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Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  1.1 Introduction of the mangrove park

  1.2 Need of the project

  1.3 Aim

  1.4 Scope

2.0. Background Study

  2.1 About Mangroves

  2.2 Mangroves around the World

  2.3 Mangroves in India

  2.4 Mangroves in Mumbai & Navi Mumbai

  2.5 Architecture in Mangrove Wetlands

3.0 Research Methodolgy

4.0 Case Studies

  4.1 Hong Kong Wetland Park

  4.2 Putrajaya Wetlands

  4.3 CEE Ahmedabad

  4.4 Godrej Mangroves, Vikhroli

5.0 Site Study  

6.0 Design Brief

Introduction to the Mangrove Park:

A Mangrove Nature Park is a recreation zone accessible to humans that wind through the Mangrove forests. Such parks are meant for creating a recreation zone as well conservation of a wide range species and also to bring into notice, of the delineating Mangrove Forests.

Need of the project:

Unlike a usual park, that is purely recreational, a Mangrove Park is educational. Development of a Mangrove park is necessary for the growing busy city life to achieve:

Public Awareness of Mangroves and it’s importance .

Environment and Ecological Conservation.

Education & Research opportunities

Restoration guide & participation in degraded Mangrove areas.


The Aim of the research is to develop a Mangrove Park within the city with design intention to host visitors to admire the Nature, leading them through wetlands. Aims to getting through questions like, How can we encroach on nature and still preserve it when the act of building contracts the idea of protecting the environment?


The scope of this study is to develop a master plan for Mangrove Wetland Centre and it’s Park, along with recreation to invite sensitive public participation and considering sustainability as the most important aspect. It will be provided with infrastructure and facilities for educational and research opportunities for the visitors including basic landscape development.

We have all been paying attention to the development of our cities. For us, the image of development is exorbitant residences, sky high buildings, infrastructure, huge roads, connectivity and also there’s of saving energy and environmental development. Undoubtedly, all the above make a smart city, but the latter has been paid very less attention to. Except for environmental conversation, all the other points has paced up for a developing city. Whereas if we do not pay attention to conserving, surviving in this world might get much difficult for living beings.  

Mangroves are a group of trees, shrubs or ground-ferns, that are salt tolerant & have the ability to survive in saline water which is 100 times saltier than other plants. Areas, where they grow, are extremely sensitive, fragile and eco-sensitivee. The term Mangrove means an individual specie and Mangrove Forest, Ecosystem describe the entire community of the specie. If one has spent time by the sea, he must have noticed the distinctive plants that grow from a tangle of strong and tough roots.

Characteristics of  Mangroves

Mangroves can be divided into two distinct groups:

1] Exclusive

2] Non-executive. Executive mangroves are the largest group, comprising around 60 species. These mangroves are confined to intertidal areas and have not been found to exist within any other type of vegetation community. The remaining 20 plant species considered to be mangroves are referred to as non-exclusive. These plants are not restricted to the typical mangrove environment and are often found within drier, more terrestrial areas.

Characteristics of Mangroves

Mangroves exist in conditions of :

• High Salinity

• Strong Winds

• Extreme Tides

• High Temperatures

• Muddy

• Anaerobic Soils.

• Coldest Month highest Average Temperature  more than 20°C

• The seasonal temperature at 5°C max.

• Not Resistant to Freezing.

• They can survive in oxygen deficient waterlogged soil strata.

• Facultative Halophytes.

Plant Taxonomy

A. Leaves :

The major plant species forming the mangrove ecosystem have aerial roots, commonly prop roots or even stilt roots (Example: Rhizophora app). Stilt roots serve, of course, to anchor the plants, but also are important in aeration, because the mangroves mud tends to be anaerobic.

Rhizophora spp. (Red mangroves) have prop roots descending from the trunk and branches, providing a stable support system. Other mangrove species, including the white mangroves (A. marina), obtain stability with an extensive system of shallow, underground “cable roots” that radiate out from the central trunk for a considerable distance in all directions, pneumatophores extend from these cable roots.

