Solar Energy is the most abundant form of energy available on earth. Fortunately it is also renewable source of Energy produced by the Fusion of Helium on Sun’s surface. This Energy is becoming popular because of natural advantages. Photo Voltaic (PV) Modules are the devices used to convert solar energy in to electrical energy. The light rays consisting of Photons strike the Activated Silicon Junction Panels to produce Electrons which in turn constitutes to Potential difference across the junction there by generating current flow. Lot of high level research is going on in the areas of Materials Engineering , Silicon Junction etc. to tap the complete potential of solar energy, sadly the highest efficiency commercially achieved lies between 16-22%. It is very clear from the above explanation that increase in Photons increase the efficiency, but the settlement of dust particles on Solar Panels reduce the number of photons reaching the Si junction hence, drastically decreasing their Efficiency. Presently the panels are cleaned manually, which requires lot of Labour, Water and time. It is not costly also. Large Solar Energy Parks requires lots of resources for maintaining. Hence there is a requirement of a system which would eliminate all these problems. In the present Work, we conduct a detailed survey on how the dust settlement affects the performance of the PV module and then design an effective automatic in-house and cost effective cleaning system to keep the top surface of the panels clean thereby maintaining its highest possible efficiency.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background and Motivation
Over the past ten years, the United States has seen a large increase in the reliance on solar power as a source of energy. The United States alone consumes approximately 4,146 terawatts hours per year of electrical energy. Less than 1% of this energy is from solar sources; however, solar energy represents 30% of all new energy generation capacity created every year.
California was not only a leading producer of solar power over that span, but was responsible for almost 50% of the total solar power generated in the United States according to the Department of Energy. Because of the increasing demand for solar energy, the efficiency of solar panels is more important than ever. However, solar panels are very inefficient; typical peak efficiency for converting solar energy to useable energy is 11% to 15%. Soiling of PV panels drops the panel efficiency even farther. This accumulation of dirt on the panels is a well-documented effect that can cause a loss of efficiency as high as 27% annually.
Figure 1: Cleaned panel (left) vs. Dusted panel (right)
Project SPDRS is an automated solar panel cleaner that aims to reduce the efficiency losses of existing solar panel arrays. The system cleans the surface of each panel to increase the energy generation. Once implemented on commercial solar panel arrays, the system aims to improve each panels’ energy production by an average of 10%. The system is designed to be implemented on large commercial arrays, but the design is scalable to all manners of solar installations. Besides reducing maintenance costs and improving power production, this system will reduce the need for fossil fuels and reduce the nation’s impact on global warming, as well as, eliminate the potential dangers for human cleaners.
1.2 Problem Summary
Sun oriented board or otherwise called photovoltaic(PV) module is a best thing of approach to create the force. Separating useable force from the sun was made conceivable by the revelation of the photoelectric component and consequent improvement of the sunlight based cell. A photovoltaic(PV) cell is normally made of semiconductor material that can direct daylight and creates it into DC voltage utilizing PV impact. Daylight is made of photons which are little molecule of vitality. Sun powered cell ingests these photons . The development along the way will creates power. These days, sun oriented boards are generally utilized as a part of numerous use of option vitality as it is ordinarily known as innocuous to nature furthermore free from contamination.
Photovoltaic board generation has expanded in light of the developing interest for sunlight based vitality all around the globe. This has been the consequence of an expanded consciousness of the awful impacts to the environment that utilizing fossil fuel sources has had throughout the years. There are numerous variables that influence PV power effectiveness like shadow, snow, high temperatures, feathered creature droppings, ocean salt, dust and earth. The fundamental variable adding to decrease PV board\'s proficiency is dust, which can lessen its effectiveness by up to 45%, contingent upon the earth.
Typically, a photovoltaic (PV) module is set in an open space which is presented to earth and clean. The consistent presentation will bring about the gathering of soil and tidy on the surface of photovoltaic module. The arrangement of dust and soil will obstructed the occurrence light from achieving the module in this way bringing about the yield energy to drop rapidly. The quantity of PV boards organized in cluster achieved the need to customary expulsion of dust and earth from the PV boards and increment productivity of sun based boards. Specifically, tidy is comprised of ocean salt and earth particles. This venture researched the likelihood of utilizing the mechanized system to evacuate dust, ocean salt and dust from the surfaces of PV boards.
