Essay details:

  • Subject area(s): Engineering
  • Price: Free download
  • Published on: 7th September 2019
  • File format: Text
  • Number of pages: 2

Text preview of this essay:

This page is a preview - download the full version of this essay above.

Abstract- The management of engineering projects needs to complete the basics of system administration and work. starting from the idea and how to turn it into a full study and ended at the construction project completion arriving to the purpose prepared for it, so we need to thread engineering projects and the integration of its system in order to succeed.

    It is no secret for reader or who concerned in the field of construction projects that the design stage is a very important stage in the project because it determine the final features of the project through the requirements provided by the employer for the consultant to formulated it during this phase in the form of plans, drawings and specifications, then translated on the ground as the shape of completed project meets those requirements.

    Therefore it was been necessary to focus in this paper on the design stage and demonstrate the most important steps and secondary stages and study and analysis of the most important risk facing this stage and their impact on construction project by introducing a questionnaire to identify the most important risks factors affecting that stage of the project life.

Keywords— Risk, Design Stage, Iraq, Projects, Constructions.


A client commissions an architect to produce a well-balanced building in terms of appearance, planning, construction, initial and maintenance costs. He expects an efficiently run contract and an amicable settlement of final account. In many cases, the client is an extremely efficient business organization and expects the contract to be run in a similar manner. In order to achieve this, an architect is faced not only with organizing his own office, but also relying on the support of scores of competitive sub-contractors, half a dozen main contractors, the quantity surveyor, the engineer and any specialists who are involved. Up to now this has generally resulted in his becoming one of two things: a designer who hopes that it will be accepted that he is not very good at administration, or an administrator who, as a result, does little designing. At best he pushes on hoping that the details will sort themselves out on the site.

   Designing and administration are each an integral part of the job and demand a proportion of time to be spent on them which, with some exceptions, should not vary enormously from job to job. The method by which a design is developed and brought into shape as a building is through the application of a set of administrative constants which are the known quantities of nearly all contracts. The most common form of trouble is the failure to apply these administrative ‘musts’ in a sequence which anticipates the steps which follow. This reacts throughout the whole contract, resulting in a cumulative muddle which can only be remedied at the expense of design time.

  Therefore it was been necessary to focus in this paper on the design phase and its effect on construction project.

The methodology of this research consists the following:

1. Conduct a questionnaire survey, with experts, in order to conclude the most important risks factors deal with design stage and their effect on construction project.

2. Analysis the questionnaire output in order to summarize the results, conclusions and recommendations for the future studies.


    The objective of the questionnaire was to collect sufficient statistical and qualitative data to help in answering the questions raised by sub-problems and to help make conclusions on whether the respective hypotheses are affirmed or not.     

    The questionnaire was divided into three main sectors; A) entailed general questions of opinion mostly covering qualitative analysis, whereas sector B) and sector C) dealt with more specific questions susceptible to statistical analysis.

Sectors B) and C) were analyzed using statistical methods such as the mean, standard deviation and upper quartile.  The general survey was structured in such a manner that respondents gave their opinions on the questions by hand and suggested suitable alternatives wherever applicable.

  An interview was arranged with a respondent whenever there were issues in the questionnaire that needed clarification or whenever the information on specific questions disagreed with the consideration survey in an essential manner

  The executed field visits and personal meetings that have been conducted enriched the initial questions list by different opinions, suggestions and proposals that considered being part of the questionnaire. The stated efforts led to the following conclusions:

1- The consultative team (designers and supervisors) does not dedicate itself in the continuous mentoring for the work and workers.

2- There is no gained benefit from the experiences extracted from the previous projects in order to avoid mistakes during the execution of current projects.

3- There is no utilization of the experience of executors that been gained from previous projects.

4- Most of projects are suffering from the inefficient of financing for projects.

5- There is no dependency on experts and responsible managers who have enough qualifications that are essential for time saving through avoiding the routine managerial procedures.

6- The consultative team has no enough time to study the project specifications carefully that may reduce change orders.

7- It is common that designers and executors have no contribution in the preparing stage of design documents.

8- The finished design documents are quickly delivered to contractors who do not have the sufficient qualifications.

9- Most of projects are suffering lack of communications between parties.

10- Most of projects are suffering lack of design software packages that enable parties to supervise and control the project.



   The respondents were consisted all construction industry practitioners, including project managers (as owner), main and sub-contractors as well as consultants and engineers, as shown below.

Figure I. Sample Composition According to their Party

   The respondents were classified in figure II according to their educational background, there were individuals who earned the doctorate degree and were qualified with a percentage of 34%, Master's degree participant’s percentage is 8% and the remaining individuals are B.Sc. certified with percentage of 58%.