B. Roots:

Breathing Roots (Pneumatophores) : Special vertical roots, called pneumatophores, form from lateral roots in the mud, often projecting above the soil (to a height of 20-30 cms, e.g. Avicennia, Sonneratia) permitting some oxygen to reach the oxygen-starved submerged roots. Roots also can exhibit development of air cavities in root tissues, designs that aid oxygenation of the tissues. The density, size and a number of pneumatophores vary per tree. They are green and contain chlorophyll.

Mangroves around the World

We estimate, from our compilation of the most recent data for all countries where mangroves have been reported, that there are roughly 1.7×105 km2 of mangrove habitats along the shorelines of the world

By far the largest proportions of mangroves occur in Asia and the Americas. Countries with the largest area of mangroves are Indonesia (4.25×104 km2; Spalding et al. 1997), followed by Brazil (1.34×104 km2; Spalding et al. 1997), Nigeria (1.05×104 km2; Saenger and Bellan 1995), and Australia (1.00×104 km2; Robertson and Duke 1990).   


Mangroves in Pakistan :

Mangroves in Pakistan have an extent of 2,600 spreading along coasts Sind and Balochistan. These mangroves forest constitute largest arid zone mangrove forest of the world. The dominant species is Avicennia marina with small numbers of rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal and aegiceras corniculatum.

These mangroves support about 1,35,000 people and 10,750 livestock in Pakistan. To meet the needs of irrigation, domestic and industrial use and for hydro-power generation, a number of damns and barrages have been contructed on the Indus river system over the past century, resulting into drastic decreases of fresh water inputs. Initially 300-400 million tons of silt were released every year, which provide stability to mangroves. Part of this silt entered in the mangroves swamp in Indian side, benefitting the mangroves of Gujarat. The regular inflow of water with silt had resulted into advancement of delta by 8 every year, maintaining the continuity of setting of new mangroves. At present, the annual sediment load of the river is reduced to 10-100 million tons and fresh water from 150 million acre feet to 35 million acre feet. This had resulted in salinization of the Indus delta and the degradation and recession of mangroves. Contradicting the records of 7 species only four species are now seen in these mangrove ares. Mangrove swamp in the vicinity of Karachi was a major target of land reclamation for residential purpose. In 1990s, the WWF, the UNDP, the IUCN and the Sind forest department in collaboration with the World Bank initiated mangrove conservation and replanting activities. A mass scale planting programme of mangroves species was launched and in short span of time about 3000 ha area of inter-tidal mudflats was afforested by planting Avicennia marina and rhizophora mucronata.

Mangroves in Bangladesh :

Sundarbans in Bangladesh, covering about 10,000 is the largest continuous mangroves in the world, covering about 44% of the total productive forest in the country. For over 120 years, the Sundarbans had been managed.

Mangroves in India

According to the Government of India, the total area of the mangroves in India was around at 6,740 sq. Km. this covered about 7% of the world mangroves (Krishnamurthy, 1987) and about 8% of the Indian coastline (Untawale, 1987). But recent 2005 data of Survey of India, Dehradun shows an extent of 4,445 sq. km. mangrove areas in India. Out of the total acreage, 57% of the mangroves are found on the East Coast, 23% on the west coast and the remaining 20% on Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Sr. No State Area/Sq. Km

1 Andhra Pradesh 0.12

2 Goa 0.14

3 Gujrat 0.46

4 Karnataka 0.001

5 Maharashtra 0.04

6 Orissa 1.39

7 Tamil Nadu 0.02

8 West Bengal 2.34

9 Andaman & Nicobar 9.56

10 Pondicherry 0.21

                 Mangrove Cover Mangrove Cover Assessment 2001

Mangrove Distribution in Maharashtra

Maharashtra has 720 km long coastline, which has various characteristic features of beaches and rocky cliffs flanked by estuaries and patches of mangroves. Maharashtra coastal zone extends between the latitude 15 52\'N and 20 10\'N and longitude 72 10\'E and 73 10\'E and falls under five districts of Thane, Mumbai, Sindhudurg, Raigad, Ratnagiri. The mangroves of Maharashtra are the most diverse among the west coast and according to the Forest Survey of India (FSI) covered 116 sq. km in 2003. The area under mangroves in Maharashtra was 200 sq. km. in 1972-75, which reduced to 108 sq. km. in 1997.