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Project
The examination accumulated on ruining demonstrates that sun powered boards should be completely cleaned keeping in mind the end goal to gather the most extreme vitality conceivable. To address this requirement for a cleaning instrument, our group has built up a computerized cleaning framework for sun oriented boards. Our gadget will help the proficiency by expanding the vitality yield of sun based boards in a fast and financially savvy way. The computerization of the framework will likewise decrease the danger of an administrator harming himself in a high voltage domain. A fruitful gadget will clean different sun based boards in a cluster and increment their effectiveness by in any event the same sum that precipitation can. We mean to give a non-inefficient way to deal with cleaning business estimated sun based board frameworks by utilizing negligible measures of water and power while obliging almost no upkeep. This framework will clean a solitary line of boards intermittently.
1.4 Problem Specifications
In spite of the unpleasant development of the sunlight based industry in the course of recent years, photovoltaic exhibit cleaning and upkeep have remained generally unaltered. Little measurements PV boards in exhibit are still cleaned physically with a can, cleanser and water at a rate of 1m2/min. bigger sunlight based parks are hosed in bunch by a flame truck in a water-concentrated and non-particular cleaning process. As of now the most predominant hand cleaning gadget for windows and sun based boards is the tucker post. This gadget is a hand nylon brush mounted with shaft furnished with a water stream framework and permits ten groups of two individuals to clean 10000 boards in 8 hours.
Chapter 2: Research Papers
RESEARCH PAPER 1:
Soiling and Dust Impact on the Efficiency and the Maximum Power Point in the Photo Voltaic Modules
Author(s): (1) E. Suresh Kumar, (2) Dr. Bijan Sarkar, (3) D.K.Behera
Published in: International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
Affiliated: Jadavpur University, Kolkata – 700 032 India
Volume/Issue: Vol.2 - Issue 2 (February - 2013)
Keyword(s): soiling, dust, impact, efficiency, maximum, power, point, photovoltaic, modules
The establishment of PV frameworks for ideal yield is fundamentally directed by its geographic area and establishment outline to expand sun oriented presentation. In any case, there are other depending elements that emerge in deciding the framework execution (productivity and yield). Dust is the lesser recognized variable that altogether impacts the execution of the PV establishments. PV modules are profoundly dependable. In any case, in contaminated situations, after some time, they will gather grime and tidy. There are additionally constrained field information learns about dirtying misfortunes on PV modules. The photovoltaic cells as of now have low change efficiencies in the scope of 16% to 18% , the amassing of sand and tidy particles from the open air environment on their surface further diminishes the produced yield power. This is because of the diminishment the sun based radiation occurrence on the sun based cell. Further tidy changes the reliance on the point of rate of such radiation. This impediment makes photovoltaic cells a temperamental wellspring of force for unattended remote gadgets, for example, sunlight based controlled activity and other remote applications in naturally peril ranges. For expansive scale sunlight based plants to keep up their most extreme proficiency, the photovoltaic cells must be kept clean, which can be a testing assignment in dusty situations. This paper is an understanding into the misfortunes brought about by the collection of dust on the surface of photovoltaic modules and an endeavour to examine and evaluate such misfortunes in light of the trials led by different specialists everywhere throughout the world.
RESEARCH PAPER 2
Improvement of Efficiency of Solar Panel Using Different Methods.