Figure II. Sample Composition According to their educational background


In order to assess the effect of each factor, the answers were collected from all surveyed samples (employers, engineers, contractors) whereas the questionnaire form number that been successfully received was seventy (70).  According to the theory of the central margin, The results should follow the shape of normal distribution curve since Al-Rawi (1986) stated that “when we select a sample with number N from a statistical society where its center distribution µ and deviation б2, the distribution of the samples mean X almost subjected to normal distribution its mean is µ and its deviation (α/n) with the condition that sample size should be relatively big (n ≥ 30)”.

The results have been analyzed and discussed depending on the “mean” of these results which is one of central tendency (tendency of value to center on the optimal value) in addition to standard deviation value. The statistical analysis process of the results is presented in the following sub-sections.


The effect level was assumed for each category of answer as explained in table I. This category of answer was assumed in order to facilitate the process of analyzing data results.    

Table I. Evaluation of Answer Category

Effect Level Category of Answer

(Risks Factor’s Effect)

1 Has no Effect

2 Little Effect

3 Medium Effect

4 Large Effect


   The arithmetic mean for answers calculated as follow

(Mean) = (total of number of iterations in the effect multiplied in the number of effect divided by the size of the sample).

   The arithmetic mean is used in the analysis for each factor of the sectors and it is calculated as per Equation I.

   n                    n                                                                                             

   M =  ∑Xi *Fi    /   ∑ Fi           ............................................. ( Eq. I)

  i=1                i=1


M = Arithmetic mean of the answer (rate of effects) for the questionnaire factor.

Xi = the level of category effect (i) for the questionnaire factor.

Fi = repetition of the answer category (i) for the questionnaire factor.

n= number of answers.


The analysis and evaluation of the questionnaire results were adopted for each factor in the questionnaire through calculating the upper quartile for the answers’ average, which represent the upper value of 75% from the values of Table I, then UQ = 3 which is the target value (Al-Rawi 1986). By this way the evaluation of the questionnaire result has been done according to the level from the target value as the following:

1- If (M > 3) then the discussion was required for the factor.

2- If (M ≤ 3) then the discussion was desired for the factor.


   In statistic and probability theory standard deviation (represented by the symbol σ or S) shows how much variation or “dispersion” exists from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values.  Equation II presents the mathematical method that to be used in calculating the standard deviation of the collected data.

S=                                       ………………….. (Eq. II.)  


S= Standard deviation of the collected data.

Xi = the level of category effect (i) for the questionnaire factor.

X = the mean of the answer (rate of effects) for the questionnaire factor.

n= number of answers.


   The questionnaire results were arranged according to the effect level of each factor. Factors that have mean value more than 3 were identified to be considered in the study’s conclusion. The cumulative arrange was adopted in the classification of the considered factors.  


  The contracting stage is the starting point for any project, since the contract includes the consent of both parties on the terms, durations and amounts that should be identified in advance.

    So, any defect or error in procedure or even change during contract execution may lead to various deviations from what was planned and expected. Accordingly, it is necessary to study the effect of this stage. Table II and Figure III presents the factors that mostly affecting on design operation with respect to the contracting stage. The factors are prioritized as per their type and shown their mean and standard deviation values.

Table II. Data Analysis for Contracting Sub-Sector Risks Factors Effect

No. Risks Factors Mean St. Dev.

Main Factors Sub- Factors

1-A Project delivery System Design – Build 3.31 0.580

1-B Project delivery System Design – Bid – Build 3.04 0.578

2-A Type of contract Lump sum 3.26 0.570

2-B Type of contract Unit price 3.01 0.483

3-A Tendering method Open tender 3.00 0.550

3-B Tendering method Invitation 3.12 0.558

3-C Tendering method Direct Order 3.04 0.569

4-A Continuity of the project Continuous one contract 2.93 0.435

4-B Continuity of the project Fragmental contracts 3.13 0.717

5-A The entity of owner Governmental sector            3.01 0.974

5-B The entity of owner Private sector       3.00 0.740

6-A The entity of Designer Governmental sector            3.06 0.550

6-B The entity of Designer Private sector       3.25 0.603

7 Referring the bids The Lower Bids 3.67 0.526


Figure III. Data Analysis for Contracting Sub-Sector Risks Factors Effect

 The effect of contracting sub-sector may various from sub-factor to another in the same main factor such as the participants responded that the effect of the design stage on Lump sum type of project was higher than the unit price while the participants' opinions show that the Fragmental contracts was have more effect from the continuous contract as shown in figure III.