Mangroves of Mumbai

Mangrove along the coast of Mumbai always faced the challenge of various anthropogenic activities over the decade. In early nineties around 37 Of mangrove existed in Mumbai, mostly in Versova, Gorai, Mahim creek, Thane, Navi Mumbai and Ghodbunder. Some sparsely covered patches of mangrove are also found in Bandra, Colaba, Mahul and Malabar Hill.

Destruction of Mangroves in Mumbai

Mumbai is one the best examples of degradation of mangroved which has happened due to rapid urban development. Increasing population has always been an issue in Mumbai. Higher the demand higher the demand of commodities. Housing, Industrialization, and Pollution are also the reasons for degradation of Mangroves. The state government have failed to protect these important species, from Urbanization. There are two important creeks, Vasai Creek towards north and Thane Creek toward south where luxuriant mangrove patches are still left.

In India, a legal protection is afforded to this ecosystem by way of legislation in the form of Coastal Regulation Zone Notification. Recently Mumbai High Court has ordered freeze on destruction of mangrove forests in Maharashtra and has banned construction within 50 metres of them. The court has also directed to notify mangrove areas as protected forests. Thus, there is already a mechanism provided for management of this ecosystem. Unfortunately, however many a times the legal provisions are not being enforced to curb the illegal activities.

In such a situation, protection of the mangrove ecosystem is possible only through the participation of the local community and by building up pressure groups for ensuring management of this ecosystem and strict implementation of the legal provisions by the Government. Thereby, integrity of habitats critical for spawning, juveniles and feeding and for biodiversity, apart from ecological sustainability and community-sustainability could be maintained.

In the past few years there has been an increase in the awareness of the people in Mumbai. Residents associations are coming together to spread this awareness. They realize that the rapid destruction of mangroves along the coast of Mumbai will have far-reaching effects on the city. The NGOs in Mumbai are making efforts to highlight the issues like land reclamation, coastal regulation zone notification and illegal destruction of the mangrove areas through the interventions of the local state government and a local bodies.

Human Activities that are a Threat to Mangroves

1. Clearing: Mangrove has often been seen as a smelly, unused, and unproductive land lying around. As urbanization and population have increased, the Mangroves have been cleared. Few reasons for clearing it are

• Urbanization

Coastal Mangroves have been destructed for human settlements, that is in areas all around the world. Some of them are Singapore, Bangkok, Mumbai, Lagos etc

• Agriculture

If we have a look at the Sunderbans, the history to be restricted, was nothing but conversion of large Mangrov e chunks into agricultural usage. This reclamation process was initiated in 1770 and it continued till recent past.  In the largest delta region of the world, existing between India and Bangladesh, 1,50,000 ha of mangroves were destroyed during the past 100 years, and these were mainly reclaimed for agriculture. The mangrove areas are deforested and  reclaimed  along rainwater to drain the salt content of the soil and these areas are protected from seawater intrusion by constructing embankments. Once the salt is leached to a sufficient level, the land is cultivated either with paddy or coconut.

• For Timber, Fuel, Charcoal

Mangroves are cleared for timber, charcoal, and firewood.    Because of higher calorific value, the mangrove twigs are used as firewood.   The mangrove wood is rich in phenols, and hence is highly resistant to deterioration, and it is widely used as timber for construction purpose.  The mangrove wood is highly suitable for chip board industry and quality paper.  As a result, several companies have been established for paper mills and chipboard factories in Indonesia.  Within two years, the timber companies obtained timber clearing 1,37,000 ha of mangroves (Erftemeijer et al., 1989).

• Aqua-culture

A large-scale destruction of mangroves was made for aquaculture in several countries.   To cite an example, in the Philippines, between 1968 and 1983, 2,37,000 ha of mangroves were lost for pond construction. This is almost half of the total national mangrove area. One major issue associated with the farms located in mangrove habitats is acidification of pond waters that kills aquatic organisms.    In Ecuador, the decline in mangrove areas was largely due to the construction of 21,587 ha of shrimp ponds, compared to only 1,157 ha for urban expansion in 1969‐842.

