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A Project Report On

“Industrial 4.0 Implementation of Embedded Linux”

User Defined Project

Submitted by

TEAM ID: 69416

KADIWALA NUAMAN (140023111006)

MEGHVAL RAKESH      (140023111009)

PANCHAL NIKUNJ        (140023111015)

Guided by

Mrs. Khyati Joshi

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of





Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad



Date:  /   /

This is to certify that the project work entitled “Industrial 4.0 implementation of Embedded Linux” has been carried out by Nuaman Kadiwala, Rakesh Meghval, Nikunj Patel under my guidance in fulfillment of degree of Bachelor of   Engineering in EC Department (7th Semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the academic year 2016-17.

________________ _________________ _____________

External Examiner [Internal/External Guide Name]

Internal/External Guide Asst. Prof. Tejas Thakkar

Head of the Department


       We could accomplished nothing without the moral support & guidance from our organization, friend. And relatively many people have contribute to makes this project a really & we would like to thanks all them we guess we should start with principle who is very cooperative with us.

      He solved our problem very quickly so that we can work our project. He provides us best lecture & lab assistant. They give us best teaching & guidance for the project. We express my sincere gratitude to PROF. AHWIN PATEL & shier timely help & Guidance for every stage of execution & developments of this project.

      And they discourage us our special thanks to PROF.TEJAS THAKKAR (H.O.D, E&C DEPT.) Who is very much co-operative & helpful through the project session with ought his co-operation project would not be successful. He thought us on how project can be better & successful.

                                                                                  NUAMAN KADIWALA                                                                    

                                                             RAKESH MEGHVAL                                                    

                                                                                    NIKUNJ PANCHAL                                               


  A Project report on Industrial 4.0 Implementation of Embedded Linux. In this project we can control the air handling unit; Pressure, Temperature and humidity are controlled in Industries. Today this system is available but we can different thoughts use.

Sometime in the Industrial area multiple task are faced that time only Microcontroller don’t worked perfectly, so that many problem occur. Such that output is delayed, inaccurate Result and more time process worked etc.

Therefore we can used the Linux Operating system, this system build the Beagle bone device.

Linux is a heart of the system, this is all problem can be solved easily.

This is worked at parallel all devices data can be send and receiving.



CHAPTER- 1      INTRODUCTION……………………..………9

1.1 Introduction of project

1.2 Component used in project


     2.1      Beagle Bone

2.2      USB to serial converter

2.3      Wi-Fi dongle

2.4       USB Hub

2.5       8 GB class10 Memory card

2.6       STM32F3 Discovery kit

2.7       USB mini Cable

2.8       LM89 Sensor

2.9        DS18B20 Temperature  

2.10      DHT11 Humidity Sensor

2.11      ESP8266 Wi-Fi Module

2.12      BMP180 Pressure Sensor




   4.1.1 Activities 

         4.1.2 Environment

         4.1.3 Interactions

         4.1.4 Objects

         4.1.4 Users

         4.1.5 COPY OF AEIOU CANVAS


        4.2.1 People

          4.2.2 Activities

          4.2.3 Situation/Context/Location

          4.2.4 Props/Possible Solutions



        4.3.1 Purpose

         4.3.2 People

           4.3.3 Product Experiences

           4.3.4 Product Functions

           4.3.5 Product Feature

         4.3.6 Components

         4.3.7 Customer Revalid

     4.3.8 Reject, Redesign, Retain


CHAPTER-5      IMPLEMENTATION………………….…....32 

     5.1      Block Diagram

     5.2       Block Diagram description

 CHAPTER-6       SUMMARY……….........................................35

      6.1      Advantages

      6.2      Applications

      6.3      Future work

      6.4      Limitations




Sr. No. Description


















It is the project of the control AHU (Air handling unit/temperature/humidity) in industries. Linux is the heart of the system. By using Ethernet or Wi-Fi we can control the whole system. Data can be stored in local server through Mesh network using MQTT protocol. It can be control through Ethernet or Wi-Fi / BLE.