Author(s): Rupali Nazar
Published in: International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Affiliated: Lingaya’s University, Faridabad, (India)
Volume/Issue: Volume 07, Issue 01, Jan- June 2015
e-ISSN : 2321-2055 (E)
Keyword(s): Cooling Technique, Dust Cleaning, Efficiency, Solar panel, Solar Tracker
The late upsurge in the interest of PV frameworks is because of the way that they deliver electric force without hampering the earth by straightforwardly changing over the sun based radiation into electric force. Sun powered vitality is totally normal, it is viewed as a perfect vitality source. So the study on enhancing the productivity of sunlight based board is exceptionally fundamental In this paper I have talk about different strategies for effectiveness change of sun oriented board. We can enhance effectiveness of sun based board by utilizing sun based tracker with board which ceaselessly tracks daylight for the duration of the day to get most extreme sun based vitality. Second strategy to enhance the effectiveness is dust cleaning. Dust is boundary amongst daylight and sun powered board. Third strategy is cooling procedure. As board temperature builds yield voltage of sun based board diminishes so cooling of board is fundamental for development of proficiency. Other strategy is against reflecting covering for sunlight based board, which enhance productivity of board. Point of this paper is to expand the productivity and force yield of the sun powered board.
RESEARCH PAPER 3
Research of Control System Based On Solar Panel Cleaning Mechanism
Author(s): (1) Hou Zhen-Yu, (2) Hang Lu-Bin, (3) Li Chang, (4) Yu Liang, (5) Wang Jun, (6)Hu Jia-Le, (7) Wu Yin-Kun, (8) Zhang Dong, (9) Xiong Ye-Yun
Published in: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES)
Affiliated: College Of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University Of Engineering Science, Shanghai201620, China
Volume/Issue: Volume 4 Issue 5 May 2016 ǁ PP. 01-05
e-ISSN : 2320-9364,
Keyword(s) : solar panel; cleaning mechanism; control system; positioning monitoring
The sun oriented boards are the centre of the sun oriented force era framework, and the dust particles will impact the productivity of their energy era. Be that as it may, the cleaning procedure of the sun oriented boards normally experiences the issues, for example, hard to work, poor effectiveness, tedious, relentless and high cost. The sun based boards cleaning robot to take care of the issues created by our examination group is presented quickly in this paper, and a sort of programmed control framework used to control the robot is additionally proposed and contemplated. As per the capacity of the need, the segments of the control framework are outlined, including the drive units, the sensor units, the data procedure units, the controller, etc. The utilization of the control framework can be useful for the proficient consummation of the cleaning work of different sorts of sun based boards.
RESEARCH PAPER 4
Microcontroller Based Automatic Cleaning Of Solar Panel
Author(s): (1) S. B. Halbhavi, (2) S. G. Kulkarni, (3) Dr. D. B. Kulkarni
Published in: International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
Affiliated: Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum Karnataka, India
Volume/Issue: Vol. 5 Issue 4 July 2015
e-ISSN : 2278-621X
Keyword(s) : Self-cleaning, Solar Panel, Transmittance, Dust Affects.
The sun based PV modules are for the most part utilized in dusty situations which is the situation in tropical nations like India. The dust gets gathered on the front surface of the module and obstructs the occurrence light from the sun. It diminishes the force era limit of the module. The force yield decreases as much as by half if the module is not cleaned for a month. To frequently clean the dust, a programmed cleaning framework has been composed, which detects the dust on the sun powered board furthermore cleans the module consequently. This mechanized framework is executed utilizing 8051 microcontroller which controls the DC gear engine. This instrument comprises of a sensor (LDR). While for cleaning the PV modules, a component comprises of a sliding brushes has been created. As far as day by day vitality era, the displayed programmed cleaning plan gives around 30% more vitality yield when contrasted with the dust collected PV (module kept stationary on ground).
RESEARCH PAPER 5
Self-Cleaning Solar Panels to Avoid the Effects of Accumulated Dust on Solar Panels Transmittance
Author(s): (1) Kutaiba Sabah, (2) Sabah Nimma Faraj
Published in: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
Affiliated: Universiti Tenaga Nasional (Uniten), Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Jalan Ikram-Uniten, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Volume/Issue: Volume 2 Issue 9, September 2013
e-ISSN : 2319-7064
Keyword(s) : Self-cleaning, Solar Panel, Transmittance, Dust Affects.