Construction of Dams:

 Mangroves are best developed in areas that receive freshwater run‐off and tidal water flushing. Embankment construction or siltation at the river mouths restricts the inflow of tidal water in mangrove swamps. Dam and barricade constructions in upstream areas for diverting water for irrigation purposes have resulted in a poor flow of freshwater into mangrove swamps. The poor flows of tidal and freshwater result in high salinity of mangrove swamps and thus reduce the growth of mangroves.

3. Pollution Issues:

Dumping the debris from residentials, industrial waste and oil can kead to Pollution in the Mangrove Forest harnessing the growth of forests and also affecting the invertebrate species.

Why should we protect mangroves?

Mangroves, admittedly, are not only important but crucial for the coastal areas. Since estuarine areas are highly populated areas, the slightest ecological imbalance will take a heavy toll. They play a vital role in stabilizing these areas. No engineering and technological solutions can be sought for stabilizing these areas. Even if we negate all benefits of mangroves as forests, their value as \"protector of shore-line\" is enough to convince us for conserving them.

Mangroves are buffers between the land and the sea. Coastlines throughout the world are facing serious problems of coastal erosion and threat of rising sea levels due to global warming have increased the threats by several folds. To control such assault of the sea on land the nature has provided what is called as Mangroves, a tropical littoral ecosystem which is more dynamic than the sea itself.

Mangroves not only help in preventing soil erosion but also act as a catalyst in reclaiming land from seas. This is a very unique phenomenon, since there is a general tendency of water to engulf land.

Mangrove forests and estuaries are the breeding and nursery grounds for a number of marine organisms including the commercially important shrimp, crab and fish species. Hence, loss of mangroves not only affects us indirectly but there are direct economic repercussions through loss of fishing industry.

Mangrove trees are also used for house building, furniture, transmission as well as telephone poles and certain household items. When these activities are managed appropriately it is possible to derive timber products from mangrove forests without significant environmental degradation, and while maintaining their value as a nursery and a source of food for commercial capture fisheries.

Mangrove trees have been the source of firewood in India since ancient time. Because of the high specific gravity of rhizophoraceous wood, the species of Rhizophora, Kandelia, Ceriops and Bruguiera are preferred for firewood. Heritiera agallocha is used for boat building, while Avicennia spp. and Rhizophora spp. are used for brick-burning. Bruguiera spp. are used to make poles.

Honey collection from the mangrove forest is a promising business in India. It has been estimated that Sundarbans mangrove alone produce 111 tons of honey annually. Honey collected from Cynometra ramiflora and Aegialitis rotundifolia has a good market value and is in demand.

Avicennia spp., Phoenix paludosa and Sonneratia caseolaris are used for human consumption and as cattle feed. Nypa fruticans is tapped for an alcoholic drink. Leaves of Nypa palm are used for thatching of roofs, Suaeda and Acrostichum leaves are used as green vegetable.

Above all, Mangroves are now looked after by scientists as saviors in the today\'s scenario of global warming. We all know that most of the coastal areas throughout the world are going to be affected by sea level rise due to global warming. The effects of which are already visible. Therefore, when most of the coastal areas will be flooded, mangroves can possibly provide a gene bank for cultivating salt tolerant species of crops which could be our future resource.

Protection of shoreline from erosion

Nursery areas for Invertebrates and Fishes.

Support Endangered Species

Provide Timber and Plant Products



In last 2 decades destruction of mangroves are increasing at an alarming rate. In India and other countries this trend is halted and in some areas it is reversed, although they continue to survive under various kinds of threats. Gujarat and west Bengal has done large scale plantations, whereas Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa have done restoration works in degraded mangroves under canal technique of restoration. Natural regeneration of pioneer species like Avicennia spp. And colonizing the fresh mudflats compensated part of the loss mangroves across the loss of mangroves across the country. In south of Mochi Minh city, Vietnam successful plantation of Rhizophora apiculata on an  area 20,000 ha is done.  