In this project Linux operating system is used in this system microcontroller is used this microcontroller through different system can be control Local server through system can be operate

A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of typically industrial electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many machines, in many industries.

Linux device connected Ethernet or Wi-Fi through a microcontroller device. Microcontroller device is connected AHU system. In the Wi-Fi system mesh network is used.


• Beagle bone

• USB to serial converter

• Wi-Fi dongle

• USB hub

• 8GB class10 memory card

• STM32F3 (256-Kbyte Flash memory, 48-Kbyte RAM)

• USB mini cable

• LM89 temperature sensor

• DSI8B20 Temperature sensor  

• Humidity sensor

• ESP8266 Wi-Fi module

• BMP180 pressure sensor

• Phone as a wireless hotspot

• TP-LINK TLWN725N dongle Wi-Fi



The Beagle bone is a low power open source hardware, it have single board computer. It is developed by Texas instruments in association with Digi-key and network element. The Beagle bone is a also design with open source hardware to create by a one human mind, in this Beagle bone OMAP3530 system on a chip. It is a simply hardware.

This Beagle bone was developed by few team engineers, it is an educational Board. Some colleges this Board can be used in education of your project, because this board is all person techs an open source hardware and software and software. It is capable to normal person to easily study a practical. This board is simply available in the market so person can easily buy. The board was designed using CAD technology and it PCB designed by a Cadence Allegro.

 Features

• The beagle bone is measures it 75mm and it have all features of basic computer

• The OMAP3530 include an ARM cortex-A8 CPU it can run Linux os and minx

• FreeBSD

• Open BSD

• RISC OS or Symbian

• Android is also being ported

• an Imagination Technologies Power SGX530 GPU to provide

• Accelerated 2D and 3D rendering that supports OpenGL ES 2.0.

• Video out is provided through separate S-Video and HDM.


2.1 Beagle Bone


A USB adapter is a type of protocol converter. It is used for converting USB data signals to the serial data. This USB mainly used in computer data transferring one device to other.

This USB cable is used for converting the USB data signals into the RS232, RS485, RS422 or TTL serial data communication. This USB cable more reliable and useful component.

USB to serial converter also used in various application like consumer, commercial and industries controlling and data sharing purpose. In USB RS485 and RS422 are mostly used in industrial applications.

This adapter is also used for other stander application, this is more useful in communication.  

The primary application scenario is to enable USB based computers to access and communicate with serial devices featuring D-Sub (usually DB9 or DB25) connectors or screw terminals, where security of the data transmission is not generally an issue.

USB serial adapters can be isolated or non-isolated. The isolated version has opt-couplers and/or surge suppressors to prevent static electricity or other high-voltage surges to enter the data lines thereby preventing data loss and damage to the adapter and connected serial device. The non-isolated version has no protection against static electricity or voltage surges.

2.2 USB to Serial Converter


A Wi-Fi dongle, also referred to as a wangle or a data card, is a portable device that can be plugged into a computer\'s Ethernet port, providing mobile access to a finite amount of Internet data. These products can give users 3G or 4G connectivity speed, and they are offered by numerous companies and service providers at varying prices and service plans

A dongle is a small piece of hardware that connects to another device to provide it with additional functionality. In relation to computing, the term is primarily associated with hardware providing a copy protection mechanism for commercial software in which the dongle must be attached to the system that the software is installed on in order for it to function.

The term \"dongle\" is also associated with similar devices meant to provide additional forms of wireless connectivity to devices (such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth support), often over USB connections, as well as small digital media players and personal computers meant to plug directly into an HDMI input on a television.  

2.3 Wi-Fi Dongle


A USB hub is a device that expands a single Universal Serial Bus (USB) port into several so that there are more ports available to connect devices to a host system, similar to a power strip.

USB hubs are often built into equipment such as computers, keyboards, monitors, or printers. When such a device has many USB ports, they all usually stem from one or two internal USB hubs rather than each port having independent USB circuitry.