The dust collection for the sunlight based boards has been researched for a drawn out stretch of time which is roughly one year. The trials have been done in various nations which have atmosphere states of the dusty weather. Those nations are Iraq, Egypt and UAE. The sun powered boards were never cleaned, firstly for one month, also for two months etc. The outcomes were there was a diminishing in the transmittance of the sunlight based boards, which is underscore the impact of collected dust ,even however the changing in the tilt blessed messenger which is in conjunction with the dust statement on the boards. An all around composed auto cleaning framework to clean the sun based boards will be added to the boards to keep the transmittance of the sun powered planes settled roughly and to decrease the expense of occasional cleaning.
RESEARCH PAPER 6
Impact of Dust on Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Performance: Research Status, Challenges and Recommendations
Author(s): (1) Monto Mani, (2) Rohit Pillai
Published in: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Affiliated: Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
The topping of most oil holds and approaching environmental change are basically driving the appropriation of sun oriented photo voltaic(PV) as a reasonable renewable and eco-accommodating option. Continuous material examination has yet to discover a leap forward in essentially raising the transformation productivity of business PV modules. The establishment of PV frameworks for ideal yield is basically directed by its geographic area (scope and accessible sun based insolation) and establishment plan (tilt, introduction and height) to amplify sun oriented presentation. Be that as it may, once these parameters have been tended to suitably, there are other depending components that emerge in deciding the framework execution (proficiency and yield). Dust is the lesser recognized variable that fundamentally impacts the execution of the PV establishments. This paper gives an evaluation on the collapse and flow status of exploration in considering the effect of dust on PV framework execution and recognizes difficulties to facilitate correlated examination. A system to comprehend the different elements that represent the settling/digestion of dust and likely relief measures have been talked about in this paper.
RESEARCH PAPER 7
The Development of a Cleaning Robot for PV Panels
Author(s): Matthias KEGELEERS
Published in: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science (IJRES)
Affiliated: Faculty Of Engineering Technology, Technology Campus De Nayer
Developing enthusiasm for renewable vitality has driven the sun oriented photovoltaic industry to grow outstandingly in the most recent decade. However a major issue that is frequently neglected too effortlessly is keeping the boards clean. Boards are frequently difﬁcult and hazardous to reach and not worth the danger cleaning them. Besides, self-sufficient cleaning robots are frequently just prudent on a bigger scale because of both establishment costs and the way that specially designed parts are expected to ﬁt the plant. This papers centre is on ﬁnding a more cost-commendable answer for the drive guideline with a specific end goal to diminish the general cost of the robot, subsequently making it proﬁtable on littler scaled PV-plants. The objective is for it to give back its interest in two years (being the guarantee time frame in most European nations) while keeping a normal family measured plant clean. A standard, were a robot utilizes two wires appended to the edges of the rooftop, was examined. This driving guideline was for all intents and purposes displayed to re-enact its execution. A short time later a proof of idea was worked to approve the model. The exploration found that this drive standard is a promising option when connected to little plants. The framework is both dexterous, ﬂexible and extremely practical. As indicated by an unpleasant estimation, for a normal family, the robot would gain its cost in two years at misfortunes of 15%. Greater measured plants give back their speculation at even lower misfortunes. The unwavering quality must be enhanced however.
RESEARCH PAPER 8
Effect of Dust Accumulation on Solar Panels and Mechanism for Alleviation: Design for Street Lighting Purpose
Author(s): (1)Basant Raj Paudyal, (2)Aditya Neupane, (3)Sumit Yadav, (4)Tejan Adhikari, (5)Shree Raj Shakya
Published in: Proceedings of IOE Graduate Conference, 2015
Affiliated: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
Keyword(s) : Renewable energy sources – solar pv – solar insolation – meteorological factors
As the customary vitality sources go away, fate of world lies with renewable vitality sources. Sun oriented vitality is known as cleanest supportable vitality source and sun oriented photovoltaic is the most looked for after renewable wellspring of vitality nowadays. The yield force of the sun oriented PV boards rely on upon different elements, for example, sun based cell develop, sun based board tilt, sun powered insolation, cell temperature, sun introduction hours and other meteorological components. The point of this exploration is to manage the lessening in the force yield because of the molecule testimony in sun oriented boards and give itemized configuration of the particular cleaning gadget. After various configuration modiﬁcations, adjustments and testing, a measured cleaning gadget for the road sun powered boards is proposed which is vitality efﬁcient, compelling in cleaning and reasonable. The cleaning module comprises of rollers, sliders, pulley, brushes and a DC engine. Primary centre of the configuration is to make it light-weight so the current boards can without much of a stretch hold gadget\'s weight. This exploration depends on the speciﬁcations of sun powered boards introduced for road lighting reason in Kathmandu by Nepal Electricity Authority. Fetched adequacy is another preferred standpoint of this gadget as the gadget costs under 10% of the aggregate expense of road sun oriented board framework. The force yield decrement because of dust testimony was observed to be 3.16% in one day and achieving 10.41% in ten days and 15.74% in a month.