The restoration and afforestation of mangroves gained ground in 1990s. Coastal states have started restoration, regeneration and conversation activities by implementing following action plans:

1. Protection and conservation

2. Restoration and plantations in potential areas

3. Enrichment plantations of threatened species to restore original composition

4. Evolving method and technique for sustainable fisheries in mangrove swamps

5. Establishing sustainable utilization system of mangroves and its associated resources, with strict conservation of rich pockets of mangroves.

Restoration and regeneration types

1. Regeneration

Regeneration capability of some species like Avicennia is expectionally high, as this species can quickly colonise suitable mudflats. Majority of mangrove expansion occur in front line fresh mudflats where mangrove was absent, as these mudflats before rise of their elevation, were part of sub-tidal zone.

Research Methodolgy

From the time before selectiong this topic to freezing it, +as my area of interest to work on, a lot of research had been done. In form of books from  the library, online study,  Newspaper articles, interviewing etc.

After freezing the topic the research methodology has been

Case Study

Hong Kong Wetland Park

Located in the southern side of Deep Bay, northeast of Tin Shui Wai- originally meaning the

“Sky” and the “Water” Village in Chinese, The Hong Wetland Park-HKWP is a wetland. The 64-hectare park has fresh water marshes, mangrove habitats, and is considered as a significant environmental hub where visitors are guided from the main visitor center to explore various outdoor nature related facilities.

HKWP arose as a result of series of coincidences coming along during the late 1990s as there was a high demand to develop new towns in the New Territories Islands of Hong Kong. The area of Tin Shui Wai was a rural area known with its farmlands, fishponds, and large natural wetland that is located in a delta area which discharges fish water into Deep Bay. In addition, the area is the route of migratory birds heading South in winter, therefore it is 55 distinguished by a large diversity of habitats which enrich these birds with nurturing feeding grounds. Recently, due to the urban expansion, the area was chosen as a location for large scale residential development (Lin & Chen, n.d). Therefore, this fact has encouraged the development of HKWP to compensate the loss of natural habitats arising from the urban development of the new town, in addition to creating tourism attractions for sustaining a long-term growth of the tourism industry (EnvironmentalConcepts, n.d).

Source: (HKWP, 2014)

The project aims to foster public awareness, knowledge, and understanding of importance and values of wetlands in order to gain public conservation and support in preserving and appreciating wetlands. Its main objective is to gain international recognition as being a significant wetland site for eco-tourism to serve visitors, researchers, and people of such interest to the wild life (AFCD, 2004).

The HKWP is implemented in two phases. Phase One was completed in 2000 where it included the development of the Exhibition Pavilion, and landscape forecourt. These served as an early venue for the park’s publicity and promotion in spreading environmental public awareness.

However, Phase Two was under planning and development till late 2005. The second phase included the construction of indoor visitor centers with 3 main exhibition galleries, indoor and outdoor play areas, classrooms, a resource center, and other recreational and dining spaces

(Figure 30) (AFCD, 2004). The park has some zones which are not accessible by the public. This was planned to preserve the wetlands, as it is vital for the upkeep of the wetland water system. For instance, reed beds and some other large storage ponds are developed to supplement the proper functioning of the water system (EnvironmentalConcepts, n.d).

Moreover, the visitors facilities are divided into two main components; they include indoor visiting venues and outdoor exhibits areas (EnvironmentalConcepts, n.d).

The Main Visitor Center Building:

The visitor center is nearby the entrance of the site and the urbanized area of Tin Shui Wai. It follows a series of displayed gardens, exhibition ponds, and leads to the satellite building. It is hidden, as it is embraced within the natural landscape and vegetation to maintain the overall natural outlook of the project, giving the impression of a green hill rising above the entry plaza

(Figure 31). In order to maximize the energy efficiency, the roof landscaped and designed to be oriented to minimize solar gain and allows it to achieve low thermal transfer value. Moreover, it involves skylights that are utilized to maximize natural lighting, especially in the central atrium. Timber louvers are employed along the external surface of the curtain wall of the building, they aim to provide shading to the building’s interior, and act as a visual barrier to the waterfowl species overlooked. It houses various exhibition galleries over two stories

(EnvironmentalConcepts, n.d).