   The role of the designer varies as per the type of project delivery system. In Iraq, The most applied project delivery system is the design-bid-build (D-B-B). In D-B-B system most of the tasks assigned to the designer are considered completed upon delivering of design documents, while a limited contribution of the designer is needed during the implementation phase.

   In the design-build delivery system, whether the design works are simultaneous or prior to the implementation of project, in both cases, the designer has a significant impact on the progress of the project completion and he represents an important element that may affect the project time schedule. Table III presents the most design factors affect the changes may hinder the project.

No. Risks Factors Mean St. Dev.

1 Understanding or participation and contribution of team work with positive opinions 2.585 0.643

2 Support the employer with ideas and views practicability whether in design stage or execution 2.671 0.813

3 Employer’s fast response to approve the completed design 2.828 0.632

4 Lack of details was considered one of the requirements needed to complete the work items 3.057 0.629

5 Design changes during the execution 3.085 0.579

6 Design team fast response when modification is required. 3.571 0.688

7 Design Documents Insufficiency. 3.585 0.678

8 Squeezing overlap duration between design and execution 3.620 0.619

9 Design team fast response to preparation the design documents in order to facilitate the workflow and sequence of execution. 3.714 0.538

Table III. Design Sage Risks Factors Effect


  The main objective of this research was to study the causes of changes in project time schedule and claims may arise due to these changes. The literature that is related to the subject was extensively reviewed. Interviews with experts and data analysis were arranged to classify the factors affecting the project time schedule, and to identify the relevant claims may result in Iraqi construction project due to these changes.

   Questionnaire survey was conducted in order to extract the opinions of the Iraqi experts in the research subject. The received opinions were studied and analyzed to conclude the results of the research. The study conclusions and recommendations are presented in the following paragraphs.

    This research revealed the following conclusions:

1- Selecting the contractor based on the lowest bid of consultant was considered the most factors that negatively impact on the construction project due to the in-sufficient qualification of the selected contractor.

2- Percent from estimated cost contract is considered the most contracts type that been subjected to claims raised because of lack of defined contract price lead the consultant to increase the project quantity to get higher wages.  

3- The general form of the contract is considered a significant factor affecting on design stage, since the government (who is employer of the most Iraqi projects) is adopting a general form of the contract; while the variety of the projects requires variety of contracts forms according to the project type.

4- The fast response of design team is a factor that has a significant effect project time, since employer change requests and his variation orders need a fast response from the designer in order to settle the decisions needed to finalize the employer requests with the minimum negative impact on the project time.

5- Squeezing the overlap period between the design preparation and execution phases is considered an important factor since it makes the designs more flexible to execution and gives the supervision team the opportunity to express their opinions on the prepared design without affecting the project time.

6- The efficient design is considered an important factor in relation to the completed works accuracy and to avoid the change orders or additional works. Also efficient design gives the engineer the facility to understand the drawings and execution it without any need to suspend the works to verify the design.

7- The quick completion for the executive drawings is a significant factor that has affects the time schedule of the project, since the approval of the executed works is given by the engineer without completing such drawings, which in turn delays the implementation.

8- Using scientific techniques and modern programming methods in preparing drawing is an important factor to utilize the facilities available within such methods, hence updating of the drawing would be more accurate and quick.

9- Change orders and additional works of the project will delay the project time, especially in Iraqi’s construction projects due to the lengthy procedures needed for issuing the approvals required for such changes.

10- Routine and bureaucracy in communication between owner and consultant lead to tangible delays in Iraqi construction projects.

11- Lack of drawings and design documents accuracy is one of the most important factors affecting project time during the design phase, in addition to neglecting mentioning important details which are considered the requirements for executed works items.


1. Participation of the employer or his representative with the implementation team work is significant to avoid claims may arise in case of performing any updating on drawing in the implementation phase.

2. The Participation of the owner and engineer with the designing team during the preparation of the drawing is requested in order to fulfill all owners’ requirements and avoid any changes concerning the design.

3. Providing training courses related to works performance methods is essential  in order to extract  the experience needed during the execution of the works in a satisfactory manner at a suitable duration to avoid repeating the works due to lack of quality.

4. The supervising committees should include many experts required to supervise the project works in order to provide the necessary clarifications and instructions.

5. The owner should give his authorities to the consultant or his representative in case the owner does not have the sufficient construction experience.

...(download the rest of the essay above)

About this essay:

This essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.

If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

Essay Sauce, . Available from:< > [Accessed 02.06.20].