Physically separate USB hubs come in a wide variety of form factors: from external boxes (looking similar to an Ethernet or network hub) connectible with a long cable, to small designs that can be directly plugged into a USB port (see the \"compact design\" picture). In the middle case, there are \"short cable\" hubs which typically use an integral 6-inch cable to slightly distance a small hub away from physical port congestion and of course increase the number of available ports.

Laptop computers may be equipped with many USB ports, but an external USB hub can consolidate several everyday devices (like a mouse and a printer) into a single hub to enable one-step attachment and removal of all the devices.

A \"star\" \"short cable\" external USB hub with the plastic casing removed USB network is built from USB hubs connected downstream to USB ports, which themselves may stem from USB hubs. USB hubs can extend a USB network to a maximum of 127 ports. The USB specification requires that bus-powered/passive hubs may not be connected in series to other bus-powered hubs.

USB ports are often closely spaced. Consequently, plugging a device into one port may physically block an adjacent port, particularly when the plug is not part of a cable but is integral to a device such as a USB flash drive. USB is most commonly used more application.

A horizontal array of horizontal sockets may be easy to fabricate, but may cause only two out of four ports to be usable (depending on plug width).

Port arrays in which the port orientation is perpendicular to the array orientation generally have fewer blockage problems. External \"Octopus\" or \"Squid\" hubs (with each socket at the end of a very short cable maybe 2 inches long), or \"star\" hubs (with each port facing in a different direction, as pictured) avoid this problem completely.

2.4 USB Hub 


A memory card or flash card is an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing digital information. These are commonly used in portable electronic devices, such as digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, tablets, MP3 players and video game consoles.

(PCMCIA) were the first commercial memory card formats (type I cards) to come out, but are now mainly used in industrial applications and to connect I/O devices such as modems. Since 1994, a number of memory card formats smaller than the PC Card arrived the first one was CompactFlash later Smart Media and Miniature Card. The desire for smaller cards for cell-phones, PDAs, and compact digital cameras drove a trend that left the previous generation of \"compact\" cards looking big. In digital cameras

Smart Media and CompactFlash had been very successful. In 2001, SM alone captured 50% of the digital camera market and CF had captured the professional digital camera market. SD/MMC had nearly taken over Smart Media’s spot, though not to the same level and with stiff competition coming from Memory stick variants, as well CompactFlash.

2.5 8GB Class10 Memory Card


The STM32F3DISCOVERY allows users to easily develop applications with the STM32F3 Series based on ARM® Cortex®-M4mixed-signal MCU. It includes everything required for beginners and experienced users to get started quickly. 

Based on the STM32F303VCT6, it includes an ST-LINK/V2 or ST-LINK/V2-B embedded debug tool, accelerometer, gyroscope and e-compass ST MEMS, USB connection, LEDs and push-buttons.

 Key Features

• STM32F303VCT6 microcontroller featuring 256-Kbyte Flash memory, 48-Kbyte RAM in an LQFP100 package

• On-board ST-LINK/V2 for PCB version A or B or ST-LINK/V2-B for PCB version C and newer

• USB ST-LINK functions:

Debug port

                 Virtual COM port with ST-LINK/V2-B only    

• Board power supply: through USB bus or from an external 3 V or 5 V supply voltage

• External application power supply: 3 V and 5 V

• L3GD20, ST MEMS motion sensor, 3-axis digital output gyroscope

• LSM303DLHC, ST MEMS system-in-package featuring a 3D digital linear acceleration sensor and a 3D digital magnetic sensor

• Ten LEDs:

• LD1 (red) for 3.3 V power on

• LD2 (red/green) for USB communication

• Eight user LEDs: LD3/10 (red), LD4/9 (blue), LD5/8 (orange) and LD6/7 (green)

• Two push-buttons (user and reset)

• USB USER with Mini-B connector

• Extension header for all LQFP100 I/os for quick connection to prototype board and easy probing

• Comprehensive free software including a variety of examples, part of STM32CubeF3 package or STSW-STM32118 for legacy Standard Library usage

2.6 STM32F3 Discovery kit


For the portable USB storage device, see USB flash drive. For other uses, see USB (disambiguation).