 It exhibits and displays wetland systems in various parts of the world (Appendix B). Through an interactive learning concept, the center integrates artificial streams and planted marshes with numerous wetland species (Lin & Chen, n.d).

Satellite Building Discovery Center:

This building is an educational center that is situated between the two large water marshes and connects to an outer zones area dedicated to bird-watching, in what they call, a Bird Hide. The Bird Hide is a 1 to 3 story high building that is located nearby a mud flat and tidal channel (Lin

& Chen, n.d). The center is referred to as an outdoor classroom that encompasses a series of boardwalks to the bird hides allocated along the wetland and nearby the RAMSAR site. It is considered as an outdoor classroom that is surrounded by interpretive zones that enable visitors

to investigate and explore the life forms found in water bodies, and learn how the wetland park is managed and the how the water levels are manipulated by various mechanical devices. It is designed to collect rainwater for water recycling scenarios, and relies on natural ventilation

where heat is minimized through the employment of timber louvers. (EnvironmentalConcepts,

n.d). The park also features a boardwalk which is embraced within the mangroves and provides an exciting experience for visitors.

Figure 32 Boardwalk and Satellite Discovery Center embraced within the natural landscape of the park

Source: (allabouthongkong, 2014) Hong Kong Wetland Park Features

HKWP has adapted many features in order to enhance the wetland environmental system and to also attract people around the world, to explore such unique environmental urban spaces.

Some features include the installation of artificial bird nests and bat boxes. The artificial nests and boxes are also included in the visitation area where various sizes were installed and the supervision of these boxes are conducted on a regular basis throughout the breeding seasons

(AFCD, 2011).

Putrajaya Wetlands

The case study of Putrajaya Wetlands was considered throughout a site visit that was organized by Qatar University through The Department of Architecture and Urban Planning in March

2013. As an educational field trip shedding the light on the architecture and urbanism of selected cities in Malaysia, the city of Putrajaya was visited to explore the New Urbanism strategies and

Urban Design concepts that were implemented in the city. In fact, Putrajaya wetlands mark a distinguished element that adds a unique character, and beauty.

The city is developed to be Malaysia’s new Federal Government Administrative Center and referred to as an intelligent city in a garden. A 197 hectare man-made lake lies in the center of the city, which was created by damming the Sg. Chuau and Sg. Bisa. Putrajaya Wetlands is

ranked as one of the largest constructed wetlands in the tropics. Storm water treatment of such scale by using constructed wetlands has been rarely undertaken elsewhere. The lake gives the city a distinctive character and identity transforming an oil palm plantation site, into a wetland ecosystem. In order to ensure that the water entering the lake is clean and suitable for body contact or recreational use, a sustainable approach was adopted by constructing a series of wetlands to treat the catchment runoff before it enters the lake. The construction of these wetlands began in March 1997 and was finished by August 1998, targeting storm water pollution control in a tropical zone such as Malaysia (Huat, 2002).

Source: Author March 2013

Putrajaya Wetlands aim for many goals classified under three categories which are environmental, educational, and recreational. Under the environmental category, the design aims to create self-sustaining and balanced lake ecosystems, developing a natural habitat for the conservation of wetland flora and fauna. The educational aspect seeks establishing an environment that is suitable for public education and scientific research on wetlands. On the other hand, the recreational aspect seeks developing a pleasant environment that enhances the quality of life and is referred to as a touristic destination; also improving the water quality to be suitable for body contact recreational activities.

Source: Author- March 2013

Putrajaya Wetlands Context

Putrajaya Wetlands is divided into two components which are the Taman Wetland Putrajaya and Lake Recreational Center; where the first serves as the public face and the gateway to Putrajaya Wetlands and the other is a water recreational spot (TamanWetlands, 2013).