Chapter 3: Systems Level Overview
3.1 Customer Needs, System Level Requirements
Through our research, we identified three separate potential markets for this solar panel cleaning system. The first market consists of residential homeowners who have a small numbers of solar panels. The second group consists of large commercial organizations that operate large solar arrays in order to subsidize their energy output and improve their carbon footprint rating. The last significant market is multiple acre solar farms which consist of massive solar panel arrays (see Figure 2).
Figure 2: A small solar panel farm with hundreds of panels
Each market offers different advantages and drawbacks. The main criterion for our potential market was ratio of the system’s unit cost relative to the number of panels each system would be able to clean. Although the residential market has a large number of potential installations, each homeowner only owns a small number of panels. A small number of solar panels generate only a relatively small amount of electricity, so any potential cleaning system would need to be extremely low-cost. For this reason, we did not select this market because we believed we could not meet this goal within a reasonable number of iterations. The solar farm market had a larger scale of solar panels, thereby increasing the profit margins for a potential cleaning unit installation. Still, solar farms are less willing to collaborate with student design teams and are located prohibitively far away.
3.2 Market Research
3.2.1 Customer Description
Our primary customers for this product are companies that operate large commercial solar arrays. These facilities have large numbers of panels to generate significant amounts of solar power. The companies running these arrays are highly motivated to keep their solar panels running at maximum efficiency. These companies have both the resources and incentives to implement our product. A top desire of these companies is to minimize the labour and fuel costs associated with the current methods of cleaning.
The product design is scalable to use on residential solar panel installations. This further increases the potential market for this product. Residential owners wish that the design is pleasing to the eye and eliminates the risks of injury associated with the homeowner cleaning their panels.
Tertiary customer requirements call for making the product as ready as possible for mass manufacturing. Doing this requires making the product as aesthetic as possible and as easy to mount as possible. By doing so, the product is ready for mass production and widespread use.
Table 1: Breakdown of the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Customer Needs
Primary Customer Needs
Main focus involves improving efficiency, power, usage and functionality. Periodic cleaning of solar panels that maintains peak efficiency
Minimum power requirements
Secondary Customer Needs
Main focus involves improving sustainability and cost-effectiveness. Less water usage
Smart Energy Tracker
Tertiary Customer Needs
Main focus involves improving ease of production and marketability. Easily manufactured
Works in a variety of weather conditions
Currently there exist a number of solutions for eliminating the effect of soiling on solar panels. The choices for automated cleaning solutions are numerous but impractical for most applications. These systems are typically only feasible on massive solar farms where the large number of panels cleaned offsets their large costs. When it comes to cleaning solar panels on a smaller scale, other less efficient systems are commonly used.
3.3 Design System Sketch
The initial design of the device was a rolling brush that traverses along an array of solar panels, as shown in Figure 3. The device would attach to the array using rollers that grip the frame of the panels and use them as rails to roll along the panel. The system cleans the panel using a spinning brush to clear any dust or debris.
