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Check Sheet for M. Sc. Thesis Proposal and Topic Approval

1 Title Page

2 Table of contents

3 Problem Statement

4 Aims & Objectives

5 Literature Review

6 Methodology of Research

7 Utilization of Research Results

8 Work Schedule Plan

9 References

10 Supervisor comments

Certified that the Synopsis/Topic approval report is according to the approved format and items listed in Check Sheet.

Research Scholar Supervisor Co-Supervisor

Name________________   Name ________________   Name________________

Reg No. ______________

Signature_____________   Signature _____________


Dated: ______________ Dated: ______________

Dated: ______________

Director Post-graduate studies

Signature _________________


M.Sc. Thesis Proposal

An Innovative Design and Demonstration for Very Low Energy Buildings (Component, Energy Techniques and ICT tools)

Submitted By:

Ihsan Ullah Khalil

Reg # 7434

PEC # Electro-18088


Engr. Abraiz Khattak

Co-Supervisor (external)

Dr. Affaq Qamar


September 2016

Table of Contents

Problem Statement 4

Aims & Objectives 4

Literature Review 5

Methodology of Research 6

Utilization of Research Results 7

Work Schedule Plan 8

References 9

Supervisor’s Comments 11

1.  Problem Statement

During new trend of urbanization, installations of industries and offices away from cities, energy transportation toward installations became crucial. This increased demand of stand-alone energy buildings or very low energy building, Building which consume solar energy and have efficient load Management. Clean and green environment with less Co2 emission is also to be ensured in order to save future generations.

PEC in collaboration with EnERCON and Ministry of Housing and Works has designed a comprehensive implementation and capacity building programme for effective implementation of the Building Energy Code in building designs .Energy efficient innovative technologies based building design. Intelligent load Management of HVAC and lighting based on occupant sensing. Energy sustainability and generation, harnessing solar energy with subject to the appropriateness of the building site. All aforementioned components of Very low energy building technique are needed to be addressed in order to achieve targets which is set by Government of Pakistan through Efficient energy bill passed in national assembly in 2016

Efficient combined heating and cooling systems, lighting system, based on occupant detection technique using different sensors, is the main outcome of this project. Moreover solar irradiance data of Peshawar will help to find accurate maximum and minimum generation capability of solar energy.

2. Aims & Objectives

a) Calculate energy requirement of present setup and device strategy to optimize it.

b) Intelligent load management of HVAC and lighting based on occupant behavior.

c) Prototype demonstration of faculty area as VLEB.

3. Literature Review

Buildings with heavy structures, nowadays, have a requirement of thermal simulation models, that accurately represent its subsystems; which include sensors, actuators, and user interfaces to facilitate communication between the physical and simulation layers; and finally helps user to interface to physical layer through simulation layer in order to utilize energy in a efficient manner [1]. Historical definition of very low or zero energy buildings are based on annual consumption of energy in building by its HVAC and lighting system compared with energy generated by its standalone system .The term “net-zero energy‟ is frequently used to mention annual energy consumption and generation balance  [2]. The future of modern society and economy shall be based on renewable energy and resource efficiency. For the public sector, this implies the large scale deployment of Zero-Energy Buildings. VLEB use local renewable energy and also exports surplus to the grid station to increase the integrated share of renewable energy to the national grid, thereby reducing resource consumption and associated carbon emissions [3]. Increasing demand of penetration of renewable energy into grid increased variation in parameters which ensures reliability and sustainability [4]. This is of more importance because building’s share of energy consumption-HVAC and lighting constitutes 40% of the global energy [5].

HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) is a main source for controlling room temperature .HVAC systems mostly depends upon the room temperature and internal humidity to maintain room temperature. This can lead to an inefficient energy usage. Most of HVAC system doesn’t take occupant’s physical activity in account which can be used to set thermostat temperature automatically in order to provide thermal comfort. This energy loss can be minimized by using intelligent system synchronized with occupant sensing in specific area[6]. Occupant sensing in real time by using infra-red camera is proposed in [7], however the complexity of image processing and delay timing intoxicate user to prefer passive infrared (PIR) sensors. Real time monitoring of occupant behavior sensing is very necessary for making HVAC system intelligent in order to ensure occupant comfort [8]. Co2 and capacitive sensing techniques are also followed in different circumstances. Present occupancy detection has many short comings; Passive infrared (PIR) sensor is the mostly used for occupancy sensing in non-domestic buildings especially for lighting control [9], however it didn’t show required results and number of occupants. Further PIR sensors are coupled with other sensors like microphone in [10], but it also lacks accuracy. An improved occupancy detection accuracy is presented in [11] , by using a sensor network comprising CO2 sensors, digital video cameras and PIR detectors as well as previous building utilization data for occupancy estimation in the building. The system detection accuracy reached to maximum possible level. However, it can’t be too much intelligent to estimate occupancy numbers in the room. Occupancy detection in offices can also be monitored  by monitoring office chair usage [12].