USB short for Universal Serial Bus is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices. It is currently developed by the USB Implementers Forum (USB IF). 

In general, there are three basic formats of USB connectors: the default or standard format intended for desktop or portable equipment on

USB theming intended for mobile equipment now deprecated except the Mini-B, which is used on many cameras, and the thinner micro size, for low-profile mobile equipment (most modern mobile phones). Also, there are 5 modes of USB data transfer, in order of increasing bandwidth: Low Speed, Full Speed High Speed Super Speed and Super Speed modes have differing hardware and cabling requirements.

USB devices have some choice of implemented modes, and USB version is not a reliable statement of implemented modes. Modes are identified by their names and icons, and the specifications suggests that plugs and receptacles be color-coded Super Speed is identified by blue).

Unlike other data buses USB connections are directed, with both upstream and downstream ports emanating from a single host. This applies to electrical power, with only downstream facing ports providing power; this topology was chosen to easily prevent electrical overloads and damaged equipment. Thus, USB cables have different ends: A and B, with different physical connectors for each. Therefore, in general, each different format requires four different connectors: a plug and receptacle for each of the A and B ends.

USB cables have the plugs, and the corresponding receptacles are on the computers or electronic devices. In common practice, the A end is usually the standard format, and the B side varies over standard, mini, and micro. The mini and micro formats also provide with a hermaphroditic AB receptacle, which accepts either an A or a B plug. On-the-Go allows USB between peers without discarding the directed topology by choosing the host at connection time; it also allows one receptacle to perform double duty in space-constrained applications.

There are cables with plugs on both ends, which may be valid if the cable includes, for example, a USB host-to-host transfer device with 2 ports, but they could also be non-standard and erroneous and should be used carefully.

2.7 USB mini cable

The micro format is the most durable from the point of designed insertion lifetime. The standard and mini connectors have a design lifetime of 1,500 insertion-removal cycles, the improved Mini-B connectors increased this to 5,000. The micro connectors were designed with frequent charging of portable devices in mind, so have a design life of 10,000 cycles and also place the flexible contacts, which wear out sooner, on the easily replaced cable, while the more durable rigid contacts are located in the receptacles. Likewise, the springy components of the retention mechanism, parts that provide required gripping force, were also moved into plugs on the cable side.


The LM89 is an 11-bit digital temperature sensor with a 2-wire System Management Bus serial interface. The LM89 accurately measures its own temperature as well as the temperature of an external device, such as processor thermal diode or diode-connected transistor such as the 2N3904

2.8 LM89 Temperature Sensor 

 Features

• Accurately Senses Die Temperature of Remote ICs

• Offset Register Allows Accurate Sensing of a Variety

Of Thermal Diodes

• On-Board Local Temperature Sensing

• 10-Bit Plus Sign Remote Diode Temperature Data Format

2.9 DS18B20 temperature sensor

This is the latest DS18B20 1-Wire digital temperature sensor from Maxim IC, Reports degrees C with 9 to 12-bit precision, -55C to 125C. Each sensor has a unique 64-Bit Serial number etched into it - allows for a huge number of sensors to be used on one data bus.


2.9 DS18B20 Temparature sensor


The DHT11 is a basic, ultra low-cost digital temperature and humidity sensor. It uses a capacitive humidity sensor and a thermistor to measure the surrounding air, and spits out a digital signal on the data pin (no analog input pins needed). It’s fairly simple to use, but requires careful timing to grab data. 

2.10 DHT11 Humidity Sensor


ESP8266 has 8 pins, 4 in the row of 2. The first pin on the top left is GND. The two pins right from the GND are GPIO 2 and 0. I\'m not going to use these pins, as they are not important for the operation.

The pin on the top right side is the RX pin and the pin on the lower left is TX. These are the pins for communication. The middle pins on the bottom are CH PD (chip power-down) and RST (reset).

The main thing to remember is that this device works with 3.3V, even the RX and TX pins. Shown the figure under as

2.11 ESP8266 Wi-Fi module


Barometric pressure sensors measure the absolute pressure of the air around them. This pressure varies with both the weather and altitude. Depending on how you interpret the data, you can monitor changes in the weather, measure altitude, or any other tasks that require an accurate pressure reading.