Figure 3: Design System Sketch
3.4 Functional Analysis
For our initial design we devised a system that moves along the length of an array of panels, cleaning the entire array. This design was selected primarily for its simplicity. Its component subsystems have been observed to function well in other applications. The device moves across a row of panels and cleans using a spinning array of brushes. The system will move using soft rubber wheels driven by an electric motor. The rotating brush system will be mounted on a rotating axle which is also spun by the main drive motor. Using a single motor is advantageous for both cost and simplicity. However, the drive motor will need to deliver high torque in order to function effectively. To reduce the stress on both the system and the panel surface, a series of lighter cleaning cycles will be used rather than a single more intense cleaning. This device will run across a row of panels and back to its original position. The device will be powered by an internal battery. At the end of each cleaning cycle, the system will return to a docking station at the end of the panel where it will recharge the battery. The dock system will act as an extended platform next to the panels to allow the system to move off the panel surface so it does not obstruct sunlight from any part of the panel. The battery will have a shorter operational life than the majority of the other components. Battery replacement every few years will need to be part of the product’s maintenance requirements.
The system uses a motorized brush to clean the surface of the panel array. The system is moved along the panel by two sets of motorized wheels, with one set located at either end of the device. The entire system is driven by a compact high-torque DC motor. The system uses a pair of custom gearboxes to transfer the mechanical energy to wheels and cleaning system.
An external protective casing as shown in Fig.4 has been fitted to the system to improve the lifespan of the device and its subsystem. Constructed of transparent acrylic, the casing protects the system from rain and debris while allowing sunlight to pass through, minimizing any impact on solar energy production. The design of the casing was redesigned during production to enable easier fabrication.
3.5 Benchmarking Results
The large decrease in efficiency of solar panels from soiling is a well-known phenomenon, and cleaning solar panels is not a new concept. There is a competitive market for solutions that keep solar panels operating at peak efficiency, including automated devices that clean numerous solar panels.
The most common method of cleaning solar panels is manual labour. Manual labour involves the owner of the solar panels, or an outside agency, cleaning their panels using similar methods that are used to clean glass. While this is an effective way to restore solar panels to their optimum efficiency, there are several drawbacks with the use of manual labour.
One major problem is the safety of the human labourers. Solar panels are commonly placed in hard to reach places without safe access for cleaners to work effectively. Another problem is the frequency of cleaning. Since hiring cleaners to continuously maintain the panels can be costly and time consuming, owners of solar systems will typically have their panels cleaned only once or twice a year (Jeffrey Charles, SCU Facilities Director, Personal Communication, Oct. 30, 2015). Since the amount of soiling on the panel increases daily, the panels should be cleaned every few days to maintain peak efficiency. If cleaning were done less frequently less power would be used by the cleaning, but power is lost since the solar panels are not working at full efficiency. The ideal cleaning frequency is difficult to approximate as soiling rates are dependent on local environmental conditions. A baseline cleaning period of two weeks should be sufficient for most solar installations.
Another current market solution for keeping solar panels clean is automated cleaning devices. An example of an existing automated cleaning device is the Kolchar X2 created by Sol-Bright. The design cleans solar panels by moving horizontally across an array of solar panels, cleaning the panels as it moves. Another example is the E4 Robot created by Ecoppia. The E4 is designed to clean solar arrays in desert conditions. It moves vertically across solar panels, wiping dust away as it travels.
The automatic panel cleaners that exist have issues that make them unappealing to certain customers. A major deterrent for many customers are the systems large unit cost. These machines are designed to operate on large solar farms that exist in remote locations. The prices of the designs are high because they can be offset by the vast number of panels they clean. However, a commercial or campus sized solar array does not have as many panels as a solar farm and cannot offset the high cost of these machines.
3.6 System Level Review
3.6.1 Key System Level Issues and Constraints
As a full system, the design needs to be able to last and function for the life of a solar panel. To make the system more cost efficient the system has to work for several years to make up the cost of the device. In order for the system to last long, everything on the device has to be weather-proof as well as not degrade in battery life. The system has to use a long life battery and be sturdy enough not to move in case of storms.
