequency) energy is then transferred to the antenna.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
1. Remove physical infrastructure “Grids and towers”.
2. Cost effective (remove cost of tower and cables).
3. Losses during transmission and distribution can be reduced.
4. Microwave (electricity) it does not involve emission of carbon gases.
5. Zero fuel cost.
6. No air or water pollution is created during the generation
1. System includes very high initial cost for the system\'s practical installation.
2. Any sort of interference in the line of sight could actually stop the transmission.
3. The microwave power transmission can cause high interference problems for telecommunication infrastructure.
4. As the energy will be available freely in the air energy; chances of the theft will be increased
5. Distance constraint
6. Biological effects due to the high frequency microwave signals are the first demerit of this technology.
7. The transmission of electric current through this mode is susceptible to security risks like cyber war fare.
1. Near-field energy transfer
2. Far-field energy transfer
3. Solar Power Satellites
4. Energy to remote areas
5. Can broadcast energy globally (in future)
6. Electric automobile charging
7. Static and moving Consumer electronics
8. Industrial purposes
9. This technology is used for Wireless charging of mobile phones, laptop etc...
• The wireless power energy concept is indeed a great and a noble one. It has entirely changed the concept of power transmission. It has the potential to bring complete revolution in scientific development. It could reduce the human dependency on the fossil fuels and other petroleum products due to its efficiency in order to achieve sustainable development. We have reviewed and compared different methods of wireless power transmission
• Transmission without wires- a reality
• Low maintenance cost. But, high initial cost
• Better than conventional wired transfer
• Energy crisis can be decreased
• Low loss during transmitting.
• In near future, world will be completely wireless
• WPTM more expensive than ground based solar power & other energy sources.
• Peter Vaessen,” (2009) Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo Energy
• C.C. Leung, T.P. Chan, K.C. Lit, K.W. Tam and Lee Yi Chow, “Wireless Power Transmission and Charging Pad”
• Peter Vaessen, (2009) “Wireless Power Transmission”, Leonardo Energy,
• Richard M. Dickinson, and Jerry Grey, “Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission”
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