2.12 BMP180 Pressure Sensor


Linux started out as a UNIX variant for the IBM PC architecture. Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student of computer science, wrote the initial version. Torvalds posted an early version of Linux on the Internet in 1991. Since then, a number of people, collaborating over the Internet, have contributed to the development of Linux, all under the control of Torvalds. Because Linux is free and the source code is available, it became an early alternative to other UNIX workstations, such as those offered by Sun Microsystems and IBM. Today, Linux is a full featured UNIX system that runs on all of these platforms and more, including Intel Pentium and Itanium, and the Motorola/IBM PowerPC.

Components of Linux System Linux Operating System have primarily three components Kernel - Kernel is the core part of Linux. It is responsible for all major activities of this operating system. It is consists of various modules and it interacts directly with the underlying hardware. Kernel provides the required abstraction to hide low level hardware details to system or application programs. System Library - System libraries are special functions or programs using which application programs or system utilities accesses Kernel\'s features. These libraries implements most of the functionalities of the operating system and do not requires kernel module\'s code access rights. System Utility - System Utility programs are responsible to do specialized, individual level tasks.

This language was especially developed for creating the UNIX system. Using this new technique, it was much easier to develop an operating system that could run on many different types of hardware. The software vendors were quick to adapt, since they could sell ten times more software almost effortlessly. Weird new situations came in existence: imagine for instance computers from different vendors communicating in the same network, or users working on different systems without the need for extra education to use another computer. UNIX did a great deal to help users become compatible with different systems. Throughout the next couple of decades the development of UNIX continued. More things became possible to do and more hardware and software vendors added support for UNIX to their products. UNIX was initially found only in very large environments with mainframes and minicomputers. You had to work at a university, for the government or for large financial corporations in order to get your hands on a UNIX system. But smaller computers were being developed, and by the end of the 80\'s, many people had home computers. By that time, there were several versions of UNIX available for the PC architecture, but none of them were truly free and more important: they were all terribly slow, so most people ran MS DOS or Windows 3.1 on

Modular Structure Most UNIX kernels are monolithic. Recall from earlier in this chapter that a monolithic kernel is one that includes virtually all of the operating system functionality in one large block of code that runs as a single process with a single address space.

All the functional components of the kernel have access to all of its internal data structures and routines. If changes are made to any portion of a typical monolithic operating system, all the modules and routines must be relinked and reinstalled and the system rebooted before the changes can take effect. As a result, any modification, such as adding a new device driver or file system function, is difficult. This problem is especially acute for Linux, for which development is global and done by a loosely associated group of independent programmers. Although Linux does not use a microkernel approach, it achieves many of the potential advantages of this approach by means of its particular modular architecture.

Linux is structured as a collection of modules, a number of which can be automatically loaded and unloaded on demand. These relatively independent blocks are referred to as loadable modules. In essence, a module is an object file whose code can be linked to and unlinked from the kernel at runtime. Typically, a module implements some specific function, such as a file system, a device driver, or some other feature of the kernel\'s upper layer. A module does not execute as its own process or thread, although it can create kernel threads for various purposes as necessary. Rather, a module is executed in kernel mode on behalf of the current process.




    4.1.1 Activities

• STM32F3 Discovery kit

• Temperature Indication

• For using STM32F3 Controlling Purpose

    4.1.2 Environment

• Industrial Purpose

• Controlling AHU, Temperature etc.