Another system level issue is cleaning efficiency. The device has to be able to consistently clean an array of solar panels without damaging the panels at all. No cleaning device can be used that could damage the panel or pick up particles that could damage the panel. Testing has to be done to ensure rocks or other materials that could be on the solar panels do not scratch the panel during the cleaning process.
Chapter 4: Subsystems Overview
4.1 Cleaning Subsystem
4.1.1 Cleaning Subsystem Role
The cleaning subsystem consists of the elements that will remove the dust and debris from the solar panel. The requirements for the cleaning system are that it cleans an array of solar panels efficiently and effectively while using little to no water. The system needs to be able to run two times per week to keep the solar system operating at peak efficiency.
4.1.2 Cleaning Subsystem Options
The major decision to be made for the design of the cleaning subsystem was the selection of the cleaning method. The design that was finally chosen was a set of brushes built into a spinning axle that will brush away any dust or debris on the panel’s surface. The criteria for choosing this method were the effectiveness of cleaning, the cost of manufacturing (which includes the cost of the material itself) and the reliability of the material over the device’s entire lifespan. The options that were considered for the cleaning subsystem were both a variety of materials as well as methods of moving the cleaning material across the panels. The materials for cleaning that were considered were the bristles on a typical brush, the microfiber clothes found in car washes, just water or other cleaning solution, a sponge, and a mop head. The bristles of a brush were chosen because of their affordability, reliability, and ease of manufacturing. The bristles may be less effective than other options, but multiple passes will overcome the difference in efficiency. A close competitor for the cleaning material was the microfiber cloth. While the cloth may provide a more effective clean, the cloth’s fibre will collect dirt and lose effectiveness, decreasing the overall lifespan of the device.
4.2 Mechanical Power Subsystem
4.2.1 Mechanical Power Subsystem Role
The primary function of the power subsystem is to move the entire system along the length of a solar array. To achieve the needed range of motion, the subsystem must provide sufficient mechanical energy to the combined mass of the system and over frictional forces associated with the solar panel. Additionally, the power system must provide the mechanical energy to drive the cleaning subsystem. This subsystem should require minimal maintenance and no direct user interface.
4.2.2 Mechanical Power Subsystem Options
The initial design that was considered for the subsystem was a motor-driven chain to pull the system along the panels. This design was ultimately abandoned due to its high material costs as well as its relatively high complexity to implement.
Another considered design used of a high torque motor to drive a set of wheels mounted on the system. This design would allow the system to move along the panel without the need to additional infrastructure to be attached to the panel.
4.2.3 Mechanical Power Subsystem Testing
The Mechanical Power Subsystem was tested by ensuring each section worked individually as well as when interfaced with the other components. After fabrication each gearbox checked for gear tooth alignment and to make sure the gearboxes aligned across the span of the device.
Once the gearboxes were finished, the driving motor was attached to the Chassis Subsystem with the Mechanical Power Subsystem and used to test the system without the Cleaning Subsystem. Once it was determined the motor was able to drive the device along a panel, so the subsystem was combined with the rest of the subsystems.
Chapter 5: Dust Cleaning Methods and Techniques
5.1 Dust cleaning
Effect of dust on the performance of solar PV panel
The electrical parameters of sun oriented board are delicate to the dust thickness so it is exceptionally vital to give auto cleaning component to expel the dust particles from the surface of the board with a specific end goal to guarantee superior. Dust is the lesser recognized component that fundamentally impacts the execution of the PV establishment. Dust keeps daylight from achieving the sun based cells in your sun based boards. Because of dust productivity of sun oriented board can diminish.
Following methods are used to clean dust from solar panel.
5.1.1 Rugged Robot
Deserts are sunny, so they\'re perfect for sun based force. But on the other hand they\'re exceptionally dusty, so sun oriented board proficiency diminishes. (lose around 0.4-0.8% in effectiveness for every day). Be that as it may, hosing boards down with water amidst a dry region is risky on such a variety of levels. Furthermore, anything that requires a great deal of human work amidst a remote desert where temperatures can go more than 122 degrees Fahrenheit amid the day. These are the issues that the NO-water Mechanical Automated Dusting Device (NOMADD) robot from Saudi Arabia is attempting to explain. (fig 5).