The constructed wetland system is composed of six arms with twenty-three cells, where all armsexcluding

one, discharge the treated storm water to the main central wetland (Appendix A). Even

though they are connected, they differ in depth, size, plant typology, and pollutant load. The design of the wetland involves a multi-cell, multi-stage system with flood retention capability in order to maximize the space available for colonization by water plants. The plants are vital for

water treatment and filtration. In addition, the plants provide root zones where bacteria and microorganisms can flourish to assist in filtering (TamanWetlands, 2013).

In Malay, the native language spoken in Malaysia, the word “Taman” means “Park”. The Wetlands Park or Taman Wetlands is an attractive eco-touristic destination that was personally visited during the 2013 Qatar University educational field trip of the Department of Architecture

and Urban Planning (Figure 26). The park is allocated at the highest peak of the wetlands and has  a Look-out Tower which enables visitors to overlook the wetlands, the forest, and the city of Putrajaya. The tower also allows bird watching and is very distinguished as it has various informative signs about the natural habitats and the native environment. The tower is approximately 25 m high (Figure 27).

As a person walks through the park, they can view the many native trees which were planted, protected, and labeled by their names, indicating interesting facts about them. The Park also

involves a Nature Interpretive Center that is approached by a canopy bridge of wooden material, which is harmonious with the surroundings as it is embraced within clusters of tropical trees. The center is an interactive exhibition where visitors acquire interesting information and knowledge about the wetland system and learn more about the native habitat (Figure 28).

The wetlands park has a wide range of facilities which include the Water Recreational Center, Green House, Moroccan Pavilion Garden, Putrajaya Botanical Gardens, and waterfront restaurants. The water recreational Center hosts various water sport activities that would attract visitors to participate and attend. The green house and the Botanical gardens seek to educate the

public and spread environmental awareness about native tropical and other plant typology. Finally, the Moroccan garden and pavilion is another interesting feature that showcases decorative ornamentation and design related to the Moorish architecture.

 Putrajaya Wetlands Features

Prior to the design phase of the constructed wetlands was a comprehensive study for the catchment conditions involving terrain, drainage, soil, geology, topography, hydrology, andecology associated with land use changes. Hydrologic and water quality modeling aimed to

quantify the hydraulic and pollution loading rates by forecasting the potential development conditions to maintain the desired water quality standards. The design of the wetlands aimed to achieve retention and disposal of various catchment pollutants that involve nutrients, and other contaminants. The shaping of wetlands morphology, sizing, wetlands contouring, hydrology

design, selection of vegetation and plant layout were all crucial for the design and performance of the wetlands. As wetlands design is generally composed of a combination of vegetated area and open water, a river inlet zone is constructed at Putrajaya Wetlands at the head of each wetlands system. This

serves as controlling incoming flows and it is lined with rocks to generate energy, reduce flow velocity, and maintain distribution over the sedimentation basin. The vegetation plays an essential role in promoting wetland’s performance as they take up nutrients directly, trap sediment, and support plantation growth. In order to ensure sustainability of the botanical

design of the wetlands, the use of native wetlands’ species is adopted. The distribution of the plants in Putrajaya Wetlands involved around 70 species that were mapped while their growth was monitored. Factors such as native species, ease of propagation, availability, aesthetic value and the ability to transfer Oxygen to the roots were taken into consideration when selecting the

plants. In addition, as wetlands construction may result with excessive mosquito breeding, stocking of special kind of fish was applied in order to control such phenomena.

Being a resident of Mumbai for the past 22 years, I have seen it grow along, as I have grown. Older generations describe the development from large chunks of landscpape  to a whole new smart city,  Navi Mumbai.

The name Navi Mumbai shows a clear intention of decongusting Mumbai and planning a new Urban Township, back in 1977. It acts as a counter magnet to Mumbai.

Navi Mumbai has been one of the largest planned cities in the worls with an area of 345 sq. kms.

In order to conserve and maintain some mangroves in the Northern part of Navi Mumbai and increase awareness in the public about various ecological aspects. CIDCO has taken up the project of development og wetland centre for area along Palm Beach Road at Nerul.

A wetland centre is a natural history learning centre situated in a natural setting that would offer amazing natural and cultural experience too the visitors through interactive displays and the natural settings. It will be an opportunity for recreation for the residents of the city.

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