4.1.3 Interactions

• Ahmedabad Institute of Technology

• For Engineering Students

4.1.4 Objects

• STM32F3 Discovery Kit

• Beagle Board

• Mesh Network

4.1.4 Users

• Industrial Person

• Engineering Students



    4.2.1 People

• Engineering Students

• Industrial Person

• Ahmedabad Institute of Technology

    4.2.2 Activities

• Control Temperature

• Control Pressure

• Control Humidity

• Controlling using Beagle bone

• Linux Used

4.2.3 Situation/Context/Location

• Controlling Purpose

• For Engineering Students

• For Industrial Area

• For Monitoring Purpose

4.2.4 Props/Possible Solutions

• Ports

• USB Hub

• Mesh Network

• Switches



    4.3.1 Purpose

• For Different types of Controlling

• Controlling through STM32F3

• Sensor Basis Handling

    4.3.2 People

• Engineering Students

• Industrial Person

4.3.3 Product Experiences

• For Controlling apps

• Digital o/p of Controlling device

• For Industrial apps

4.3.4 Product Functions

• For Controlling apps

• Digital o/p of Controlling device

• For Industrial apps

4.3.5 Product Feature

• STM32F3 used for Controlling

• Easy to Maintain

• In Built USB port Available

• Many pins are there for Future use

4.3.6 Components

• STM32F3 kit

• Tplink Wi-Fi device

• Router

4.3.7 Customer Revalid

4.3.8 Reject, Redesign, Retain

• Beagle bone, because there are only one USB port & less RAM & ROM compare to the Raspberry Board.

• If Beagle bone used there are one USB port we can use mesh network Topology for more ports.




            Local Server (Data Storing)


Linux is the operating system stored in the Beagle Bone. Beagle Bone is hardware. This controls the all over system.

Linux server starts application on board boot up. In this process Linux server continuously checked if data base is exists.

Linux server if database is exits then use it, otherwise server can fetched at interval Time. Linux server connected to the website. Linux sever controlling database upload on website on interval time. Per microcontroller fork new thread or process. Linux sever create a timer to fetched and given a database, this process is continuously work.

These loop forever running in the Linux server. If Timer time out then timer is automatically Restart, that time store data into Database.

In the New thread if data is available, get the data and store it into database, data is no available restart the timer

Linux server does this process at microcontroller side; the data which is collect from website give it to microcontroller threads. Store data that has come from microcontroller and push it to website. If data get from database thread then push it to microcontroller thread and vice versa.

Beagle bone is a heart of system. Linux operating system store in the Beagle bone. Wi-Fi through website is connected, continuously data store on the website.

In Beagle bone have only one USB port for interfacing other devices, in my project multiple task of USB port, so Mesh network is used to connect the all controlling devices.

Industries area sides AHU, PSU are controlled that way person is allowed so that wireless network through controlling parameter.

USB to serial converter is used to controlling data can be converted into serial data and transmitted towards the device.

Wi-Fi dongle is provided the wireless connection. USB HUB is used to connect to multiple devices. Because beagle bone have only one USB port.

8GB Class10 memory card is used to store all controlling data to device, on the website taken data can be store on this memory card.

STM32F3 Discovery kit is microcontroller, it is used to control sensor all data can be controlled, it have 256byte flash memory and 48kbyte RAM.

LM89 is temperature is used at the output side of the industries area. These loop forever running in the Linux server. If Timer time out then timer is automatically Restart, that time store data into Database.

DS18B20 temperature sensor is used at the outside of the industries area, Store data that has come from microcontroller and push it to website. If data get from database thread then push it to microcontroller thread and vice versa.

Humidity Sensor is used at the controlling side; it is connected to the Microcontroller. This is a controlling parameter at output side.

BMP180 pressure sensor is used at the controlling side; it is connected to the Microcontroller. Many industries Boiler temperature controlling needed that way this sensor through controlled.

Ethernet is used to controlling data can be send to the Microcontroller, this is a simple wire connection through Wi-Fi module.

Router through internet provided to the Beagle bone, in this Tplink Wi-Fi module can be used.



• Easy to operate

• Reliable

• Less space requirement

• Less hardware problems due to wireless controlling

• Control and send data easily

• Multiple task can be completed at time


• We can control whole system using WIFI or BLE

• Also control this system in Home Automation & Agricultural Area    

• Currently we are focusing on device; in future we can work wide applications.


• In Industries

• Home appliance

• Process control, monitoring

• In agriculture area


 Web sites:-





• “A hands on guide” for Linux

• “Beginning Linux programming 4th edition”

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