Fig. 5 demonstrated little robots are mounted on tracks along lines of boards, and in any event once per day they disregard the boards, cleaning them with a brush composed and with no water required. This has a major effect over manual cleaning which just happens each week or two more often than not. A solitary NOMADD can clean a line of boards around 600 feet long, with arrangements to overhaul that to 900 feet. Since every column of boards has its own NOMADD robot, they can work in parallel and it doesn\'t take more time to clean an enormous sun powered homestead. The NOMADD is not a cleaning arrangement created in mellow conditions. It is a framework planned, created and tried in Saudi Arabia for the harshest desert conditions.
5.1.2 Self Cleaning Technique
The self-cleaning innovation was produced by Boston University teacher Malay K. Mazumder and his partners, in relationship with the National Aeronautics and Space Association, and was initially proposed for use in meanders and different machines sent to space missions to the moon and to Mars.
The innovation includes the affidavit of a straightforward, electrically touchy material on glass or on a straightforward plastic sheet that cover the boards. Sensors screen dust levels on the surface of the board and stimulate the material when dust focus achieves a basic level.
The electric charge sends a dust-repulsing wave falling over the surface of the material, lifting without end the dust and transporting it off of the screen\'s edges. Inside two minutes, the procedure expels around 90% of dust on a sun oriented board. The system allegedly requires just a little measure of the power created by the board for it to work.
Covering the surface of sun oriented cells can build their proficiency and diminish support costs, particularly for extensive scale establishments. Self-cleaning sun oriented boards would be particularly compelling in extensive establishments. The desert situations where a number of these establishments live regularly challenge the boards with dust tempests and little rain. As of now, just around 4% of the world\'s deserts are utilized as a part of sun powered force reaping. Routine strategies for cleaning sun powered boards for the most part include a lot of water which is excessive and rare in such dry territories.
5.1.3. Robotic Vacuum Cleaner
This framework is actualized utilizing two subsystems in particular a Robotic Vacuum Cleaner and a Docking Station.. The robot utilizes a two phase cleaning procedure to expel tidy successfully from the sun powered boards. A moving brush is set in front to scatter the dust towards the vacuum more clean. A fast engine fit for making appropriate suction is utilized for expelling dust from the boards. It navigates the sun oriented board utilizing a pre-characterized way controlled by the accelerometers and ultrasonic sensor. It is intended to take a shot at slanted and dangerous surfaces. A control methodology is figured to explore the robot in the required way utilizing a proper input instrument. The battery voltage of the robot is resolved occasionally and on the off chance that it goes underneath, it comes back to the docking station and charges itself naturally utilizing power drawn from the sun based boards. It is vigorous, financially feasible item which gives a straightforward, savvy answer for the spotless little sun based boards.
5.2 Cooling Technique
Photovoltaic boards (PV) get overheated because of unreasonable sun powered radiation and high surrounding temperatures. Overheating lessens the proficiency of the boards. The perfect P–V qualities of a sunlight based cell for a temperature variety between 0 °C and 75 °C are appeared in Fig.6.The P–V trademark is the connection between the electrical force yield P of the sun based cell and the yield voltage, V, while the sun powered irradiance, E, and module temperature, Tm, are kept steady. The most extreme force yield from the sun based cells diminishes as the cell temperature increments, as can be seen in Fig.6. This demonstrates warming of the PV boards can influence the yield of the boards essentially.
Chapter 8: Conclusion
The sensible and powerful usage of sun oriented vitality is a vital way which can manage the worldwide vitality emergency at present. Photovoltaic (PV) cell, which changes over daylight to electrical current, with no structure for mechanical or warm interlink. So the study on enhancing the effectiveness of sun powered board is extremely fundamental. I have proposed a few strategies (utilizing sun powered tracker, cleaning dust from board, cooling strategy of board, utilizing hostile to reflecting covering etc.,)to enhance the productivity of sun powered board. Rehearse has demonstrated that the utilization of these techniques can adequately enhance the effectiveness of sunlight based force era.
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