4. Methodology of Research

The project mainly emphasizes on energy conservation and self-sustainability. The faculty area is to be optimized for minimum energy consumption. For research granted project requirements to fulfill, following have to be fulfilled.

• Weather record of the past decade will be used to analyze and predict the future weather changes which will help us to install the appropriate PV cells.

• Solar Irradiance data record of Peshawar city will be collected in order to calculate power to be generated.

• Install LED light bulbs which consume less energy than other bulbs.

• Design occupancy detection based HVAC and use sensor based lighting based on occupant’s behavior.

• Design of a controller to intelligently switch between lighting and HVAC units.

• After optimization the energy demand for faculty area will be recorded and compared with the initial energy demand i.e. before optimization  

5. Utilization of Research Results

• Demonstration of Building Envelop with total annual primary energy consumption to 60kWh/m2/year

• Payback period of 5–7 years for employing energy efficient innovative technologies

• Dissemination and large scale market deployment program before 2018


6. Work Schedule Plan


Collection of literature One Month

Study of Literature Two Months

Analysis of Proposed Scheme One Month

Preparation of Scheme/Model One Month

Implementation of Scheme/Model One Month

Analysis and Simulation One Month

Result Formulation One Month

Final Write-up & Thesis Submission One Month

8. References

[1] Kolokotsa, D. E. K. D., et al. \"A roadmap towards intelligent net zero-and positive-energy buildings.\" Solar Energy 85.12 (2011): 3067-3084.

[2] Hernandez, Patxi, and Paul Kenny. \"From net energy to zero energy buildings: Defining life cycle zero energy buildings (LC-ZEB).\" Energy and Buildings 42.6 (2010): 815-821.

[3] Rana, Rajib, et al. \"Novel activity classification and occupancy estimation methods for intelligent HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) systems.\" Energy 93 (2015): 245-255.

[4] Bull, Stanley R. \"Renewable energy today and tomorrow.\" Proceedings of the IEEE 89.8 (2001): 1216-1226.

[5] Sun, Biao, et al. \"Building energy management: Integrated control of active and passive heating, cooling, lighting, shading, and ventilation systems.\" IEEE Transactions on automation science and engineering 10.3 (2013): 588-602.

[6] Carrasco, Juan Manuel, et al. \"Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: A survey.\" IEEE Transactions on industrial electronics

53.4 (2006): 1002-1016

[7] Ekwevugbe, Tobore, Neil Brown, and Vijay Pakka. \"Real-Time Building Occupancy Sensing for Supporting Demand Driven HVAC Operations.\" (2013).

[8] Liao, Chenda, and Prabir Barooah. \"An integrated approach to occupancy modeling and estimation in commercial buildings.\" Proceedings of the 2010 American Control Conference. IEEE, 2010.

[9] Delaney, D. T., O\'Hare, G.M., and Ruzzelli, A.G. (2009). Evaluation of energy-efficiency in lighting systems using sensor networks. Proceedings of the First ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Berkeley, CA, USA, November 3.

[10] Padmanabh, A., Sougata Sen, M., Vuppala, S., Malikarjuna, V., Kumar, S., and Paul, S. (2009). A wireless sensor network based conference room management system. In BuildSys ’09: Proceedings of the First ACMWorkshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy-Efficiency in Buildings. Berkeley, CA, USA, November 4-6.

[11] Meyn, S., Surana, A., Lin, Y., Oggianu, S.M., Narayanan, S., and Frewen, T.A. (2009). A sensor-utilitynetwork method for estimation of occupancy in buildings.  Decision and Control, 2009 held jointly with the 2009 28th Chinese Control Conference. CDC/CCC 2009. Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference , Shanghai, December 15-18.

[12] Juan M.l Carrasco, Jan T. Bialasiewicz, Ramón C. Portillo Guisado, and José Ignacio León, \"Renewable Energy Source,\" Power-Electronic Systems for the Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Sources: A Survey, p. 15, 2006.

[13] G.K. Singh, \"PV based energy generation,\" Solar power generation by PV (photovoltaic) technology: A review, p. 13, 2013

9. Supervisor’s Comments

Supervisor will give his pen picture on the proposed research work


a. Does  the  literature  review  describe  key  bottlenecks  and  rate  limiting

factors associated with the relevant value chain?

b. Are challenges and shortcomings in the existing solutions discussed?

c. Does  the  proposed  approach  suggest  how  key  bottlenecks  will  be


d. Does  the  proposed  approach  include  high-level  information  like  block

diagrams/schematics etc. for proposed hardware/software solution?

e. Does the timeframe of the proposed project match the proposed project


f. Key strength of the project:

g. Any other comments:

Signature of Supervisor

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